Human Resources/Written Analysis


Hi sir,

I am doing MBA General in Annamalai University. If you give me the answers for the below questions related to the subject of Managerial Economics it will be very greatful to you. Thanks in advance

Write a short notes on:

1. Group Behaviour.
2. Upward Communication.
3. Formal Communication.
4. Define Gossip Grapevine Chain.
5. Explain Postures and Gestures.
6. What is Verbal Dynamics?
7. Report Writing.
8. Explain any two Principles of Communication

1.   Group Behaviour.
In an organizational context, groupthink and group behavior are important concepts as they determine the cohesiveness and coherence of the organizational culture and organizational communication. For instance, unless the HRD function communicates the policies clearly and cogently, the employees would not participate and comply with them wholeheartedly. Hence, molding group behavior is important for organizations. However, this cannot be construed to mean that all employees must think and act alike. On the contrary, innovation cannot happen when group behavior is the same across all levels. The point here is that while organizations must strive for cohesiveness and coherence, they must not sacrifice the principles of individual creativity and brilliance that are at the heart of organizational change and innovation. In these turbulent times, there is a need for individuals to take a stand and be firm on the direction that the organization seeks to take.
2.   Of course, group behavior needs to be inculcated in organizations for the simple reason that employees must conform to the rules and regulations that govern organizations. Hence, there is a need for uniformity and consistency in the way organizational group behavior has to be molded. Towards this end, groupthink and group behavior must be encouraged by the HRD function as a means to ensure cohesiveness in the organization.   
In the technology sector, we often find employees straight out of campuses behaving as though they are still in college. While some of this freethinking and freewheeling spirit is good for innovation, the HRD function must guard against the tendency to be flippant with the organizational rules and procedures. Further, competitiveness can be encouraged but it should not come at the expense of collaboration and cooperation that are at the heart of organizational success.
On the flip side, group behavior can be detrimental to the organizational health as well. This happens when the decisions of the top management are not challenged or are followed blindly leading to the leadership thinking that whatever they do is right. We do not mean to say that there must be fractious fights in the organization. On the other hand, there must be a space for free expression of ideas and thoughts and true democratic decision making ought to take place. Only when organizations inculcate these elements in their DNA can they succeed in the competitive business landscape of the 21st century.
Finally, group think can be a powerful motivator as well as inhibitor. The motivating aspect happens when because of group think; employees feel bonding with their peers and colleagues and hence ensure that they give their best to the job. The inhibitor works when employees feel that their individual creativity and brilliance are being sacrificed at the altar of conformity. Hence, the leadership as well as the HRD function has their task cut out to ensure that group behavior does more good than harm. There is a need for a nuanced and balanced approach towards group behavior to leverage the individual creativity and at the same time not sacrifice organizational cohesiveness and coherence.
2. Upward Communication.
function of upward communication.



AREA.1.the communication upwards and sideways of proposals, suggestions and comments on corporate or functional objectives, policies and budgets from those who have to implement them ensure that managers and supervisors have adequate scope to influence corporate and functional decisions on matters about which they have specific expertise and knowledge
AREA .2.the communication upwards and sideways of management information on performance and results enable management to monitor and control performance in order that, as necessary, opportunities can be exploited or swift corrective action taken


AREA.1. the communication upwards of the comments and reactions of employees to what is proposed will happen or what is actually happening in matters that affect them ensure that employees are given an opportunity to voice their suggestions and fears and that the company is in a position to amend its plans in the light of these comments

AREA.1. the receipt and analysis of information from outside which affects the company's interests ensure that the company is fully aware of all the information on  
legislation and on marketing, commercial, financial and technological matters that affect its interests

AREA.2. the presentation of information about the company and its products to the government, customers and the public at large

