You are here:

Human Resources/Training and Development


How to organise an e enabled training program for marketing executive.Discuss methodology and related issues?What are challenges in implementing EPSS?What is the impact of asynchronous training on T & D functions?How have these benefited the trainer learner and organisation?
Design a training program for middle level managers in a manufacturing company relating to quality management. Discuss the technologies that you will adopt as well as the modes of deleivery.

List out the necessary hardware and software requirement to implement e learning in an organization. Indicate capacities wherever possible.


I  will send  the balance  atonce..

How to organise an e enabled training program for marketing executive.

Discuss methodology and related issues?


-define  your product--what is your product
-what is it  made of
-what is  cost  of  this  product
-is it imported
-is it locally  made
-is there a  competitive product
-what is the  price differential
-how many competitive brands are there

when you  answer  these  questions, it will help to define
your  product. How  do  you   stand  with  your  new  volume.
-who are  your  potential  users
[large  builders/ medium builders/ small  builders / renovators]
-how many  are  there  in  your  country
[large  builders/ medium builders/ small  builders / renovators]
-how  many new  homes/  flats  are  built  during  the  next  12  months.
-how  many  homes/  flats  will  be  renovated.
-how much / how often /  do  they  buy
-is  there  any  changing  trends
-is  the  demand  increasing

when you  answer  these  questions/ more, it  will help
define  your  potential market  size
-current  production  volume +  new  capacity.
meet   the  market  demand.
-how is  the  economy  affecting your   market
-who are  the  potential  competitors
-what  are  the  market share of  the  competitors
-what is  the  degree of  competition
-what is  the  basis  of  competition -is it  price/ brand etc
-what  government  regulations  affect this  market

when  you  answer  these  questions / more , it  will  help
to  understand  the  impact  of  environment  on  your
-current  production  volume +  new  capacity.
where  will  you   stand  with respect  to  the  competion
and  the  market  growth.
-what  brand  name  do  you  want
-your  product market  objectives
-how you  plan  to  position  your  product
-your product  marketing  strategy  to  achieve success

when  you  answer  these  questions / more , it  will  help
to  understand  the  need  for  product  market strategy
-current  production  volume +  new  capacity.
-what  are  your  sales  objectives for the  NEXT 12 months
-what  will be  your  dollar  revenue
-what  will be  your  total  cost
-what  will your  gross  profit  estimates
-what geographical  areas   do you wish  to  cover

when  you  answer  these  questions / more , it  will  help
to  understand  the  sales  target / target  market.
-current  production  volume +  new  capacity.
-how  do  want to  distribute the  products
-is  it  through   YOUR  CURRENT  DEALER  NETWORK
-is  it  through  additional  dealers.
-when  will  they be  appointed.
-what  will be  your  trade  discounts

when  you  answer  these  questions / more , it  will  help
to  understand  the  distribution  guidelines  required.
-current  production  volume +  new  capacity.
how will  the  additional  volume  spread.

The  promotions  depends on  your  
-market  size
-market  spread
-market segment
-product  positioning
-sales  target
-competitive  situation

Based  on the  above  assessment,  we  allocate  resources


-sales  aids

-retail  ads
-point  of  sale  materials

-direct  mailings
-online  marketing




-new dealer  appointment [ time/ schedule]

-annual  sales  estimates for the  new   dealers
-monthly  stockholding  for  the   new  dealers  in  their  dealership.

-annual  sales  estimates for the  current  dealers
-monthly  stockholding  for  the   current  dealers  in  their  dealership.

-regular  trade  discount
-special  rebate bonus  for  lifting  more  stock --say  20%  over  last  year.

We organize a dealers and architect function  (Dinner program)
 Provide tile stands to the dealers
 Provide Shop signs
 Leaflets
 Giveaways (Pen)
 Participate in industrial event

-train  your   sales  representatives.
-regular  sales   commission.
-plus  special  bonus  if  they   achieve  the  targets  [ 20%  over  the  last  year]

-organize   the  best  sales  representative  competition.

-organize   the  outstanding  dealer  competition  by  regions  in your  country.
-organize   the  best  dealer  competition  nationally.


-direct  marketing  promotions  to  the  ARCHITECTS.

-direct  marketing  promotions  to  the  BUILDERS/  CONTRACTORS
 with   special  price  based  on  volume.

-sales  drive  by  the  sales  reps.  on  major  builders/contractors/renovators.

-for small  builders /  renovators   develop   a  loyalty program  for  12 months
if  they  buy  from  the  same  dealer  all  their  requirements.

