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Question
Q.1
A. What is strategy implementation? How far it is different from strategy formulation?
B. Describe in detail the SWOT analysis. What is its significance in organizations?
Q.2
A. Discuss in detail the two main styles of strategic leadership.
B. Define corporate culture. Also elucidate the statement “Culture is a strength that can also be a weakness”.
Q.3
A. Critically explain the BCG matrix. What is six sigma?
B. Discuss strategic alternatives with reference to Michael Porter’s strategies
Q.4
A. What is strategic change? Explain the change process proposed by Kurt Levin that can
be useful in implementing strategies?
B. Briefly discuss various elements of macro environment.
Q.5
State with reasons which of the following statements are correct/incorrect:
a. A core competence is a unique strength of an organization which may not be shared
by others.
b. Supply chain management is conceptually wider than logistic management.
c. Concentric diversification amounts to unrelated diversification.
d. Skimming means keeping price very low.

Answer
HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
SOME  ANSWERS  HELD  BACK  DUE TO  SPACE CONSTRAINT.
PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
leolingham2000@gmail.com.
I  will send  the balance  asap.
Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================
1 A ] What is strategy implementation? How far it is different from strategy formulation?

Strategy implementation is the translation of chosen strategy into organizational action so as to achieve strategic goals and objectives.
Strategy implementation is also defined as the manner in which an organization should develop, utilize, and amalgamate organizational structure, control systems, and culture to follow strategies that lead to competitive advantage and a better performance. Organizational structure allocates special value developing tasks and roles to the employees and states how these tasks and roles can be correlated so as maximize efficiency, quality, and customer satisfaction-the pillars of competitive advantage. But, organizational structure is not sufficient in itself to motivate the employees.
An organizational control system is also required. This control system equips managers with motivational incentives for employees as well as feedback on employees and organizational performance. Organizational culture refers to the specialized collection of values, attitudes, norms and beliefs shared by organizational members and groups.
Follwoing are the main steps in implementing a strategy:
   Developing an organization having potential of carrying out strategy successfully.
   Disbursement of abundant resources to strategy-essential activities.
   Creating strategy-encouraging policies.
   Employing best policies and programs for constant improvement.
   Linking reward structure to accomplishment of results.
   Making use of strategic leadership.
Excellently formulated strategies will fail if they are not properly implemented. Also, it is essential to note that strategy implementation is not possible unless there is stability between strategy and each organizational dimension such as organizational structure, reward structure, resource-allocation process, etc.
Strategy implementation poses a threat to many managers and employees in an organization. New power relationships are predicted and achieved. New groups (formal as well as informal) are formed whose values, attitudes, beliefs and concerns may not be known. With the change in power and status roles, the managers and employees may employ confrontation behaviour.