OBJ.2. to exert influence in the interests of the company, to present a good image of the company, and to persuade customers to buy its products or services
Upward Communication Systems
1   Need to look @ feedback barriers to improve process
2   increased communication is often started by people who want to inform/influence higher-ups
Upward Communication Systems
1   supervisor needs to create an environment where open communication encouraged
2   Includes fostering a honest communication system
3   plus showing genuine concern for employees
Upward Communication Systems
1   Grapevine - informal communication system that springs up spontaneously due to social interactions (ie coffee groups, lunch etc.)
2   similar to friends sharing ideas & info
Upward Communication Systems
1   Good managers keep their “ear to the ground” = can be valuable feedback
2   need to show you can handle “off the record” conversations w/o jeopardizing communicator
Upward Communication Systems
1   Want to maintain confidentiality to keep employee confidence, trust & reliability
2   electronic discussion groups can also be used as Grapevine

3. Formal Communication.
In humans communication breaks off into different types of communication: verbal and non-verbal, and formal and informal.
Formal communication can be considered as communication efforts that are “dressed up” to fit customary rules and ceremony For example, in a written letter, the formal communication style will demand that the layout of the piece of written communication follow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation, body of the letter, close, signature
Formal communication can be considered as communication efforts that are “dressed up” to fit customary rules and ceremony For example, in a written letter, the formal communication style will demand that the layout of the piece of written communication follow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation, body of the letter, close, signature lines and any indicators of enclosures all placed neatly upon company letterhead or personal stationery. By contrast, an informal piece of written communication can be as simple as a jotted note to a friend on a torn slip of paper
Formal communications are mostly written, although they may now also include formal presentations that are on computer disk, video tape or DVDs, MP3 presentations and other similar electronic reproductions of written communications. Other forms of formal communications include newsletters, legal advisories, invitations, awards, and letters of congratulations. Non-written formal communication devices are in-person communications in the forms of departmental meetings, telephone calls, conferences and special interviews. Some publications that are devoted to a special purpose, such as a company’s annual report, are formal communications.
There is a non-verbal component to formal communication as well. The style and manners of the presenter dictate the formalness of a meeting, and this can be immediately seen at the time of introduction of a speaker. Some elements of non-verbal formal communication include maintaining a certain distance from others, standing above the crowd, speaking in formal tones and using formal means of address to others, such as “Mister” or “Doctor” when calling upon others.
Colloquialisms, which are freely used in informal communication, are not present in formal communications. Proper English or another language is spoken. Formal communications will follow a chain of command in the flow of the communication, either upwards to or down from managers.
The use of formal communication is more prevalent in highly technical areas where a message must be exact and specific, leaving no room for misinterpretation. The written communication is carefully thought out, and planned for a certain effect or result. It often is written in a third person non-personal voice of “he, she, it, and they” rather than “I” or “you” voices. Grammar, spelling and layout are important for written communications, and for spoken communications there is an emphasis placed on the quality of the speech voice and pronunciation.
Some formal communications are congratulatory, others can be advisory or informational. Legal papers follow a tightly formatted layout that is customary within the professional and widely used by others. Likewise, scientific research papers have a customary format to follow. Any written communication that is expected to adhere to particular rules can be considered to be formal communication, and the actual tone of the piece may range from friendly to threatening. It can be more demanding and imply expectations to the receiver that should create desired results.
4. Define Gossip Grapevine Chain.

Grapevine is informal channel of communication. It doesn’t follow any set lines or nay definite rules. It spreads like the grapevine, in any direction anywhere, and spreads fast. It spreads by way of gossip and rumors. Primarily grapevine is a channel of horizontal communication but it can flow even vertically and diagonally. Specialists in this field have identified four types of grapevine chains.

(1) Single Strand Chain: It flows like a chain, i.e., ‘A’ tells something to ‘B’ who tells it to ‘C’ and so on.

(2) Gossip Chain: One person tells everybody else. This chain passes a message regarding a ‘not-on-job’ nature.

(3) Probability Chain: here information may move from anybody to anybody. This chain is found when the information is somewhat interesting but not really significant.