-advertise  in  the  local  papers/ magazines  with  a  discount  voucher  offer
with  which  individual  flat  owners/  home  owners  can  buy  your  products
from the  local  dealers,  using  the  voucher.

-load   your   website  with  a  discount  voucher  offer
with  which  individual  flat  owners/  home  owners  can  buy  your  products
 from the  local  dealers, by  downloading /  using  the  voucher.

-If your  dealers   have  their   delivery   vehicles, you  should  help
to paint  their  vehicles  with   your  products/  logos.



-market  needs
-market trends
-market  potential and  growth
-market characteristics
-market  segments


-keys to success
-critical  issues

-marketing  objectives
-financial  objectives
-target  marketing
-marketing strategy

-marketing  research


-sales forecast
-expense  forecast
-contribution  margin.

-time  schedule


-time  schedule
-action  plan.


•   Design of the Interface

Design of content design   of the learning materials
•   Design: Rule 1
–   Create a clear structure / sequence of Web pages.
–   For example sections such as introduction, instructions, resources /syllabus, news, schedule of course, assignment, communication with trainer, examples
Interface Design
•   The design should encourage the user to explore while intuitively leading them safely through the learning materials in the appropriate order to effectively teach them what they need to know.
•   The design must support the learning materials.
•   Layout of the presentation should lead the user to focus on the learning materials.
Learning Materials Content Design
•   Plan and conduct source material recording sessions.
•   the audio and video have to be recorded onto cassette or videotape and then digitized and encoded for use on the web.
•   The higher the quality of the recording used as source material, the smaller and faster the streaming video file will be.
The objective here is to plan the multimedia source materials appropriately taking into consideration the time, resources, and funding required to realistically achieve your design goals.
•   Design: Rule 2, 3
•   Maintain a clear focus. Include only those links that truly enhance the lesson
•   Keep things simple. An informative Web page requires little more than the simplest HTML coding
•   Simplicity is usually the best guarantee of reliability.
•   Rule 4, 5, 6
•   Consider the level of computer literacy of the intended participants
•   Specify hardware and software requirements clearly
•   Test your modules from different type of computers and different software (e.g. browsers)
•   Rule 7
•   Place course objectives first and foremost
•    If we do not focus on the content, the strategies, and the methodology the effectiveness of the program will be lost, regardless of the medium
•   Content must be analyzed first (e.g.: flowcharts should be created to outline the sequence of the course and storyboards must be developed that detail the content, design, and interactions for each screen)
•   Rule 8
•   Conduct a thorough media analysis.
The media selection process should include the feasibility of delivering instruction via CD-ROM, manuals etc.
•   Factors which determine this choice:
–   Type of information (static or dynamic)
–   Target group (computer literacy of the intended participants)
–   Need for interactivity
–   Location
•   Rule 9
•   Make the interactions meaningful.
With current development tools, there is no limit to the level of interactivity that can be included
•   Rule 10
•   Consider visual guidelines
When multimedia instruction is delivered on CD-ROM or other mass storage devices, the amount and size of graphics is not generally an issue
•   However, on the Internet, each picture must be transferred separately from the remote computer
•   Rule 11
•   Differentiate among the hyperlinks.
Is it important for the students to know “where they are in cyberspace”
•   Use descriptive words for links
•   Include fixed links to provide a structure
•   Provide information for links that involve large file transfers or plug-ins
•   Rule 12
•   Limit the length of web pages
Most Web designers agree that the initial page of a Web site should not exceed one page
•   The disadvantage of short pages is that if users want a printout, they must print several documents. Possible solution: Provide a link to a separate file (with the entire text) that can be printed or saved as one document
•   Rule 13
•   Minimise the use of audio, video, and plug-ins
•   Non-streaming media files take a long time to download
•   Streaming technologies (such as RealAudio and Shockwave Audio) offer the advantage that the files will play as they transfer
•   Rule 14
•   Encourage collaboration
A major advantage of WBT is that it is relatively easy to incorporate (and encourage) communication between the instructor and the students
•   This communication can be asynchronous (email, discussion groups, etc.) or synchronous (chat, videoconferencing, etc.)
•   Instructional Systems Design Process (ISD)[3]
•   Needs assessment
•   User analysis
•   Interface design
•   Content development
•   Media creation
•   Coding (html, java)
•   Maintenance
•   Administration
•   Updates
•   Top Ten Mistakes in Web-Design[1]
•   Ten Mistakes (Contd.)
•   Alternatives to Pure WBT
•   For many training needs, the best solution may not be pure WBT, pure disk-based CBT, or pure classroom training, but an intelligent hybrid mingling the best features of each.
•   Different combinations are:
1.   Hybrid of WBT and classroom training
2.   Hybrid of WBT and disk-based training
Hybrid of WBT and classroom training
1. Use WBT for the main presentation
•   Use WBT for preparation & Reinforcement