Implementation of strategy is the process through which a chosen strategy is put into action. It involves the design and management of systems to achieve the best integration of people, structure, processes and resources in achieving organizational objectives.
Once the creative and analytical aspects of strategy formulation have been settled, the managerial priority is one of converting the strategy into operationally effective action. Indeed a strategy is never complete, even as formulation until it gains a commitment of the organization’s resources and becomes embodied in organizational activities. Therefore, to bring the result, the strategy should be put to action because the choice of even the soundest strategy will not affect organizational activities and achievement of its objectives. Therefore, effective implementation of strategy is a must for the organization. Implementation of strategy can be defined as follows:
Judging from this definition, it can be observed that the scope of managerial activities associated with strategy implementation is virtually coexistence with the entire management process. This is because the entire management process is geared up according to the needs of the strategy. In particular, following factors are important in strategy implementation:
Institutionalization of Strategy
The first basic action that is required for putting a strategy into operation is its institutionalization. Since strategy does not become either acceptable or effective by virtue of being well designed and clearly announced, the successful implementation of strategy requires that the strategy framer acts as its promoter and defender. Often strategy choice becomes a personal choice of the strategist because his personality variables become an influential factor in strategy formulation. Thus, it becomes a personal strategy of the strategist. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the institutionalization of strategy because without it, the strategy is subject to being undermined. Therefore, it is the role of the strategist to present the strategy to the members of the organization in a way that appeals to them and brings their support. This will put organizational people to feel that it is their own strategy rather than the strategy imposed on them. Such a feeling creates commitment so essential for making strategy successful.
Setting Proper Organizational Climate
Setting organizational climate relevant for strategy implementation is important for making strategy to work. Organizational climate refers to the characteristics of internal environment that conditions the co-operation, the development of the individuals, the extent of commitment and dedication of people in the organization, and the efficiency with which the purpose is translated into results. Organizations whose strategy is implemented with conducive climate are more effective than those whose are not. People are the instruments in implementing a particular strategy and organizational climate is basically a people-oriented attempt. A top manager can play an important role in shaping the organizational climate not only by providing standards for what others do but also what he does because organizational climate is a matter of practice rather than the precept.
Developing Appropriate Operating Plans
Operating plans are the action plans, operational program and decisions that take place in various parts of the organization. If they are made to reflect desired strategic results, they contribute to the achievement, of organizational objectives by focusing attention on those factors, which are important. For example, in budgeting, more resources will be allocated on those factors, which are critical to the success of the organization as spelled out during the strategy formulation process. There are various ways of making sure that operating plans contribute. If every manager understands strategy, he can certainly review the program recommendations of staff advisers and line subordinates to see that they are consistent with the requirements of the strategy. Appropriate committees to see if they contribute positively can review major program. This lends an aura of formality to the program decisions and their influences on strategy may become clear.
Developing Appropriate Organization Structure.
Organization structure is the pattern in which the various parts of the organization are interrelated or interconnected. It prescribes relationships among various positions and activities. For implementing strategy, the organization structure should be designed according to the needs of the strategy. The relationship between strategy and structure can be thought of in terms of utilizing structure for strategy implementation because structure is a means to an end, that is, to provide facilities for implementing strategy. Therefore, both should be integrated. In the absence of such integration, outcome may be confusion, misdirection and splintered effort within the organization. There can be various ways of designing an organization structure. However, the major issues involved in designing the structure to fit the strategy involve the answers of following questions.
1.   What should be the different units of the organization?
2.   What components should join together and what components should be kept apart?
3.   What is the appropriate placement and relationship of different units?
Periodic Review of Strategy
There should be periodic review of strategy to find out whether the given strategy is relevant. This is required because even the care-fully developed strategies might cease to be suitable if events change, knowledge becomes more clear, or it appears that the environment will not be as originally thought. Thus, strategies should be reviewed from time to time. What should be the frequency for such a review is not universal but major strategies should be reviewed at least once a year. In fact this is done by most of the organizations who believe in relating themselves with the environment.





What is strategy  strategy formulation
Strategy formulation refers to the process of choosing the most appropriate course of action for the realization of organizational goals and objectives and thereby achieving the organizational vision. The process of strategy formulation basically involves six main steps. Though these steps do not follow a rigid chronological order, however they are very rational and can be easily followed in this order.
1.   Setting Organizations’ objectives - The key component of any strategy statement is to set the long-term objectives of the organization. It is known that strategy is generally a medium for realization of organizational objectives. Objectives stress the state of being there whereas Strategy stresses upon the process of reaching there. Strategy includes both the fixation of objectives as well the medium to be used to realize those objectives. Thus, strategy is a wider term which believes in the manner of deployment of resources so as to achieve the objectives.
While fixing the organizational objectives, it is essential that the factors which influence the selection of objectives must be analyzed before the selection of objectives. Once the objectives and the factors influencing strategic decisions have been determined, it is easy to take strategic decisions.
2.   Evaluating the Organizational Environment - The next step is to evaluate the general economic and industrial environment in which the organization operates. This includes a review of the organizations competitive position. It is essential to conduct a qualitative and quantitative review of an organizations existing product line. The purpose of such a review is to make sure that the factors important for competitive success in the market can be discovered so that the management can identify their own strengths and weaknesses as well as their competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.
After identifying its strengths and weaknesses, an organization must keep a track of competitors’ moves and actions so as to discover probable opportunities of threats to its market or supply sources.
3.   Setting Quantitative Targets - In this step, an organization must practically fix the quantitative target values for some of the organizational objectives. The idea behind this is to compare with long term customers, so as to evaluate the contribution that might be made by various product zones or operating departments.
4.   Aiming in context with the divisional plans - In this step, the contributions made by each department or division or product category within the organization is identified and accordingly strategic planning is done for each sub-unit. This requires a careful analysis of macroeconomic trends.
5.   Performance Analysis - Performance analysis includes discovering and analyzing the gap between the planned or desired performance. A critical evaluation of the organizations past performance, present condition and the desired future conditions must be done by the organization. This critical evaluation identifies the degree of gap that persists between the actual reality and the long-term aspirations of the organization. An attempt is made by the organization to estimate its probable future condition if the current trends persist.
6.   Choice of Strategy - This is the ultimate step in Strategy Formulation. The best course of action is actually chosen after considering organizational goals, organizational strengths, potential and limitations as well as the external opportunities.
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1.B. Describe in detail the SWOT analysis. What is its significance in organizations?