(4) Cluster Chain: This move through selected groups. ‘A’ tells something to a few selected individuals and then some of these individuals inform a few other selected individuals. Cluster chain is the dominant grapevine pattern in an organization. Most informal communication flows through this chain.

Importance of Grapevine
It gives emotional relief. It transmits information very speedily. The managers or top bosses of an organization get feedback regarding their policies, decisions, memos etc. the feedback reaches them much faster through the informal channel than through the formal channel. The grapevine functions as a supplementary or parallel channel of communication. Whatever is deemed to be unsuitable for the formal channels can be successfully transmitted through the grapevine.

The information spread through grapevine is less credible than the one given by the formal channel. It doesn’t always carry the complete information. It often misinforms as its origin lies in the rumor mill. It may spread any kind of stories about responsible people and thus may spoil the image of the organization.

Effective use of Grapevine
The manager should organize fruitful group activities so as to enhance the self-worth of the employees and update their knowledge. The manager should keep an eye on rumor-mongers. He should tactfully identify the leaders and won their confidence. As far as possible, the employees, through their leaders, should be made partners in the decision making process. A tactful manager will keep the employees well informed so that they may not spread rumors. The manager should try to get feedback on his style of functioning and work for continuous improvement. A manager must be a good empathic listener. This way the employees or the leaders will feel free to talk to him rather than indulge in rumor mongering.

5. Explain Postures and Gestures.
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, whereas posture is a stance and/or alignment as compared to a balanced position for the human body.

Body language is the nonverbal, usually unconscious, communication through the use of postures, gestures, facial expressions, and the like.

A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of speech or together and in parallel with spoken words. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Gestures differ from physical non-verbal communication that does not communicate specific messages, such as purely expressive displays, proxemics, or displays of joint attention. Gestures allow individuals to communicate a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection, often together with body language in addition to words when they speak.

The word "posture" comes from the Latin verb "ponere" which is defined as "to put or place." The general concept of human posture refers to "the carriage of the body as a whole, the attitude of the body, or the position of the limbs (the arms and legs)."
Webster's New World Medical Dictionary defines "neutral posture" as the stance which is attained "when the joints are not bent and the spine is aligned and not twisted." In this position, a person is able to completely and optimally attain balance and proportion of his or her body mass and framework, based on his or her physical limitations. Good posture optimizes breathing and affects the circulation of bodily fluids.

6. What is Verbal Dynamics?
Pace or rate of speed at which a speech is delivered also plays a role in how well your speech is received. You should slow down when you are presenting detailed, highly complex information, particularly when you are speaking to a group who knows relatively little about your topic. In other situations, speaking slightly faster than your normal delivery rate may increase your persuasiveness. Your pace carries the message that you know exactly what you want to say and you believe in it.
Incorporating pauses - brief periods of silence – may be selectively added as well to impact vebal communication.
Volume is simple – how loud or how soft is the speaker? If your audience cannot hear the words you are saying, they certainly will not understand your message. Speak too softly, and your message will be considered timid and unsure. Speaking too loudly appears to be rude or obnoxious. Generally, speaking just above conversational level in a classroom setting improves effective verbal communication.
Be aware of your environment as you prepare to speak. Consider these elements:
• How does the size or shape of the room impact your volume?
• Are there people talking in the hallway or in the next room?
• Is there any internal noise, such as an air conditioner, or external
Pitch is a musical term that relates to the highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice. Every speaker has an optimal pitch, or key in which to speak. That pitch is the range you are most comfortable speaking in and is most likely to be pleasant to listen to. If you are nervous, you may inadvertently raise your pitch, or if you are trying to sound authoritative, you may lower your pitch without thinking. Use your normal pitch when speaking.
Inflection is the pattern of change in a person’s pitch level while they are speaking. A common mistake is delivering a speech that lacks inflection in a flat, uniform pattern. Another word for this is monotone – or one tone. When someone speaks in a monotone, active listening can be very difficult. Because the way we use inflection can change the meaning of our words, mastering inflection is an important verbal communication skill.
For example,
She is my friend. (The emphasis implied she is my friend and not yours) She is my friend. (She is just a friend, and not a date).
The idea commonly associated with diction is more accurately expressed as enunciation, or the ability to express the parts of speech in an audibly clear fashion. Actors and linguists study diction, which itself is composed of a number of fundamentals, all of which concentrate, literally, on the sounds coming out of your mouth: How you make them, why you make them and what you—and others—make of them.
You can practice enunciating your words more clearly using traditional tongue twisters, which are also an excellent way to ‘warm up’ prior to public speaking. Make sure to have a glass of water on hand as you practice, listening carefully as you speak.
Ideally you should pract ice tongue twisters that either focus on each individual letter of the alphabet, or that feature two or more letters predominantly. Wikiquote contains a trove of usable tongue twisters in English, or you can make up your own.
This should also help you when you negotiate to purchase items like driver insurance or anything where you need to have good negotiating skills.