Hybrid of WBT and disk-based training
•   Use CD-ROM for heavy media
•   Add dynamic content to a CBT course
•   Add collaboration to a CBT course
•   Make the course run form CD-ROM
•   Download the course to local disk.
•   Avoid the dangers of a hybrid approach
•   Material on CD-ROM can become out of date.
•   CD-ROMs are complex to produce and ship.
•   What drive is the CD in?
•   Hybrids require unique technical solutions.
Compaq introduces CDs as web-based training alternative
•   Compaq Computer has introduced a replication of its web-based training (WBT) on CDs targeted at students who have slow links or perhaps no Internet access from home. This is in addition to the on-line WBT, training videos and instructor led workshops.


2.What are challenges In  implementing EPSS?

As a type of Computer-Based Technologies, EPSSs are a way to deliver instruction to personnel in highly computerized work environments with online references, automated decision support, and just-in-time training that they can access on-demand to meet task-related information requirements , EPSS is an electronic system that provides integrated, on-demand access to information, advice, learning experiences, and tools to enable a high level of job performance with a minimum of support from other people. The main characteristics of the EPSS are the ability to quickly access well-structured pieces of information, advise, models, and tutorial assistance at the moment of need as determined by the users in the context of the present performance problem .

EPSS provides electronic support to learners in achieving a performance objective; a feature in which makes it universally and consistently available on demand any time, any place, regardless of situation, without unnecessary intermediaries involved in the process. The system can include a range of support mechanisms and software tools, including advisory systems to help in structuring tasks and decision- making, and other interactive capabilities with the alternative support mechanism systems. An EPSS is not a software system that contains a specific set of features and functions. Rather, it is a matter of modifying and developing software to measurability improves human performance. These improvements can be achieved with a variety of software development and enhancement strategies. EPSS is most effective when supporting routine standardized tasks that can be accurately documented and that require standardized actions. Some advantages of EPSS are listed  as follow:

1)   Standardizing training and performance throughout the organization. When the work force is using the same tools, references, and training materials, consistency is maximized.
2)   Reducing the amount of time spent on off-line training, because workers learn on the job.
3)   Updating information on an immediate and consistent basis.
4)   Reducing errors, because all workers have immediate and constant access to expert support.

EPSS has the following educational impacts: (a) increased participant awareness and openness, (b) changes in professional and paraprofessional practices, (c) increase integration, (d) increased coordination, communication and collaboration, (e) changes due to parent participant, (f) consistent user satisfaction and proficiency. Discussions on the EPSS environments are focusing on the nature of the training/learning systems and their educational implications in practice ;

EPSS related features and showing how such features tailored the general framework of EPSS environment in practical examples.

Table: 1
General Domains of EPSS and their Features in Practice

General Domains   Features   Examples

Environment   Electronic artificial software system;
Virtual training for performance support;
On/in the job tool; CBT, CBI, Distance Learning Technologies; Information in the form of databases; Support achieving a performance objective   Some software programs and their application
systems or servers (Oracle 9.i Collaboration Suite, Microsoft SharePoint Portal, Lotus Notes 6, Mac OS X and its applications, Cleaver Path and so on); Text, visual, audio, and knowledge databases; Expert systems help problem solving and decision making;
Virtual learning/training classrooms.

Any individual or group of people   Students, learners, audiences, workers, employees, any user need performance support


Advise system, expert systems, directions and help opportunities   Example case studies including on line help and support, e-mail, chat, web, phone and faxes communications or collaborations; Spreadsheet applications, help systems give demonstrations;
Assessment systems evaluate skills, and feedback systems

Technology   Computer hardware, software and, mindware; Networking, www, and database systems    Software programs, simulations, multimedia application; Electronic information and management tools, internet and www; An interface that facilitate the use of applications that require a variety of software

Work Practice   Standardized specific tasks and actions; Performance problems and activities for specific subjects, topic, and, jobs; Tracking performance and recording data   Broadcast, reference and discussion applications; Conflict resolutions and problem solving; Satisfy users; Customers’ or learners’ needs; Enriched learning and training, performance appraisal