Definition  of  SWOT
SWOT analysis is a general technique which can be applied across diverse functions and activities, but it is particularly appropriate to the early stages of planning for CORPORATE  STRATEGY . Performing SWOT analysis involves generating and recording the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats relating to a given task. It is customary for the analysis to take account of internal resources and capabilities (strengths and weaknesses) and factors external to the organisation (opportunities and threats).
THE  NECESSITY   FOR  SWOT
Strengths
Strengths usually describe things that the company excels at doing. All strengths listed should support a competitive advantage that the corporation has over its rivals. These can be tangible (fast delivery of products to customers) or intangible (excellent customer service promotes very high customer satisfaction). As these are internal attributes they should all be within the company’s control. Ask questions such as:

• What does the company do well?
• What resources (physical and personnel) does the company possess?
• What advantages does the company have over its rivals?

Do not forget to include key strengths that the people in the organization possess which includes things such as their experience, knowledge, educational background, business connections, and job skills. Tangible assets such as plant capacity, state of the art equipment and facilities, strong supply chains, available capital (or access to credit), loyal customers, patents, copyrights and superior information systems.

Strengths
The Strengths can be considered as anything that is favourable towards the business for example:
Currently in a good financial position (few debts, etc)
Skilled workforce (little training required)
Company name recognized on a National/Regional/Local level
Latest machinery installed
Own premises (no additional costs for renting)
Excellent transport links (ease of access to/from the Company)
Little/non-threatening competition

THE  SWOT  ANALYSIS  --STRENGTHS
-helps   to  identify  the  core compentences  
-helps  how  to  maximize  the  strengths  to  gain
the  maximum  results --sales/profit/market  share/competitive  position.
========================================
Weaknesses
Weaknesses are factors that the company controls that impair its ability to compete with other firms. Weaknesses are any areas in which you need to improve to maintain a competitive edge in your market. Ask questions such as:

• Which departments need to be improved?
• What resources does the company lack?
• What skill sets do the employees lack that competing firm’s workforces have?
• What services does the company fail to offer?

Weaknesses
Recognizing the Weaknesses will require you being honest and realistic. Don’t leave anything out as this is an important part as to realize what needs to be done to minimize this list in the future. Here are a few examples:
Currently in a poor financial position (large debts, etc)
Un-Skilled workforce (training required)
Company name not recognized on a National/Regional/Local level
Machinery not up to date (Inefficient)
Rented premises (Adding to costs)
Poor location for business needs (Lack of transport links etc)
Stock problems (currently holding too much/too little)
Too much waste
THE SWOT   ANALYSIS --WEAKNESS
-helps  to  identify  the weak  points in  terms of  skills/manpower/
resources  etc
-how  to improve / overcome  these  weak  factors.
==================================================
Opportunities
Opportunities are the external factors that will allow your business to succeed against its rivals. Since these are external factors, they may not be under control of the company. Ask questions such as:

• What opportunities for new products or services exist in your market?
• Are new markets available that could provide opportunities for growth?
• Have new technologies been developed that will allow us to compete more effectively?
• Have consumer lifestyles, wants and desires shifted?
• Are the target customers economically healthy?
• Do previously resolved internal problems give the company a competitive edge?

Usually, opportunities reflect the areas where you can excel by changing the company’s marketing strategy. Should new products be launched? Should existing products be promoted to new customer groups? If possible, identify the time frame for each opportunity. Is it something the company must capitalize on by a certain date or will the opportunity last indefinitely?