7. Report Writing.
Report writing is widespread in many fields, such as business, medicine, science, criminology. Besides, implementation of any project implies writing progress reports. In some fields, there are even several report types. For example, business report writing includes the following types of reports:
Whatever a field of writing a report is, its purpose is to summarize results of past work and consequences of past events so that this information can be used in the present and in the future for decision making. Let us give you a notion about peculiarities of writing a report in different professional fields.
Writing a Report: Structure
Report structure may somewhat differ depending on the field, purpose and content. However, it is possible to outline a general structure often taking place in report writing:
1.   Cover Sheet
2.   Title Page
3.   Letter of Transmittal (Acknowledgements)
4.   Table of Contents
5.   Summary
6.   Main Body
•   Introduction
•   Discussion
•   Conclusion
•   Recommendations (Proposal)
7.   Bibliography
8.   Appendices
When writing a report, you may divide body text by means of subheadings so that it is more convenient for a reader to understand your information.
Writing a Report: Language
Writing a report requires using a language which somewhat differs from that used in academic writing. Report writing implies using plain language and constructing sentences which are not too long. However, may principles kept in academic writing also take place: formal style, no colloquialisms et al.

The main aim of writing a business report is to provide information that can help in making business decisions.  Writing a business report is successful only if it motivates the reader to take important business decisions.
Writing a business report: Steps to be followed
Students must follow the below steps when writing a business report in order to make it a proper report.
•   The primary step is to prepare for the business report.
•   The next step is to determine the scope of the report.
•   The third step is to recognize the audience.
•   The fourth step is to make a thorough research in order to gather the required information
•   The final step is to format and organize the report.
Writing a business report: Useful advices
When writing business reports, students must consider the following useful advices. The following tips help students for writing a business report effectively and successfully.
•   Define and elucidate the intention of the report.
•   Organize and arrange the relevant information in a logical fashion based on the purpose of the business report, with the audience in mind.
•   Write the business report to the audience in such a way to motivate the audience.
•   Write the business report using powerful and well-built words as well as effective and well-arranged sentences.
•   It is recommended to write business report in the commonly acknowledged format.
•   Proof-read and revise the business report before submission.


importance of reports

A very precise and well written report can prove to be very helpful to a person
as it gives all the relevant information related to the subject .
-it  provides  vital  information.
-it  provides  a  vehicle  for  feedback.

Reports are like another form to communicate effectively. They are also a way to analyze ones knowledge and skills. Once information is in hand the main thing is how one manages to organize   and presents the information. The presentation of information in the reports should be in a manner that they are logical and concise. The proper formatted reports are one of the most essentials tools  used for business proposals and by a number of organizations. These reports when are read by the targeted person will provide useful information in such a good manner that will increase your credibility as a person and as an organization as well.
In writing, a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, which is tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. The purpose of reports is usually to inform. However, reports may include persuasive elements, such as recommendations, suggestions, or other motivating conclusions that indicate possible future actions the report reader might take. Reports can be public or private, and often address questions posed by individuals in government, business, education, and science.Reports often take the structure of scientific investigation: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. They may sometimes follow a problem-solution structure based on the audience's questions or concerns. As for format, reports range from a simpler format with headings to indicate topics, to more complex formats including charts, tables, figures, pictures, tables of contents, abstracts, summaries, appendices, footnotes, hyperlinks, and references.