Environment, technology, people, guidance, and work practice are the five general interactive domains of the EPSS. Each of the five domains combines a number of sub-terms mostly emphasized as the features of these kinds of environments that are richly explained in the previous studies.
However the above Table 1 presents the general practical domains and their features, it is not enough to explain all the EPSS processes from the educational and training point of view. There is a need for a visual model to see at a glance the nature of the main process and its sub terms. Also, it would be helpful to make operational definitions of the terms for better explanations and analysis within the system. In this view, Table 1 could be helpful to shape the construction of a conceptual framework within this context. It is also helpful to look at the foundations and the sources of EPSS and their possible practical examples for learning. Sophistication in EPSS technology and a thorough knowledge of human performance may lead to a deeper understanding of the technology-user interface and eventually to the development of a framework capable of assessing the processes, not the products, of on/in the job training and learning activities. Meanwhile, we do not have a conceptual basis for understanding how and why they occur

The role of frameworks in the EPSS is to provide conceptual and communication tools that can be used to visualize, direct, and manage processes for generating episodes of guided training and learning. It is a fact that there is no study focused on the conceptual framework of the EPSS within a software application example. There is a need to analyze this type of frameworks for well understanding, satisfied explanations, qualified developments, and future productions of the system. From these reasons, constructed a conceptual framework is an important step for the continuance and the future of the EPSS. Thus, it is time to experts to explore some promising conceptual approaches that might help make sense of the effects of collaboration, social context, work practice, guidance, and performance appraisal in electronic training and learning.


The conceptual frameworks are based on assumptions about tasks and the order of tasks. Always questions these assumptions. Like all models, the frameworks are not reality, rather they are a way to simplify and make reality visible. They are adaptations of the generic studies. This is because a framework must be modified to fit specific situations or locations.

Given the evolving and the environment, there are many ways in which the process could be engaged in the EPSS. In this perspective the following conceptual framework can serve a number of purposes in practice:

1)   It visualizes the nature of the EPSS and its training/educational environment, thus allowing those involved to reach consensus on that process.
2)   It provides a tool for managing the process and project.
3)   It allows the users to test concepts by integrating them within a practical model that can be applied.
4)   It sets tasks for the EPSS designers that can be used as criteria for good design.
5)   It can help the instructional designer make decisions about the nature and scope of instruction.
6)   It can be tailored to meet individual needs by providing alternate paths through the course of study and by building in remedial instruction for those who need it.

In this view, the Figure 1 visualizes a basic conceptual framework showing the specific features of general domains of EPSS for training and educational implications in general.

Performance Empowering
         (Work Practice)

Online Collaboration Cost - Effectiveness
     (Environment)          (Technology)

Motivation Service Management
         (People)          (Guidance)

Figure1. A Conceptual Framework of EPSS

Similar to general domains (environment, people, guidance, technology and work practice), the conceptual framework of the EPSS is also classified and explained under the five interrelated and interdependent domains which are (1) online collaboration, (2) motivation, (3) service management, (4) cost-effectiveness, and, (5) performance empowering. Each interrelated conceptual domain represents a specific practical feature in the interactive application domain. In this view the following Table 2 showing the relationships among the general features (domains) of EPSS, the conceptual framework domains and their features within the Lotus Notes 6 (LN6) examples.
There is a close relationship between each general domain and its correspondence to conceptual domain as seen on Table 2.

Table: 2
The Structure of Conceptual Framework

The Roots:
General Domains   Conceptual Domains   The Features in LN6

(EPSS Training/learning option)   Online Collaboration   Build a virtual learning community, provide collaboration, cooperation, and effective communication by the way of collaboration mechanisms such as e-mail, mail list, newsgroup, forum, chat, response pad, whiteboard, screen sharing, audio/video conferencing. Provide online databases for performance support and achieving objectives. Have expert systems help just in time problem solving and decision making on/in the job (school) setting.

(Learners/users)   Motivation   Provide self-regulation, learner control, communicate enthusiasm, effective virtual teams, free of bias and stereotyping, and treated equality by the way of motivated forces and positive motivators such as pride among coworkers (users), collecting credentials, fun experience, joy of learning, no need to travel, independence and flexibility, token gifts etc.

(Help, directions & advise system)   Service Management   Set self- management, decision making, real world examples and case studies, and self-reliant by the way of technical tools advise or expert systems and factors such as search engines, browsers, navigation, orientation, hypertext links, speed- bandwidth, visual layouts, user controls, feedback, help guide, options, storing data, privacy, security, and safety,

(LN6 and its learning space systems)   Cost-Effective   Provide easy to use and learn, overcome technical hurdles, time consuming, reduce training costs such as travel, facilities, administration, salary, per-class costs, per-learner cost, total cost, and lost time.
Work Practice

(Performance support& appraisal, specific task training & learning)    Performance Empowering   Create performance appraisal, customer/user satisfaction, increase team work, conflict resolution and need satisfaction, provide enriched learning and training by the way of specific activities such as webcasts, presentation sequences, drill-and-practice, guided research/analysis scavenger hunts, team design, brainstorming, role-playing scenarios, virtual laboratories, learning games, group critiques, hands-on activities.