Opportunities
Keeping in mind what you have listed as your Company Strengths, SWOT Analysis can now influence the Opportunities for the business. These can be seen as targets to achieve and exploit in the future for example:
Good financial position creating a good reputation for future bank loans and borrowings
Skilled workforce means that they can be moved and trained into other areas of the business
Competitor going bankrupt (Takeover opportunity?)
Broadband technology has been installed in the area (useful for Internet users)
Increased spending power in the Local/National economy
Moving a product into a new market sector
THE  SWOT  ANALYSIS -- OPPORTUNITIES
-helps  to  identify  gaps  in the  market  which  can  be  converted  into
opportunities.
-helps to  identify  the  gaps  in  performance , which  can be  exploited.
=======================================
Threats
Threats are factors beyond the control of the company that reduces its competitiveness in the marketplace, adversely affect marketing strategy, or in a worst case scenario, potentially lead to the total demise of the business (think buggy whip manufacturers when automobiles became popular). Although the company has no control over external factors, the key is to identify the threats and draw up contingency plans to negate the threat or soften the impact should an event arise. Ask questions such as:

• Are consumer preferences shifting away from company business lines?
• Is price competition from competitors affecting company profit margins?
• Are new technologies making the company’s products or processes obsolete or unaffordable?
• Are new competitors entering the market space?
• Are suppliers increasing prices?
• Are raw material costs going up due to scarcity or catastrophic events?
• Is the general economy on the downswing?

Classifying threats by the degree of impact and the likelihood of their occurrence is often useful to help identify which threats need to be planned for immediately.

Threats
The final part of the analysis will also be seen as the most feared- the Threats. It has to be done and therefore taking into account what you have listed as your weaknesses, the threats will now all seem too clear. Examples
Large and increasing competition
Rising cost of Wages (Basic wage, etc)
Possible relocation costs due to poor location currently held
Local authority refusing plans for future building expansion
Increasing interest rates (increases borrowing repayments, etc)
End of season approaching (if you depend on hot weather, etc)
Existing product becoming unfashionable or unpopular
THE SWOT  ANALYSIS --THREAT
-helps  to  identify  the  various  threats  like
competition/social /political/economic/technological etc
and  to take  preventive  action.
=========================================
THE  SWOT  ANALYSIS  --STRENGTHS
-helps   to  identify  the  core compentences  
-helps  how  to  maximize  the  strengths  to  gain
the  maximum  results --sales/profit/market  share/competitive  position.

THE SWOT   ANALYSIS --WEAKNESS
-helps  to  identify  the weak  points in  terms of  skills/manpower/
resources  etc
-how  to improve / overcome  these  weak  factors.

THE  SWOT  ANALYSIS -- OPPORTUNITIES
-helps  to  identify  gaps  in the  market  which  can  be  converted  into
opportunities.
-helps to  identify  the  gaps  in  performance , which  can be  exploited

THE SWOT  ANALYSIS --THREAT
-helps  to  identify  the  various  threats  like
competition/social /political/economic/technological etc
and  to take  preventive  action.


The Benefits of   these  FOUR   SWOT Analyses

The main thrust of the exercise is to determine how the company’s strengths can be used to take advantage of opportunities and minimize critical threats. Eliminating weaknesses can also provide resources to capitalize on opportunities or ward off threats. Identifying the most critical issues provides a game plan for the business to follow based on an honest assessment of the firm’s potential.

THIS  HELPS  TO  DEVISE  THE  MOST  EFFECTIVE  CORPORATE  STRATEGY.
WHICH  IN   TURN  HELPS  TO  DEVELOP   THE  MOST  EFFECTIVE
STRATEGIC  PLANNING.

SWOT analysis can provide:
1   A framework for identifying and analysing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
2   The impetus to analyse a situation and develop suitable strategies and tactics.
3   A basis for assessing core capabilities and competences.
4   The evidence for, and cultural key to, change.