The purpose of a report is to show information collected to the reader about certain topics, usually to set targets or to show a general view on the subject in hand. Another purpose is to discuss and analyze ideas and thoughts on any problems or improvements to be made and to inform the audience. They can either persuade, suggest or to motivate conclusions.

A report is an extended formal document with lots of pages that shows different types of information with details of the findings like e.g. Methodology, findings and added Appendices. The document structure is easily navigated by using a table of contents, so the audience can easily find specific information by clear headings and a set structure of text and images.

Types of reports include:

scientific reports, recommendation reports, white papers, annual reports, auditor's reports, workplace reports, census reports, trip reports, progress reports, investigative reports, budget reports, policy reports, demographic reports, credit reports, appraisal reports, inspection reports, military reports, bound reports, minority report, final report, majority report, environmental resources reports, error and other reports from software systems, etc.
With the dramatic expansion of information technology, and the desire for increased competitiveness in corporations, there has been an increase in the use of computing power to produce unified reports which join different views of the enterprise in one place. Termed Enterprise Reporting, this process involves querying data sources with different logical models to produce a human readable report. A computer user has to query the Human Resources databases and the Capital Improvements databases to show how efficiently space is being used across an entire corporation.

Enterprise Reporting is a fundamental part of the larger movement towards improved Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management. Often implementation involves Extract, Transform and Load  procedures into a reporting data warehouse and then use of one or more reporting tools. While reports can be distributed in print form or via email, they are typically accessed via a corporate intranet.

Reports are designed to convey and record information that will be of practical use to the
reader. It is organized into discrete units of specific and highly visible information
Types of Reports:
•Inform or instruct – present information
•Reader sees the details of events, activities or conditions.
•No analysis of the situation, no conclusion, no recommendations.
•Written to solve problems
•Information is analyzed.
•Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made
•An extension of analytical reports: main focus is to sell an idea, a service, or
•Proposals are the most common type.
Difference between Reports and Correspondence
•Reports usually have a more diverse audience, more than one purpose and more
detailed information.
Typical Business Reports
Report_ Purpose_
Periodic Operating Reports_ To monitor and control production, sales, shipping, service, etc._
Situational Report_ To describe one-time events, such as trips,
conferences, and seminars._
Investigative/Informational_ To examine problems and supply facts – with little analysis._
Compliance_ To respond to government agencies and laws._
Justification/Recommendation_ To make recommendations to management and become tools to solve problems and make decisions._
Yardstick_ To establish criteria and evaluate alternatives by
measuring against the “yardstick” criteria. _
Feasibility_ To analyze problems and predict whether alternatives will be practical or advisable._
Research Studies_ To study problems scientifically by analyzing a problem, developing hypotheses, collecting data,
analyzing data, and drawing conclusions._
Proposals_ To offer to solve problems, investigate ideas, or sell
products and services._
The following are the two bases of classifying the reports-
•   According to function, and
•   According to formality.
According to functions the reports may be divided into three parts:
•   Informational reports.
•   Analytical reports
•   Research reports.
According to formality the reports may be divided into two parts:
•   Statutory reports
•   Non statutory or voluntary reports.
The above two may further be divided into two parts again, i.e. (i) routine reports and (ii) special reports.