The Table: 2 showing the roots of the conceptual domains within the conceptual framework and their features within the Lotus Notes 6 example for implementing EPSS. As it mentioned before each of the five interactive domains of the conceptual framework combines a number of features. The relationship among the domains is not linear, but synergistic. Each domain contributes to the other domains in practice and to shapes to the other in theory. This descriptive conceptual framework explains a set of descriptions as to which outcomes occur under given conceptual conditions for a given EPSS model for training and educational activities within the LN6 example. In this view, LN6 is used as an example software application tool to illustrate the power of this conceptual framework and its interactive domains. The presentation of a specific case; including the features, the task problems and the solutions;  In this view, online collaboration, motivation, service management, cost-effectiveness and performance empowering domains of the framework are explained within the literature studies and LN6 software example knowledge as follow.


Online collaboration is a new world sparking with potential for effective learning experiences. In the EPSS, learner or users can use e-mail, discussion groups, chat, virtual response pads, and conferencing to exchange messages as a part of formal learning activities. Online collaboration can energize learners, promote deeper learning, and make learners more self-reliant. In this view, collaborative learning is learning based on interaction with others, learners or instructors. The instructor guides the learners through interactive online learning, such as shared whiteboards, shared application software, electronic hand-raising, chat functionality and audio/video over the network. These advances in technology allow us to reach higher levels of learning than was possible with basic Computer-Based Training (CBT).

Likewise, groupware tools of the EPSS and the LN6 provide collaboration, communication, coordination, and cooperation for education and training in the community (or school); and their collaborative environment improve satisfaction and proficiency during the teaching among the users (or learners) . In this view, LN6 to deliver three modes of electronic learning in EPSS environments. They are:

1.   Self-directed learning: where learners can register and access learning content in a traditional CBT/ CBI environment.
2.   Collaborative asynchronous learning: where learners and instructors can interact and participate in class activities, at their own schedules and convenience.
3.   Collaborative, live learning: where a real time virtual classroom environment allows instructors to share content with learners quickly and easily.

LN6 has a number of general features for educational purposes such as text handing, reports, news, information integration, standard database interface, simultaneous user access to flexible databases, multi site access to identical data, and integrated electronic mail . Applications of LN6 include tracking application, broadcast applications, reference applications, and discussion applications . Several people (students) in the separate locations (i.e., computer labs) can work on a single document by the way of LN6 applications. that it allows for collection of information in a central location, making it accessible to a group of users. As a collaborated learning environment, users have immediate access to documents through the full-text searching capability . Also, online collaboration via telnet or electronic communication is an effective way to improve the educational or training environments

EPSS have different kinds of databases such as text, visual, and audio. Text databases have online reference, contains content in various structural forms such as procedures, policy and product information, concepts, glossaries, and stored images of text. Visual databases have libraries of pictures, schematics, diagrams, graphics, maps, and full-motion video. Audio databases have libraries of sounds, voice sequences, music. All these databases will be technically stored and organized using hypertext tools, online documentation software, database management systems, and so on. In this view, LN6’ online collaborative environment provides all kinds of databases (text, audio or visual) to the user (students) for educational and training activities.

On the other hand, environments for all learners need to be emotionally secure and physically safe.
(1) secure relationships enhance collaborative online learning, and training
(2) accurate, understandable information enhances the learning environment, and
(3) autonomy and decision making abilities via online performance support increased learning. During the LN6 applications, the mature personal relationships and accurate, understandable online information can also enhance the feeling of safety in this kinds of learning and training environments (Computer Security, 1996). Within this type of secure learning environment, there is an opportunity to learn from each other with LN discussion applications . With online collaboration, learners “feel more empowered”. They are daring and confrontational regarding the expression of ideas .   