Benefits of Strategy / its  associated  plan.
Strategic planning serves a variety of purposes in organization, including to:
1. Clearly define the purpose of the organization and to establish realistic goals and objectives consistent with that mission in a defined time frame within the organization’s capacity for implementation.
2. Communicate those goals and objectives to the organization’s constituents.
3. Develop a sense of ownership of the plan.
4. Ensure the most effective use is made of the organization’s resources by focusing the resources on the key priorities.
5. Provide a base from which progress can be measured and establish a mechanism for informed change when needed.
6. Bring together of everyone’s best and most reasoned efforts have important value in building a consensus about where an organization is going.
7. Provides clearer focus of organization, producing more efficiency and effectiveness
8. Bridges staff and board of directors (in the case of corporations)
9. Builds strong teams in the board and the staff (in the case of corporations)
10. Provides the glue that keeps the board together (in the case of corporations)
11.Produces great satisfaction among planners around a common vision
12. Increases productivity from increased efficiency and effectiveness
13. Solves major problems
==========================================================
Business SWOT Analysis
What makes SWOT particularly powerful is that, with a little thought, it can help you uncover opportunities that you are well placed to take advantage of. And by understanding the weaknesses of your business, you can manage and eliminate threats that would otherwise catch you unawares.
More than this, by looking at yourself and your competitors using the SWOT framework, you can start to craft a strategy that helps you distinguish yourself from your competitors, so that you can compete successfully in your market.
How to use the tool:
To carry out a SWOT Analysis, , and write down answers to the following questions:
Strengths:
1   What advantages does your company have?
2   What do you do better than anyone else?
3   What unique or lowest-cost resources do you have access to?
4   What do people in your market see as your strengths?
Consider this from an internal perspective, and from the point of view of your customers and people in your market. And be realistic: It's far too easy to fall prey to "not invented here syndrome". Also, if you are having any difficulty with this, try writing down a list of your characteristics. Some of these will hopefully be strengths!
In looking at your strengths, think about them in relation to your competitors - for example, if all your competitors provide high quality products, then a high quality production process is not a strength in the market, it is a necessity.

Weaknesses:
1   What could you improve?
2   What should you avoid?
3   What are people in your market likely to see as weaknesses?
Again, consider this from an internal and external basis: Do other people seem to perceive weaknesses that you do not see? Are your competitors doing any better than you? It is best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible.

Opportunities:
1   Where are the good opportunities facing you?
2   What are the interesting trends you are aware of?
Useful opportunities can come from such things as:
1   Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale
2   Changes in government policy related to your field
3   Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, etc.
Local Events
A useful approach to looking at opportunities is to look at your strengths and ask yourself whether these open up any opportunities.
Alternatively, look at your weaknesses and ask yourself whether you could open up opportunities by eliminating them.

Threats:
1   What obstacles do you face?
2   What is your competition doing?
3   Are the required specifications for your job, products or services changing?
4   Is changing technology threatening your position?
5   Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems?
6   Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business?
Carrying out this analysis will often be illuminating - both in terms of pointing out what needs to be done, and in putting problems into perspective.
Strengths and weaknesses are often internal to your organization. Opportunities and threats often relate to external factors. For this reason the SWOT Analysis is sometimes called Internal-External Analysis and the SWOT Matrix is sometimes called an IE Matrix Analysis Tool.
If a clear objective has been identified, SWOT analysis can be used to help in the pursuit of that objective. In this case, SWOTs are:
Strengths: attributes of the organization that are helpful to achieving the objective.
Weaknesses: attributes of the organization that are harmful to achieving the objective.
Opportunities: external conditions that are helpful to achieving the objective.
Threats: external conditions that are harmful to achieving the objective.

Creative Use of SWOTs.--- If, on the other hand, the objective seems attainable, the SWOTs are used as inputs to the creative generation of possible strategies, by asking and answering each of the following four questions, many times:
1. How can we Use each Strength?
2. How can we Stop each Weakness?
3. How can we Exploit each Opportunity?
4. How can we Defend against each Threat?
==================================
Examples of SWOTs

Strengths and weaknesses
1   Resources: financial, intellectual, location
2   Customer service
3   Efficiency
4   Infrastructure
5   Quality
6   Staff
7   Management
8   Price
9   Delivery time
10   Cost
11   Capacity
12   Relationships with customers
13   Brand strength
14   Local language knowledge
15   Ethics
16   principles
17   patents
18   strong brand names
19   good reputation among customers
20   cost advantages from proprietary know-how
21   exclusive access to high grade natural resources
22   favorable access to distribution networks

Opportunities and threats
1   Political/Legal
2   Market Trends
3   Economic condition
4   Expectations of stakeholders
5   Technology
6   Public expectations
7   Competitors and competitive actions
8   Bad PR
9   Criticism (Editorial)
10   Global Markets

