Human Resources/TQM

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Question
Dear Sir,

Pls help me with the answer for following questions.

Q1.   What kind of challenges an organization do face w.r.t rapid changes in the business environment?          (10)

Q2.   Explain the different Audit Systems?          (10)

Q3.   Explain Learning Process, Reward systems and Behavioral Management.      (10)

Q4.   How an organization does create value? Explain the difference between Terminal values and Instrumental values.          (10)

Q5.   Explain with diagram the steps of socialization, in maintaining culture.      (10)

Q6.   Explain the vendor certification process in respect to Good Business Policy.   (10)

Q7.   Poor performance is the result of deficiencies in the ability or job knowledge, group the type of causes for poor performance and remedies to overcome it.          (15)

Q8.   Explain the process of inspection and testing for safety products.         (8)

Q9.   With respect to Training and development in an organization, How can you manage intergroup relations and conflict.          (10)

Q10.   Write your comments on HRD strategies for dealing with Organizational Politics.   (7)

Answer
HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
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PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
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Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================










Q1. What kind of challenges an organization do face w.r.t rapid changes in the business environment? (10)

IN TODAY’  WORLD,
on a  political  map, country  borders  are clear  as  ever. But on the
competition  map, financial,trading, and  industrial activities  across
national  boundaries have  rendered  that  political borders increasingly
irrelevent.

Not only  firms  that compete internationally  but  also  those whose
primary  markets  is  considered domestic  will be   affected  by
competition  from  around  the  world.



Why Globalization?

To some the word "Globalization" may seem a cliché. To others, it may
appear an end in itself. Competitive pressures are creating the need for
most companies to become Global.

Globalization is one means for
becoming and remaining a world-class competitor — a goal encased in
the mission statements of most corporations.

When developing a globalization strategy, it is clear that the emerging
markets present the greatest opportunity. The growth projections for
Europe, Japan and the United States pale in comparison to some of the
emerging markets.

Emerging Markets
Throughout the emerging markets an unprecedented consumer market
boom is driving up demand for western-style goods and services. The
largest segment of consumers in these markets is a decade short of its
peak spending years. In India alone, sales of consumer goods are rising
at 14% per year, while China is growing at almost 20% per year.
Couple the consumer-spending boom with the still burgeoning need for
infrastructure improvements and you’ll have a range of opportunities that
extends into the trillions of dollars. Projects are planned or underway in
many of these countries to upgrade transportation and
telecommunication systems, explore energy resources, build power
generation facilities and provide health care facilities.


In addition, the privatization efforts are presenting an incredible range of
opportunities for investors, lending institutions, service providers and
manufacturers.


Four key trend  influence  emerging  market potential

There are four key trends that are influencing the emerging market
potential:
1. Demographics:
Overall world population growth is now concentrated in the
developing world. Where industrial nations are facing an
increasingly older population, the emerging markets remain
young. The developed world comprises only 11% of the world’s
population.

2. Governments:
Many countries that once relied on centrally planned economies
are becoming market-driven. Industries that governments
previously restricted to foreign companies are now opening to
foreign investment.

3. Communications:
Access to the emerging markets is increasing due to huge
developments in communications technology such as the Internet
and electronic commerce. Cyberspace represents a profound shift
in the nature of communications as well as our perception of
distance.

4. Urbanization:
As infrastructure improvements are made, urban growth in the
emerging markets will continue to explode.
Estimates indicate that the emerging markets' share of world imports will
double by the year 2010, rising to over 38%. Companies dazzled by the
magnitude of these numbers must be equipped with the appropriate
knowledge, information, and strategy to make its market forays
successful.




MACRO  LEVEL  Industry Globalization
   is  due  to  such  factors  as :

•   Level of international trade
•   Intensity of international competition
•   Worldwide product standardization
•   Presence of key competitors in all key international markets.
•   Intra-firm trade
•   Technological intensity
•   International linkages of value-added activities among countries
•   International integration of value-added activities among countries
•   WORLDWIDE  FREETRADE  AGREEMENTS
•   WORLDWIDE  ECONOMIC  REFORMS
•   WORLWIDE  FINANCIAL  REFORMS
•   REMOVAL  TARIFF  BARRIERS  BY  COUNTRIES
•   REMOVAL  OF  SUBSIDIES  COUNTRIES
•   
•   ETC  ETC
====================================================