Motivation is often overlooked and underrated as an important learning factor. There are a number of strategies, such as (1) make the presentations meaningful, (2) use positive reinforcement, (3) provide feedback, (4) pace of learning, (5) provide practice and so on, trainers (users or students) can use to create a productive motivating environment. Human productivity is a function of both one’s ability and one’s motivation to perform . In the Performance Factors Model, Keller- three interrelated factors that influence human performance: motivation, capability, and opportunity. Opportunity is represented by role match, resources, guidance, and training (i.e., EPSS provides guidance and training with its unlimited online resources). Capability is represented by abilities, knowledge, and skills (i.e., as a solution of a problem draw a graphic on the screen and share it with a classmate by the mail then discuss the possible future collaborations for productivity). Motivation is represented by personal characteristics (such as internal curiosity, values, and expectancy for success) and environment influences (such as job complexity, leadership style, and role definition).

As an example of EPSS, in the LN6 learning environments users gain satisfaction through three sources in which provide pleasant, enjoyable, and successful experiences. In this way, natural consequences are intrinsically satisfying to the learner. They are achieved through opportunities to solve real world problems presented as case studies or simulations in the collaborative LN programs. In this view, LN6 can also serve to the users (i.e., students) to take any kinds of creative online exam providing discussions, information exchange, or cooperation in the work (school) setting. In this way, users can share their information or answers or they can use example case studies in order to design their possible solutions to the problems in an effective and efficient way. Also, extrinsic motivators such as praise or reward also provide positive consequences. From Keller's point of view, it can be said that the EPSS environments arouse users' attention level and sustain it effectively. Analogies in the LN6 program also make it relevance to the learners, and increase program instrumentality. Learners feel confidence because they satisfy their expectancies; and intrinsic or extrinsic motivations increase their satisfaction.
Learning control also can assist learners in development of self-regulation by providing the opportunity to discover and refine strategies in the EPSS environment.

special considerations for learner control strategies that allow learners to select contextual properties of lessons according to individual learning styles, preferences, and interests. From the learner control point of view,  pointed out the importance of self-efficacy and self-regulation in the LN environment. Self- regulation and learner control options increase users motivation in these kinds of EPSS learning environments. Learner autonomy is essentially a matter of the learner's psychological relation to the process and content of learning in LN6 . It combines a wide variety of behaviors as a capacity for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action .
The potential utility of an EPSS within LN6 situation will depend upon the characteristics of both user population and the learning tasks that are to be performed within the learning or training applications. The learners or users need to achieve high levels of proficiency very rapidly. Similarly in the context of task characteristics, situations  in which the use of an EPSS can be advantageous include: infrequently performed tasks; tasks involving large amount of information; tasks involving multiple steps; applications or procedures that involve extensive functionality, and tasks requiring diverse knowledge.


EPSS service management require observing user (learner) activities and informing users about the appropriate of their actions within software (e.g., error messages or conditions and related instructions) or track user activity to determine whether and when assistance or information is needed. These monitoring systems can be rule-based or simple tracking mechanisms that observe actions and prompt users based on context, activity, time factors, and so on. On the other hand, successful instructional management strategies (i.e., the combination of learner control, self regulation, and motivation) are necessary for the effective use and design of instruction, the effective utilization and preparation of instruction in a service provide learners with great benefits in managing online instruction. Such management strategies is also important to develop self-management and learner control skills in a training or learning environment like as LN6.

As an important issue of service management, decision- making is one of the main points for improving effective communication and the information learning process in these kinds of EPSS organizations or services.

Decision -making is the making of reasoned choices from among several alternatives in a service. Reasoned choices are based on judgments which are consistent with the decision-maker’s values. In their model, they distinguish three stages: (1) identifying decision occasions and alternatives; (2) examining and evaluating decision alternatives, and (3) deciding and reflecting on the decision. While the decision-making process incorporates aspects of the scientific method, it focuses on the choices made by people involved in the learning or training process.

Educators and instructional developers need to create participatory activities which teach learners how to act upon their decisions in an organization. He also recommended role- playing, simulation, games and case studies as successful techniques of teaching decision-making. In this view, research studies using LN emphasizes the role of the decision making in education and training. LN environment provide examples and creative alternatives solution models to the problems for reflecting on the decisions of its users.    
LN6 is also the leading provider of any kinds of Information Technology Service Management solutions - including systems, software, consulting and training. LN6 comprehensive education solutions can help user or learners develop the knowledge and skills necessary to implement an integrated IT management solution. In this view, it is possible to combine world-class knowledge of network, system and application management, a broad portfolio of training and education life cycle methodology to deliver the right solution for any learning needs. Service management options of the LN (or EPSS) database environments give the managers an important keystone role to a successful change process . In these environments, managers broaden their roles to include the facilitation of team-building activities, and the discovery of new ways of supervising and measuring learners' performance .
Cognitive changes emerge out of the dynamics of teamwork that represent "new learning." the result of the process of collaboration and sharing in the interdisciplinary team.