Informational reports. These reports present facts about certain given activity in detail without any note or suggestions. Whatever is gathered is reported without giving any thing by way of either explanation or any suggestion. A vice-chancellor asking about the number of candidates appearing at a particular examination naturally seeks only information of the fact (candidates taking up the examination) of course without any comment. Generally such reports are of routine nature. Sometimes they may fall under statutory routine category. A company registrar asking for allotment return within the stipulate period is nothing but informational routine, falling under statutory but routine report.
Analytical reports. These reports contain facts along with analytical explanations offered by the reporter himself or may be asked for by the one who is seeking the report. Such reports contain the narration of facts, collected data and information, classified and tabulated data and also explanatory note followed by the conclusions arrived at or interpretations. A company chairman may ask for a report on falling trends in sale in a particular area. He will in this case be naturally interested in knowing all the details including that of opinion of any of the investigator.
Research reports. These reports are based on some research work conducted by either an individual or a group of individuals on a given problem. Indian oil company might have asked its research division to find some substitute for petrol, and if such a study is conducted then a report shall be submitted by the research division detailing its findings and then offering their own suggestions, including the conclusions at which the division has arrived at as to whether such a substitute is these and if it is there can the same be put to use with advantage and effectively. All details shall naturally be asked and has to be given. In fact such a report is the result of a research.
Statutory reports. These reports are to be presented according to the requirements of a particular law or a rule or a custom now has become a rule. The auditor reports to company registrar has to be submitted as per the requirements of country legal requirement. A return on compensation paid to factory workers during a period by a factory has to be submitted to competent authorities periodically. These reports are generally prepared in the prescribed form as the rules have prescribed.
Non statutory reports. These reports are not in the nature of legal requirements or rules wants, therefore, the reports are to be prepared and submitted. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted: (i) for the administrative and other conveniences,(ii) for taking decision in a matter (iii) for policy formulations, (iv) for projecting the future or (v) any thing alike so that efficient and smooth functioning maybe assured and proper and necessary decision may be taken with a view to see that every thing goes well and the objectives of the organization are achieved with assured success.
Routine reports. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted periodically on matters required by the organization so as to help the management of the organization to take decisions in the matters relating to day to day affairs. The main objectives of routine reports are to let the management know as to what is happening in the organization, what is its progress where the deviation is, what measures have been taken in solving the problems and what to do so that the organization may run smoothly and efficiently. Routine reports are generally brief. They only give the facts. No comments or explanations are usually offered in such reports. Generally forms are prescribed for preparation and submission of such reports.
Special reports. Such a type of report is specially required to be prepared and submitted on matters of special nature. Due to an accident a death of the foreman has occurred in a factory. The factory manager may ask for a detail report from the head foreman. Such a report is classified as special reports. These reports contain not only facts and details but they may contain suggestion, comments and explanations as well.
8. Explain any two Principles of Communication
•   1. 7 Principles of Communications Engage your audiences
•   2. Communications is to deliver your ideas to your audiences and achieve the outcome you want. It requires concentration and energy to digest your message, so make your reader read with ease, instead of creating a resistance in your reader. Before you begin writing or communicating, remind yourself: I will keep my sentence short. use simple words. use direct and active sentence. Keep reader focus to my message - Important message should occupy 90% of full contents. Focus on key points and good flow. Do not repeat my intention in different paragraphs. (if you can’t organize your thoughts, how to buy in your reader?) I will not 1. have more than 10% of my message not related to the message objective ( Distraction ). Eg. Thanking the readers, mention about other things not related Use colorful words and jargons to confuse readers ( Inconsiderate ). use indirect sentence because I am lazy to simplify the sentence, I am wasting the reader’s time to try to understand what I intend. Put instructions that cannot be acted by readers ( Waste Time ). Make the reader ask for more info in order to execute your instructions ( Create resistance in your reader, not productive ).
•   3. Goals To change behavior To get action To give & get Information To persuade Effective Communications Achieve your goals in shortest time Communications Goals To ensure understanding
•   4. Seven Communication Principles To compose effective message you need to apply certain specific communication principles. They tie closely with the basic concepts of the communication process and are important for both written and oral communications called the “ Seven C” .