THE  PUSH  FACTORS OF   GLOBALIZATION

Market Drivers

•   Per capita income converging among industrial nations
•   Convergence of lifestyles and taste
•   Growth of global and regional channels
•   Establishment of world brands
•   Spread of global and regional media


Cost Drivers

•   Continuing push for economies of scale ( but offset by flexible manufacturing)
•   Accelerating technological innovation
•   Advances in transportation (e.g., use of FedEx to deliver urgent supplies from one continent to another)
•   Emergence of newly industrializing countries with productive capability and low labor costs (e.g., China, India and Indonesia)


Government Drivers

•   Reduction of tariff barriers (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement)
•   Reduction of non-tariff barriers (e.g., Japan’s gradual opening of its markets)
•   Creation of trading blocs (e.g., European Union, and Euro Currency in 1999)
•   Strengthening of world trade institutions (e.g., formation of the World Trade Organization)


Competitive Drivers

•   Continuing increase in level of world trade
•   More countries becoming key competitive battlegrounds (e.g., rise of Japan to become a “lead” country)
•   Rise of new competitors intent upon becoming global competitors (e.g., Japanese firms in the 1970’s, Korean firms in the 1980’s, Taiwanese firms in the 1990’s, Chinese firms in the 2000s, and probably Indian and Russian firms in the 2010’s.


OTHER  FACTORS  WHICH   DRIVES  THE  GLOBALIZATION

•   In a Globalized industry, firms must simultaneously accomplish:
•   Global Scale Efficiency
•   Local Responsiveness
•   World-Wide Learning
=============================================





TEN   IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL  CHANGES, WHICH HAS
AFFECTED  THE  HUMAN  RESOURCE --EMPLOYEES.

1.GLOBALIZATION   OF  BUSINESS.
- creating a  global mind-set within the HR group, creating
practices that will be consistently applied in different
locations/offices while also maintaining the various
local cultures and practices, and communicating a
consistent corporate culture across the entire
organization.
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2. BUSINESS  ALIGNMENT
-considering  the HR function not as just an
administrative service but as a strategic business
partner.
Companies are  involving  the human resources
department in developing and implementing both
business and people strategies.
----------------------------------------------------
3.MOBILE  CULTURE

- Communicate  to all locations about a common
corporate culture.
- Allow   local cultures to maintain their identity
in the context of the corporate culture.
- Establish   common systems (e.g., accounting,
marketing, MIS).
- Provide   management with education outlining
how the company does business.
- Create  an organizational mission with input
from all locations.
- Create a written strategy outlining the
corporate culture.
----------------------------------------------------
4.NEW   TECHNOLOGY  IMPACT  ON  SKILLS REQUIREMENTS

Technology-related skills
• Skills in identifying new applications of technologies
• Skills in developing new technologies, or advancing existing technologies
• Skills in identifying technological solutions to problems

Operative/Technical skills
• Skills in operating new tools or equipment, or applying new methods/processes
• Skills in applying new processes or tools to existing work
• Skills in installing and maintaining new products, and
• Skills in manufacturing new products.

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5.BUSINESS  INNOVATION  DEMAND  ON  MANAGMENT

Management skills
• Skills in identifying which innovation outcomes are appropriate for commercialisation
• Skills in knowing when and how to market a new product, tool or process (or other innovation outcome) successfully
• Skills in securing intellectual property rights over innovation outcomes
• Skills in setting up efficient manufacturing processes for new products
• Skills in negotiating appropriate training provision with education and training providers
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6.DEMAND  FOR  INNOVATION   THROUGH   TRAINING/DEVELOPMENT :
*Building an educated and highly skilled workforce.
*Becoming a leader in knowledge creation and innovation.
*Developing linkages, clusters and networks to become a more integrated and networked local economy.
*Fostering high levels of enterprise formation and business growth.
*Becoming a globally focused and internationally integrated economy.
*Creating a business environment and infrastructure base that facilitates business success.
establishing a culture of innovations  THRU
#Co-operative Research Centres
#Knowledge and Technology Diffusion
#Technology, Research Parks and Precincts
#Education
#Commercialisation
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7.IT  TECHNOLOGY  DEVELOPMENT.
-more  systems / more  software  for  the  business  means
different  methods  of  working, which  affect  the  working  human resources.
HRM have  to  face / meet/  manage  the  human  resources  to deliver  the  results.
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8.OUTSOURCING   OPPORTUNITIES
-the  demand  for  cheaper labor  forced  the  companies  to
seek  more  destinations  in the underdeveloped countries.
This  created  an  enormous  challenge  to  the  HRM
to seek/develop/manage  overseas  HR.
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9.DEVELOPING  ECONOMIES  GROWTH  RATE
-MAJOR  ECONOMIC  REFORMS