Errors to be avoided
The following errors have been observed in published accounts of SWOT analysis:
1. Conducting a SWOT analysis before defining and agreeing upon an objective (a desired end state). SWOTs should not exist in the abstract. They can exist only with reference to an objective. If the desired end state is not openly defined and agreed upon, the participants may have different end states in mind and the results will be ineffective.
2. Opportunities external to the company are often confused with strengths internal to the company. They should be kept separate.
3. SWOTs are sometimes confused with possible strategies. SWOTs are descriptions of conditions, while possible strategies define actions. This error is made especially with reference to opportunity analysis. To avoid this error, it may be useful to think of opportunities as "auspicious conditions".
4. "Make your points long enough, and include enough detail, to make it plain why a particular factor is important, and why it can be considered as a strength, weakness, opportunity or threat. Include precise evidence, and cite figures, where possible.
5. Be as specific as you can about the precise nature of a firm’s strength and weakness. Do not build content with general factors like economies of scale.
6. Avoid vague, general opportunities and threats that could be put forward for just about any organisation under any circumstances.
7. Do not mistake the outcomes of strength (such as profits and market share) for strengths in their own right.

Here is a larger illustration of SWOT analysis.
Note that this format is not presented or proposed as a 2x2 'internal/external' matrix; it's a more open demonstration of the sorts of issues and questions which can be addressed when using the SWOT format as part of business planning and decision-making.
Subject of SWOT analysis: (define the subject of the analysis here)
strengths
•   Advantages of proposition?
•   Capabilities?
•   Competitive advantages?
•   USP's (unique selling points)?
•   Resources, Assets, People?
•   Experience, knowledge, data?
•   Financial reserves, likely returns?
•   Marketing - reach, distribution, awareness?
•   Innovative aspects?
•   Location and geographical?
•   Price, value, quality?
•   Accreditations, qualifications, certifications?
•   Processes, systems, IT, communications?
•   Cultural, attitudinal, behavioural?
•   Management cover, succession?    weaknesses
•   Disadvantages of proposition?
•   Gaps in capabilities?
•   Lack of competitive strength?
•   Reputation, presence and reach?
•   Financials?
•   Own known vulnerabilities?
•   Timescales, deadlines and pressures?
•   Cashflow, start-up cash-drain?
•   Continuity, supply chain robustness?
•   Effects on core activities, distraction?
•   Reliability of data, plan predictability?
•   Morale, commitment, leadership?
•   Accreditations, etc?
•   Processes and systems, etc?
•   Management cover, succession?
opportunities
•   Market developments?
•   Competitors' vulnerabilities?
•   Industry or lifestyle trends?
•   Technology development and innovation?
•   Global influences?
•   New markets, vertical, horizontal?
•   Niche target markets?
•   Geographical, export, import?
•   Market need for new USP's?
•   Market response to tactics, e.g., surprise?
•   Major contracts, tenders?
•   Business and product development?
•   Information and research?
•   Partnerships, agencies, distribution?
•   Market volume demand trends?
•   Seasonal, weather, fashion influences?    threats
•   Political effects?
•   Legislative effects?
•   Environmental effects?
•   IT developments?
•   Competitor intentions - various?
•   Market demand?
•   New technologies, services, ideas?
•   Vital contracts and partners?
•   Obstacles faced?
•   Insurmountable weaknesses?
•   Employment market?
•   Financial and credit pressures?
•   Economy - home, abroad?
•   Seasonality, weather effects?



AN  EXAMPLE===BUSINESS
COMPANY  IS   ‘FABER & FABER’
A  PUBLISHER





SWOT  =  STRENGTHS ,  WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES , THREATS
SWOT Analysis, is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.

SWOT Analysis is a powerful technique for understanding your Strengths and Weaknesses, and for looking at the Opportunities and Threats you face.
Used in a business context, it helps you carve a sustainable niche in your market.