***C ourtesy
***C onciseness
***C onsideration
***C ompleteness
***C larity
***C oncreteness
***C orrectness
•   5. Completeness Your business message is "complete" when it contains all facts the reader or listener needs to react to your desire outcome. Remember that communicators differ in their mental filters; they are influenced by their backgrounds, viewpoints, needs, attitudes, status, and emotions . Completeness is necessary for several reasons: Complete messages are more likely to bring the desired results without the expense of additional messages . Second, they can do a better job of building goodwill. Third, they can help avert costly lawsuits that may result if important information is missing. As you strive for completeness, keep the following guidelines in mind: • Answer all questions asked. • Give something extra, when desirable. • Check for the five W's and any other essentials. Dex: Who, What, Where, When, How,
•   6. Completeness: Think Who, What, Where, When, How Who you want to communicate with (Superior, Subordinates, Customers,etc)? Know your target audiences and set your tone right and say the right things (Don’t say the unnecessary things). What you want him/her to do and what you want to achieve? Focus on the objective and key points and make sure what you want to achieve is clear without guessing. Where to put your ideas and instructions (The Flow)? Good flow allows reader to progressively understand your ideas at ease and will act upon your message quickly. When should you deliver the information? Deliver at the right time, not at the wrong time, will have better results. How to achieve your objective? If you have to ask your reader to perform certain tasks, then state clearly the steps to achieve that. If your instructions, is not clear, you will not get your things done or the way you want in the shortest time. Communications is key to productivity. Are you productive? Are you able to get things done quickly without to and fro?
•   7. Conciseness A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver . Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities . Conciseness contributes to emphasis. By eliminating unnecessary words, you help make important ideas stand out . To achieve conciseness, try to observe the following suggestions: • Eliminate wordy expressions. • Include only relevant statements. • Avoid unnecessary repetition. Add on: Check the flow of your information.
•   8. Consideration Consideration means that you prepare every message with the recipient in mind and try to put yourself in his or her place. Try to visualize your readers (or listeners)—with their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions, and probable reactions to your request. Then handle the matter from their point of view. This thoughtful consideration is also called “ you-attitude” - empathy, the human touch, and understanding of human nature. (It does not mean, however, that you should overlook the needs of your organization) In a broad but true sense, consideration underlies the other six C's of good business communication. You adapt your language and message content to your receiver's needs when you make your message complete, concise, concrete, clear, courteous, and correct. However, in four specific ways you can indicate you are considerate: • Focus on " you " instead of "I" and "we." • Show reader benefit or interest in reader perspective . • Emphasize positive, pleasant facts . • Apply integrity and ethic.
•   9. Concreteness Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. The following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages: • Use specific facts and figures. • Put action in your verbs. • Choose vivid, image-building words Dex: if you want to be put in vague and general messages, it’s better to omit it altogether! Wasting your reader’s time is the Last thing you want in communications.
•   10. Clarity Clarity means getting your message across so the receiver will understand what you are trying to convey. You want that person to interpret your words with the same meaning you have in mind. Accomplishing that goal is difficult because, as you know, individual experiences are never identical, and words have different meanings to different persons. Here are some specific ways to help make your messages clear: 1. Choose short, familiar, conversational words. 2. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs. 3. Achieve appropriate readability (and listen-ability). 4. Include examples, illustrations, and other visual aids, when
•   11. Correctness The correctness principle comprises more than proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. A message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer (internal & external) and fail to achieve its purpose. The term correctness, as applied to a business message, means the writer should: • Use the right level of language (When to be formal, tone, etc.) • Include only accurate facts, words, and figures • Maintain acceptable writing mechanics • Choose nondiscriminatory expressions • Apply all other pertinent C qualities
•   12. Courtesy Courteous messages help to strengthen present business friendships, as well as make new friends. Courtesy stems from sincere you-attitude. It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of "please's" and "thank-you's." To be courteous, considerate communicators should follow these suggestions regarding tone of the communications. • Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative. • Omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle. • Grant and apologize good-naturedly.
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Human Resources

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Leo Lingham


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