-the  rapid  development  of   underdeveloped  countries
forced  many companies  to  shift  their  production  base
overseas.This  created  an  enormous  challenge  to  the  HRM
to seek/develop/manage  overseas  HR.
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10.RISE  IN  PER CAPITA  INCOME
-the  rise in per capita  income  created  more  educated
human  resources.
FOR  HRM, IT  WAS  A  CHALLENGE  TO
MAINTAIN/ MANAGE  TALENTS.
=====================================
FOR   THE  EMPLOYEES   THE  CHALLENGES  ARE

EMPLOYMENT   OPPORTUNITIES.
-some  employees are losing jobs  due  to  global  job  shifts.
-employees  can  seek  jobs  in  other  countries.
-employees  are  moved to  other  countries  as  part
of  the  restructuring.
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CHANGE  IN  JOB  SECTORS  DEMAND  FOR EMPLOYEES
-more  jobs  are  created in  the business  service  sector.
-more  jobs  are  lost  in  the  industrial / manufacturing  sector.
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IMPACT  OF   CULTURE  DIVERSITY   ON  EMPLOYEES.
-employees, who  are  shifted to other  locations, needs  to manage
employees  of  diverse background.
-employees  have  to live  with  different  cultural  issues.
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INCREASED   USE  OF  MODERN  TECHNOLOGY
-the  negative   effectiveness   is  loss  in employees' jobs.
-the  positive  effectiveness  is  gain in  skilled  jobs.
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MORE TRAINING   TO  MEET  GOLBAL  CHANGES.
-employees  have  to  learn  new  skills to meet  the  modern  demand
on  the  job.
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MORE  KNOWLEDGE   TO  MEET  GLOBAL  DEMAND.
-employees  have  to  upgrade  their  knowledge   level
through  effective  knowledge  management  program.
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EMPLOYEES  FACING  CHANGING  NATURE OF  JOBS
-where a new interplay is called for between job  designed to improve flexibility
and those designed to provide security.
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EMPLOYEE  AND  WORKLIFE
--Change in the gender balance in working life, where equal opportunities bring new issues and requirements in terms of social protection
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EMPLOYEES  HAVE  TO  FACE  FLEXIBLE  FORMS  OF  WORK
- As labour markets have become more flexible, the forms of work have multiplied.
-Part-time workers and workers with fixed-term contracts (who are the first loops in the flexibility chain),
-turn into on-call and
-self-employed workers.
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EMPLOYEES FACE  SOCIAL  SECURITY  CHALLENGES
-Like unemployment, flexible forms of work pose a challenge to social security arrangements. Flexible forms of work lack continuity. Spans of work and unemployment alternate, as do weekly working hours. Defining the periods during which flex-workers are entitled to various benefits (e.g. to unemployment benefits), is becoming more difficult as the forms or work continue to multiply and definitions of various forms of work become blurred. Home workers resemble the self-employed, the self-employed resemble on-call workers, employees resemble entrepreneurs, etc.
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COMPENSATION  EARNINGS  WIDEN
-employees  with  higher skills   will  earn  more.
-employees  with  lesser  skills  will  earn  much  less.
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EMPLOYMENT  SECURITY
-there will be  commitment  by  the company,
if  the performance  is  upto  the mark.
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SELECTIVITY  IN  RECRUITMENT
-right people  in the right  way  to  meet competitive  success.
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COMPETITVE  WAGES
-right  package  for outstanding  talents.
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INCENTIVE  BASED PAYMENT
-profit  sharing/ productivity  based  payments.
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EMPLOYEE  INFORMATION  SHARING
-well  informed employees  for  successful   results/ competitive  advantage.