Cost-effectiveness features of EPSS could be explained from different point of views such as systems, organizations, design and technology, learning and users. EPSS as a computer based systems contains functions for collaboration, coordination, and communication of group in an organization . From the systems perspective, organizational understanding is required to accomplish successful changes in required skills, knowledge, attitudes, abilities, and associated performance which will work in an organizational context of different strategy, structure, power, networks, and systems of a specific environment.
For organizations, EPSS requires a sophisticated combination of hardware components, information databases, and compatible computer technology, all of which is expensive. A large number of business and industry training departments have found these networks to be cost effective when a significant number of users are required to be trained. Several companies have private networks installed that report cost savings even when the sizable initial investment can be accommodated . The most time-and labor-intensive part of working with LN or EPSS database is the design process and technological development. Once a database is developed and added to the network server, it is easy for additional users to add the icon to their desktops. Also, it is worth nothing that access to sensitive information (e.g., learner evaluations, strategic planning documents) can be restricted to specific users. From these perspectives, designing program for training is expected to achieve effective and efficient change in human performance. New technological developments and design alternatives both permit and require a change in performance and achievement during the electronic learning. Fast, inexpensive, large memory and networked hardware is available. It permits new ways of software and sophisticated user interfaces.

In the Lotus systems, design issues are structuring development and integration. Data communication networks, mass storage devices, and new software development technologies are giving birth to new mind-sets. With the mass customization and intelligent workstations, the ability to tailor products and services to individual users' expectations and needs in a time frame is virtually immediate within EPSS . From this point of view, LN6 environments combine these training issues for interactive electronic learning, performance support; and performance empowerment.   

New learning and information access are developing for decision support models and empowering of human performance in the training programs via new design alternatives. They are important in that they effectively represent a new type of system interface that requires less knowledge and skill on the part of the users in order to perform complex, multi-variable tasks. For example, research on organizations that have proven successful training programs list management’s active support as a key element for the success of any program . Active support requires modeling, holding employees accountable for training and evaluating them, attending and participating in training programs, and reinforcing new behaviors on the school. Lotus Notes provides such active support to its users (students). It also is focuses on learning through guided experience to enhance meta-cognitive skills for learning processing--instructional strategies and methods (such as, coaching, reflection, scaffolding and modeling) for cognitive apprenticeship during problem solving and effective decision making in general. These strategies are used in the LN program by the designers for improving cost effective EPSS learning environments . From the above point of view, it can be said that designing the strategies and methods also provide effective training in the LN6 program environments. They permit automated, interactive design and representation of complex data, complex and interrelated processes, and the link to entities (functions, users, departments, etc.) via a set of structural design representation and sophisticated cost effective programs .

LN6, as a tool of EPSS applications, is effective and efficient for reducing time and increasing the level of training quality. The ability to combine support and education with the actual task will allow new levels of productivity in learners of varying levels of skill . From these perspectives, LN collaborative environments require linkages among and between functional counter pacts such as training, documentation, expert system developers, and subject matter experts within an organization . With its cost- effective feature, LN6 environments can offer instructional technology, organizational development, and performance appraisal for behavioral change, effective instruction, learning, and performance empowering in education.