Business SWOT Analysis
What makes SWOT particularly powerful is that, with a little thought, it can help you uncover opportunities that you are well placed to take advantage of. And by understanding the weaknesses of your business, you can manage and eliminate threats that would otherwise catch you unawares.
More than this, by looking at yourself and your competitors using the SWOT framework, you can start to craft a strategy that helps you distinguish yourself from your competitors, so that you can compete successfully in your market.
How to use the tool:
To carry out a SWOT Analysis,  and write down answers to the following questions:
=========================================================
Strengths:
•   What advantages does your company have?
•   What do you do better than anyone else?
•   What unique or lowest-cost resources do you have access to?
•   What do people in your market see as your strengths?
Consider this from an internal perspective, and from the point of view of your customers and people in your market. And be realistic: It's far too easy to fall prey to "not invented here syndrome". Also, if you are having any difficulty with this, try writing down a list of your characteristics. Some of these will hopefully be strengths!
In looking at your strengths, think about them in relation to your competitors - for example, if all your competitors provide high quality products, then a high quality production process is not a strength in the market, it is a necessity.
FABER & FABER  Strengths:
•   F&F  are able to respond very quickly as THEY  have no red tape, no need for higher management approval, etc.
•   F&F are able to give  really good customer care, as they have plenty of time to devote to customers
•   F&F have  lead  editors  has strong reputation within the market
•   F& F  can change direction quickly if  ONE   approach isn't working
•   F&F  have CONTROLLED  overhead, so can offer good value to customers.
    *F&F  have   quality  designers/illustrators/printers/web experts  etc
  * F&F  work  with businesses  and  organizations  as  partners.
   *F& F  provide  cost  effective  service.
   * F&F  have  strong  financial  resources
   *F&F  have  a  strong  brand  name.  
====================================
Weaknesses:
•   What could you improve?
•   What should you avoid?
•   What are people in your market likely to see as weaknesses?
Again, consider this from an internal and external basis: Do other people seem to perceive weaknesses that you do not see? Are your competitors doing any better than you? It is best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible.
       FABER  &FABER Weaknesses:
•   F&F company has  LIMITED  PRESENCE  OTHER   AREAS  OF  PRINTING  LIKE  MAGAZINES ETC
•   F &F  have limited  staff  with  other  expertise.
•   F&F are vulnerable to vital staff being sick, leaving, etc.
•   F&F  have  limited  printing  capacity
•   F&F  use  only one  language [ ENGLISH ]
•   F&F  has  poor  access  to  distribution  networks.
===================================================
Opportunities:
•   Where are the good opportunities facing you?
•   What are the interesting trends you are aware of?
Useful opportunities can come from such things as:
•   Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale
•   Changes in government policy related to your field
•   Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, etc.
Local Events
A useful approach to looking at opportunities is to look at your strengths and ask yourself whether these open up any opportunities.
Alternatively, look at your weaknesses and ask yourself whether you could open up opportunities by eliminating them.
FABER &  FABER    Opportunities:
•   F&F   business sector is expanding, with many future opportunities for success
•    Local  councils'  monthly  newspapers  to encourage local businesses with work where possible
•    Competitors may be slow to adopt new technologies
•   European  union  encourage  multi  languages  like  french/german/russian/spanish/italian etc
•   CHANGING  MARKET  TRENDS  IN  READERSHIP
•   ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS   FAVOUR  BUSINESS  EXPENSION
•   PUBLIC   EXPECTATIONS  FOR  MORE  PUBLICATIONS
=======================================================
Threats:
•   What obstacles do you face?
•   What is your competition doing?
•   Are the required specifications for your job, products or services changing?
•   Is changing technology threatening your position?
•   Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems?
•   Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business?
Carrying out this analysis will often be illuminating - both in terms of pointing out what needs to be done, and in putting problems into perspective.
FABER  &  FABER Threats:
•   Will developments in technology change this market beyond   F&F   ability to adapt?
•   A small change in focus of a large competitor might wipe out any market position  F&F achieve.
•   Globalization  of   the   printing  market
•   Competitors  and  competitive  actions.
=================================================
=========================================================
Strengths and weaknesses are often internal to your organization.
Opportunities and threats often relate to external factors.
Creative Use of SWOTs.--- If, on the other hand, the objective seems attainable, the SWOTs are used as inputs to the creative generation of possible strategies, by asking and answering each of the following four questions, many times:
1. How can we Use each Strength?
2. How can we Stop each Weakness?
3. How can we Exploit each Opportunity?
4. How can we Defend against each Threat?
==================================
FABER &FABER   may therefore decide
-to specialize in rapid response  CUSTOMER  REQUESTS.
-good value services to local COUNCIL  BUSINESSES .
- keep up-to-date with changes in technology where possible.
-COST  EFFECTIVE  SERVICE.
-DEVELOP  PARTNERSHIP  WITH  BUSINESSES.
-EXPLOIT/DRIVE  THE  BRAND  NAME.
-USE  OF  OTHER  EUROPEAN  LANGUAGES.
==========================================
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Human Resources

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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