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PARTICIPATION  AND  EMPOWERMENT
-increase  employee participation to  improve employee satisfaction.
-empower  to broaden  participation/ control  their  work/workload.
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MULTISKILLING: CROSS -TRAINING AND  CROSS UTILIZATION.
-for  effective teamwork.
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PROMOTION  FROM   WITHIN
-to retain talent.
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MEASUREMENT  OF  PRACTICES
-more  use  of  metrics.
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WORKLIFE  BALANCING
-programs to  manage  work/life better.
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Challenges of the External Environment Imposed on Managers

The manager’s job cannot be accomplished in a vacuum within the organization. Many interacting external factors can affect managerial performance. The external environment consists of factors that affect a firm from outside its organizational boundaries. The external factors include the labor force, legal, political, legal considerations, society, unions, the competition, customers/suppliers, and technology. One of the greatest challenges facing all organizations today is managing uncertainty. Managers must do what they can to reduce uncertainty by reading the signals, following the trends, and scanning the external environment. The way in which trends in each of these areas affect the workplace is discussed later in this paper.

Labor force
The capabilities of a firm’s employees determine to a large extent how well the organization can perform its mission. Since new employees are hired from outside the firm, the labor force is considered an external environment factor. The labor force is always changing. This inevitably causes changes in the workforce of an organization thus affecting the way management must deal with its workforce. (Mondy 1995, p.36) Changes in the country’s labor force create dynamic situations within organization. For example, changing values and laws have contributed to greater participation rates by women in the employment market thus parental leave and child-care facilities provided by employers are becoming more common demands.

Legal Considerations
Law is important in business transactions. It provided a basic framework within which a business enterprise must operate. It facilitates smooth functioning of business transactions and protects both the businessmen and customers. All business organizations must comply also with the legal constraints of that country. In turn when a firm’s operations extend into other countries, the laws and regulations of those countries must be taken into account. (Mondy 1995, p.36)

Society
Members of society may also exert pressure on management. The public no longer accepts the actions of business organizations without questions. People learned that voicing out their disagreements in newspapers and other forms of media can produce changes. The large number of laws and policies passed in recent years is the result of the publics¡¦ influence. An organization in order to remain acceptable to the general public must accomplish its mission within the range of societal norms and remain in societal good books. When a firm responds effectively to societal interests, it is said to be socially responsible. Social responsibility is the enforced or felt obligated of managers, acting to serve or protect the interest of groups other than themselves. Many firms strive to be good corporate citizens by working with cooperatively with members of the community to control pollution, drug abuse, unemployment, participating in drive funds, supporting the women’s movement, implementing physical fitness activities for employees and also encouraging and advising employees on the correct diet. Such activities enhance a firm’s image in the community and in the long run may improve the firm’s profitability. (Mondy 1995, p.37)

Unions
Wage levels, benefits, and working conditions for millions of employees now are decisions made jointly by unions and management. A union is a group of employees who have joined together for the purpose of dealing with their employer. (Mondy 1995, p.36) Its is considered as an external environment because the impact of the decisions made are being influenced by external forces outside the boundaries of the organization. Sometimes the outcome of making those decisions lies in the favor of labor and sometimes in management. The emphasis in the future will likely shift to a management system that deals with directly with individual workers to satisfy their needs and allow the company to compete more effectively. That’s the reason why union membership is slowly decreasing. Some of the strategic actions undertaken by managers with unions are to negotiate a long-term no strike agreement, increase usage of subcontractors, negotiate a dispute settling procedure, and also appointing a prestigious union official to board of directors. (Robbins 1989, p.262)

Competition
Business organizations not only must compete in terms of sales and profit but also in other areas. For example, each firm must have competent and skilled employees, which are often in short supply. An easy solution would be to increase the wages but this will lead to a bidding war when several competitors need people with the same skills. Besides competition in product and service markets forces employers to keep labor costs low. What managers do is that they introduce other benefits and working conditions in terms of recruitment and retention. In terms of sales and profit, what managers can do is advertise the product to build brand loyalty, select a less competitive domain, and merge with competition to gain larger market share and also negotiate a co-operative agreement with the competition.

Customers/Suppliers
The people who use a firm’s product and services are an important part of the external environment because sales are critical to a firm’s survival. In order to survive in the competitive business world, what managers can do is advertise, use a differentiated price structure, ration demand, change domain to where there are more customers in order to reduce environment uncertainty. (Robbins 1989, p.262)

In dealing with suppliers, managers can use multiple suppliers instead of just sticking to one supplier. This to ensure that even if one particular supplier stops supplying, the firm will still go on operating due to the services or goods provided by the other suppliers. The managers could also negotiate long-term contracts; inventory critical supplies or maybe even vertically integrates through merger.

Technology
This includes the level of advancement of knowledge and equipment in society (or in specific countries), and the rate of development and application of such knowledge. The need for new technology results from changes in other environment factors. New skills are continually needed to meet new technological demands. Advancements in technology have rendered some skills obsolete, requiring periodic retraining of affected employees. Its not only employees that have to be trained but also managers have to constantly upgrade themselves to keep up with new technology.

The Economy
By economic environment, we mean the characteristics of the economic system in which the business operate, i.e., the pattern of economic growth, economic policies, measures, and incentives provided for economic development. Organizations rely on economic surplus to thrive and prosper. With larger surplus, more organizations get the resources they need to grow and develop thus becoming more specialize. For instance, Australian companies benefit directly from government economic forecasts, a national banking system and international economics treaties. The economy of the nation and of various segments of the country is a major environmental factor affecting a manager’s job. (Mondy 1995, p.41) For example, when the economy is booming, managers will find it often more difficult to recruit qualified workers. On the other hand, when a downturn is experienced, more applicants are typically available.

Political
Political stability provides a conducive environment to do business. A responsive and responsible government instills the confidence and attracts both local and foreign investors. In a politically stable society, organizations are assured that their investments, properties and other assets are safe. They will be more willing to invest larger amounts of capital for a longer period of time. There is also a considerable variation in the scope of government activities across nations. At one extreme sit the governments that confine their activities strictly to protecting the nation from internal and external threats thus implementing a few laws or rules to limit the actions of organizations. At the other extreme is government that attempt to permeate virtually all aspects of society. Sometimes organizations may find themselves making the decision to withdraw their business from a particular country due to the many constraints. Managers of the organization will then have to adapt to doing business in a new environment.

Major environmental changes in recent years (Australia)
Technological
Introduction of personal computers
Ability to transmit data, both nationally and internationally
Worldwide telephone direct dialing and uses of faxes

Social
Women’s movement
Concern for physical fitness and correct diet
Return to inner-city living

Economic
Deregulation of various industries
Lowering of tariffs
Decline in the inflation rate

Political
Move to the ¡§right¡¨ by political parties
Rise of the ¡§green¡¨ movement
Aboriginal land rights movement

Managers’ response to the external environment and the external strategies used
Manager’s approaches change in the external environment either proactively or reactively. A proactive response is taking action in anticipation of environmental changes. A reactive response is simply responding to the environmental changes after they occur. For example, reactive managers may demonstrate concern for employee welfare only after the start of a union-organizing attempt. Proactive managers try to spot early signs of discontent and correct the signs of discontent before matters get worst. Proactive managers also prevent customers¡¦ complaints rather than ¡§handle¡¨ them. In all matters, proactive managers initiate rather than react.

Now we turn to some external strategies used by managers to change the environment to make it more favorable to an organization.

Advertising
Managers in an organization engage the services of advertising firms to market their product or services thus building on brand loyalty and lessening its dependence on consumers. Managers seek to reduce competitive pressures, stabilize demand and allow it the opportunity to set prices with less concern for the response of its competitors. It is successful when one organization gains differential advantage over another in the same industry.

Contracting
This protects the organization from changes in quantity or price on either the input or output side. For instance, managers may agree to a long-term fixed price contract to purchase materials and supplies or to sell a certain part of the organization’s output.

Coalescing
When an organization combines with one or more other organizations for the purpose of joint action, it is called coalescing. These mergers often brought about economies of scale by eliminating redundant administrative personnel and by providing opportunities for merging technical and managerial expertise. Its also reduces uncertainty by lessening inter-organizational competition and dependency.

Co-opting
Managers may choose to absorb uncertainties by encompassing elements in the network. For example, inviting an environmentalist lobbyist or a merchant banker to sit on the board of your organization is likely to reduce resistance and could also lead to easier access to money markets.

Use of third parties
Occurs when managers of one organization use the services of another organization to negotiate on their behalf. Professional and trade associations are obvious examples. It protects the interests of consumers and maintains standards. (Wilson 1990, p.311)


The one certain condition managers will face in the latter half of the 1990s is rapid change, and successful managers will be those who adapt and thrive. The task of managers in the latter half of the 1990s will be the same as in the latter half of the 1960s--producing results--but the external environment will be very different. Today's world is more complex and international and boasts far more technology and less government regulation. To be successful in this environment, managers must demonstrate personal commitment to the success of the organizational unit and excellent communications. Moreover, managers must educate and train, get individuals to work together as members of teams, and measure performance improvement. It is also important to learn from past successes and failures in developing an approach to a better business organization.



Conditions that Influence Decison Making
Managers make problem-solving decisions under three different conditions: certainty, risk, and uncertainty. All managers make decisions under each condition, but risk and uncertainty are common to the more complex and unstructured problems faced by top managers.
Certainty
Decisions are made under the condition of certainty when the manager has perfect knowledge of all the information needed to make a decision. This condition is ideal for problem solving. The challenge is simply to study the alternatives and choose the best solution.
When problems tend to arise on a regular basis, a manager may address them through standard or prepared responses called programmed decisions. These solutions are already available from past experiences and are appropriate for the problem at hand. A good example is the decision to reorder inventory automatically when stock falls below a determined level. Today, an increasing number of programmed decisions are being assisted or handled by computers using decision-support software.
Structured problems are familiar, straightforward, and clear with respect to the information needed to resolve them. A manager can often anticipate these problems and plan to prevent or solve them. For example, personnel problems are common in regard to pay raises, promotions, vacation requests, and committee assignments, as examples. Proactive managers can plan processes for handling these complaints effectively before they even occur.
Risk
In a risk environment, the manager lacks complete information. This condition is more difficult. A manager may understand the problem and the alternatives, but has no guarantee how each solution will work. Risk is a fairly common decision condition for managers.
When new and unfamiliar problems arise, nonprogrammed decisions are specifically tailored to the situations at hand. The information requirements for defining and resolving nonroutine problems are typically high. Although computer support may assist in information processing, the decision will most likely involve human judgment. Most problems faced by higher-level managers demand nonprogrammed decisions. This fact explains why the demands on a manager's conceptual skills increase as he or she moves into higher levels of managerial responsibility.
A crisis problem is an unexpected problem that can lead to disaster if it's not resolved quickly and appropriately. No organization can avoid crises, and the public is well aware of the immensity of corporate crises in the modern world. The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion in the former Soviet Union and the Exxon Valdez spill of years past are a couple of sensational examples. Managers in more progressive organizations now anticipate that crises, unfortunately, will occur. These managers are installing early-warning crisis information systems and developing crisis management plans to deal with these situations in the best possible ways.
Uncertainty
When information is so poor that managers can't even assign probabilities to the likely outcomes of alternatives, the manager is making a decision in an uncertain environment. This condition is the most difficult for a manager. Decision making under conditions of uncertainty is like being a pioneer entering unexplored territory. Uncertainty forces managers to rely heavily on creativity in solving problems: It requires unique and often totally innovative alternatives to existing processes. Groups are frequently used for problem solving in such situations. In all cases, the responses to uncertainty depend greatly on intuition, educated guesses, and hunches — all of which leave considerable room for error.
These unstructured problems involve ambiguities and information deficiencies and often occur as new or unexpected situations. These problems are most often unanticipated and are addressed reactively as they occur. Unstructured problems require novel solutions. Proactive managers are sometimes able to get a jump on unstructured problems by realizing that a situation is susceptible to problems and then making contingency plans. For example, at the Vanguard Group, executives are tireless in their preparations for a variety of events that could disrupt their mutual fund business. Their biggest fear is an investor panic that overloads their customer service system during a major plunge in the bond or stock markets. In anticipation of this occurrence, the firm has trained accountants, lawyers, and fund managers to staff the telephones if needed.
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Q2. Explain the different Audit Systems? (10)

TYPES OF AUDITS
Internal control reviews
This type of audit focuses on the system of internal control and will evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of internal controls as it relates to a specific focus area.
Compliance audits
This type of audit provides management with assurance on compliance with specific policies, procedures and applicable laws and regulations.
Financial audits
A financially focused audit provides assurance on the accuracy of financial information which is substantiated by financial analysis and interpretation.
Information technology (IT) audits
These reviews address the internal control environment of compuertised information processing systems and how people use those systems. IT reviews evaluate system input, ouput and process controls, backup and recovery plans, seperation of duties, systems security and computer facilities.
Performance audits
These audits examine the use of University resources to evaluate whether these resources are being used in the most efficient and effective ways to fulfil the University's strategic objectives.
Special reviews
Assistance with the investigation of alleged fraudulent activities and irregularities.

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Q3. Explain Learning Process, Reward systems and Behavioral Management. (10)

Learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes.
•   It is not dependent upon classes and courses – though these can be very useful tools for learning
•   It does not require a degree, certificate, or grade to prove its worth – though clearly these have social value that most people would be unwise to ignore
•   It does require – in varying degrees, and in varying times and circumstances – activities like practice, reflection, interaction with the environment (in the broadest sense), and social interaction. The latter, in particular, can be greatly facilitated by the range of new technologies for communication and collaboration now available to us.
•   It does not always – probably not even most of the time – happen consciously – though I think that those who strive for a more conscious approach to learning throughout their lives – whether at work or otherwise – tend to be more successful in pretty much whatever way they define success.

Learning is a "change" in knowledge, behaviour, attitudes, values, priorities, or creativity that can result when learners interact with information. It occurs to the
extent that learners are motivated to change, and it is applied in the real world to the extent they take successful steps to integrate that learning into the real world situation.


WHAT DOES LEARNING DO?

It helps the participants become motivated to learn.

Helps the participants effectively handle course information and
experience.

Helps the participants develop knowledge, skills, values and
attitudes and creative ideas.

Helps the participants transfer their learning to the application
environment.

TRAINING  AND DEVELOPMENT  ARE  THE  TOOLS    WHICH
HELPS   TO  DEVELOP  THE  LEARNING   CAPACITY   OF   THE
INDIVIDUAL  AND   THE  ORGANIZATION .


IT  IS  THROUGH   LEARNING, THE  PARTICIPANTS
IMPROVE - DEVELOP  THEIR  CAREER  AND  THE
OUTCOMES  OF  THE ORGANIZATION.


1.LEARNING  Broadens  the participants'  interests  /  awareness.

2. LEARNING  broadens  the  participants' business  perspectives.

3.LEARNING  Exposes the  participants  to new avenues  of  practices  thoughts.

4.LEARNING Prepares the  participants  for  greater  responsibility.

5.LEARNING  Permits the  participants  to  greater interaction  internal/external channels.

6.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare participants  for  promotions  within  the  organization.

7.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare the  participants    for  additional  responsibilities.

8.LEARNING  Helps to  provide  the  participants   with modern  practices/ techniques.

9.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants     to  share  ideas concepts  with  others.

10.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new technologies.

11.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new  processes.

12.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  culture.

13.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  OD programs.

etc  etc.

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Reward system usually mean the financial reward on organization gives its employees in return for their labour. While the term reward system, not only includes material rewards, but also non-material rewards. The components of a reward system consist of financial rewards (basic and performance pay) and employee benefits, which together comprise total remuneration. They also include non-financial rewards (recognition, promotion, praise, achievement responsibility and personal growth) and in many case a system of performance management. Pay arrangements are central to the cultural initiative as they are the most tangible expression of the working relationship between employer and employee.
The  integrated reward  system  includes:
Job evaluation and profiling
•   Defining key performance indicators
•   Analysis and modification of pay levels and structures to reflect both internal and market relativities
•   Designing of performance evaluation processes
•   Structuring of individual, team and corporate performance bonuses
Social climate surveys with focus on remuneration
•   Designing flexible benefits plans
•   Implementation of new reward components in compensation package
•   Implementation and assistance in change communications
•   Training for internal specialists in reward structure planning and maintenance

Performance Based Reward is based on the definition of key performance indicators identified as part of job evaluation, and linking these indicators with reward components. A combination of performance measuring system and additional motivational components delivers an integrated performance-based reward system.
Flexible Benefit Schemes are a modern approach to the management of budgets for staff remuneration. Employee benefits constitute a considerable portion of staff costs, but they are often expended without the desired effect since employees do not perceive the full value of benefits. This system   increases  the   effectiveness and enable better control.
Why reward system is required?
These components will be designed, developed and maintained on the basis of reward strategies and policies which will be created within the context of the organizations between strategies, culture and environment: they will be expected to fulfill the following broad aims;

1. Improve Organizational Effectiveness: Support the attainment of the organization's mission, strategies, and help to achieve sustainable, competitive advantage.

2. Support and change culture: Under pin and as necessary help to change the 'organizational culture' as expressed through its values for performance innovation, risks taking, quality, flexibility and team working.

3. Achieve Integration: Be an integrated part of the management process of the organization. This involves playing a key role in a mutually reinforcing and coherent range of personal policies and process.

4. Supportive Managers: Support individual managers in the achievement of their goals.

5. Motivate Employees : Motivate employees to achieve high levels of quality performance.

6. Compete in the Labour Market: Attract and retain high quality people.

7. Increased Commitment: Enhance the commitment of employees to the organization that will a) want to remain members of it, b) develop a strong belief in and acceptance of the values and goals of the organization and c) be ready and willing to exert considerable effort on its behalf.

8. Fairness and Equity: Reward people fairly and consistently according to their contribution and values to the organization.

9. Improved Skills : Upgrade competence and encourage personal development.

10. Improved Quality: Help to achieve continuous improvement in levels of quality and customer service.

11. Develop team working : Improve co-operation and effective team working at all level.

12. Value for money: Pride value for the money for the organization.

13. Manageable: Be easily manageable so that undue administrative burdens are not imposed on managers and members of the personal department.

14. Controllable: Be easily controllable so that the policies can be implemented consistently and costs can be contained within the budget.
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Behavior management, also called behavior modification, attempts to guide and motivate individuals to change their actions or interactions in certain settings. For example, teachers use behavior management at a classroom level to introduce rules against interrupting other students. Teachers also use behavior management with individual students to alter bad habits and poor choices, such as getting up out of their seats when they should be seated. Parents, therapists, medical professionals and employers can use behavior management approaches.
Features
Behavior management includes identification of the problem or negative behavior, education about replacement behaviors, alterations to the individual's environment to reduce the negative behavior, positive reinforcement to encourage the new behavior and negative reinforcement to discourage the inappropriate action. Behavior management planning may include behavioral analysis and data collection, education and role playing, along with the institution of contractual agreements.

Effects
If applied correctly, state N. Mather and Sam Goldstein in their article "Behavior Modification in the Classroom" at LDOnline, behavior modification techniques never fail. When applied inefficiently or inconsistently, however, the result is less than desired change. With the implementation of all aspects of a behavioral modification plan, an individual is encouraged by correct choices and discouraged from the negative behavior.
In "Discipline in the Secondary Classroom: A Positive Approach to Behavior Management," Randall S. Sprick reminds readers that behavior management takes time. He describes a motivational sports coach who outlines behavioral expectations on day one of the season and then spends the whole season teaching those techniques and pushing the team to practice those behaviors.
Considerations
Teachers, parents, employers and others who implement behavior management techniques often place an overemphasis on implementation of the negative consequences. While negative consequences are necessary, they should be instituted in combination with all other aspects of a behavior modification plan. Educational Psychology Interactive suggests that punishment alone may increase hostility and should be used infrequently and in combination with positive reinforcement.
Misconceptions
Behavior modification techniques or approaches are often incorrectly thought of as a list of disciplinary measures, such as added chores for a teenager displaying disrespectful behavior or pay reduction for employees who repeatedly arrive late to work. While disciplinary measures and negative consequences are a necessary component of behavior modification, they are only one aspect.
Expert Insight
Behavior management works even for particularly egregious behaviors, including defiant, non-compliant children and physically aggressive teenagers. "For several of my families," states Dr. Katherine Reiter, owner of Creative Case Management in Asheville, North Carolina, "I recommend a parent coach to help them with their child's challenging behaviors. The parent coach encourages families to look at all aspects of helping their child change, not just discipline."
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Human Resources

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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