Performance empowering is the process of identifying, measuring and developing human performance or success in the organization .For this reason, considerable attention is given to understanding and selecting alternative development tools for performance appraisal. They are more effective and economical than the traditional training methods. On-the-job Training, off-the- job Training, and Computer-Based Training are among the examples methods. Their approach focuses on four points of learning environments: (1) the applications environments or what you are building, (2) the development environment or technological considerations, (3) the user environment or the user interface, and (4) the run-time environment or the delivery environment. Improving Human Performance is the core of the performance appraisal and empowerment.
-empowered means learning how to influence and interact with the challenges of one’s life in such a way as to maximize performance. From this perspective, training has become a tool of organizational development rather than the reverse. Organizational development is a long -range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal process, particularly through a more effective and collaborative management of organization culture.
Educators concerned about the empowerment of learners have seen that a restructuring of schools may be necessary if empowerment of learners is to be realized . Learner should be seen as producers of knowledge and teachers as managers of learning experiences . Learners should be at the heart of restructured educational processes. These processes help all learners learn how to learn and should empower learners now and for the rest of their lives . However, how the learners become empowered? How do they learn how to respond to the challenges of their lives in a manner to maximize performance? In order for them to become empowered, educators have to intervene. Educators should understand the development process of learners and know how to be established an EPSS learning environment that will maximize a learner’s capabilities-- takes the view that human performance is influenced by three major factors: motivation, capability, and opportunity. More specifically in educational settings, and   that learner control, self-regulated learning, and continuing motivation will be required to ensure that instruction is effective and that learners are successful. With their technical, informational and motivational opportunities, LN6 electronic information environments can provide performance empowerment and on-line collaborative support in education and training.
Performance empowerment would necessarily involve a consideration of learner control in EPSS environment. Learner con trol is widely believed to be highly desirable feature of any kinds of interactive learning environments because it allows learning to be highly individualized to each learner’s needs . Likewise, Lotus Notes lets learners make decisions with respect to their learning. Each learner’s control of instruction is inherently appealing to learners, since it is assumed that learners will be more motivated if they are allowed some control over their own learning in the Notes environment as a result it provides empowerment. It also provides leveraging of human resources, because it is (1) a communication tool, (2) handling large amount of data, (3) increasing teamwork, (4) focus on user or customer needs, (5) resolving conflicts between customer requirements, and (6) providing customer satisfaction . From these perspective, Lotus Notes electronic environment provides performance empowering human group performance by its online collaborated feature in the EPSS context.
User Perspective Issues and Advice
Below are four implementation issues and practical advice for resolving them. I found these to be significant during my extensive research of the matter and my practical work experience with performance solutions implementation projects.
1. What’s in it for me?
It all starts with the questions of who initiated the project and who stands to gain the most from it. The answer in both cases most likely will be the corporation that chose to apply a performance support solution targeting its competency challenges. Managers or corporate staff sees gaps, proficiency issues, and poor performance. The end user, on the other hand, is not always aware of the gaps in his performance, especially experienced users who have, from their perspective, mustered their daily tasks and are dealing, on their own, with changes in the work environment.
Practical advice: Create a clear statement of user benefits from working with the performance solution. It is recommended to create a positive attitude toward EPSS before introducing the actual solution. Research shows that users will mostly preserve their attitude (negative or positive) toward the EPSS following the actual experience with it (Gal & Nachmias, 2012).
Produce and communicate a clear linkage between users’ motivation drivers and the benefits of applying the performance support solution. For example: If users’ compensation depends on goal achievements, communicate the direct positive effect of the performance support solution on reaching the specified goals.
2. I don’t need help, I am a professional!
One of the more common mistakes I have encountered is labeling the performance solution as “help.” By doing so, you are directing the solution mostly at novice employees while presenting a dissonance for more experienced workers who regard themselves as professionals. Offering them help is actually saying, “You’re not as professional as you think.” As the solution discussed here is an embedded one, this might result in immediate conflict and resistance by experienced users.
Practical advice:
•   Instead of labeling the solution “help,” use alternatives such as “performance support” or “knowledge on demand” or any other title that describes the project’s main benefit without threatening users’ self-esteem.
•   Consider relevancy of performance interventions according to users’ experience levels. Most platforms can interface with the Active Directory, enabling you to admit interventions according to hierarchy and other HR attributes (dependent on the interface).
•   If target audience selection cannot be performed automatically, present an opening statement in designated interventions, allowing employees to disregard specific interventions. When applying this solution, make sure designated users are aware of the performance benefits, otherwise they might disregard it, as well. Use the platform tracking and reports options to validate strategy effectiveness.
3. When I need information, I know where to get it.
One of the most fundamental challenges in performance support implementation is “Competing Knowledge Resources.” These resources are any information sources available to the user in real time. They could be anything from peers in the next cubicle to a manager or knowledge depositories such as e-learning or knowledge portals. Successful implementation of the performance support solution means the user chooses it over other, more common sources whenever information is needed in real-time.
Practical advice: When planning an implementation process, first identify the alternatives for receiving performance support information. Depending on their validity and frequencies of use, consider the following strategies:
•   Formal resources (managers, knowledge depositories, help desk). Strive to uphold regulations supporting the solution’s use. Managers and help desk representatives should refer users to the performance support solution when relevant. Knowledge items in other systems should contain visible directions for the performance support solution
•   Informal resources (peers). The overall implementation effort will affect the peer-to-peer interaction to some extent. Make sure the performance solution “sticks out” by conducting a campaign. Offer prizes to consistent users and communicate success stories of end-users. Once the solution becomes a topic of “hallway conversations,” it will find its way into the peer-to-peer information request interactions, as well.
4. This can only slow me down!
Performance is mostly measured by two parameters: time on task and quality of performance. When targeting quality improvement by a performance support solution, the interventions might appear as time consuming, especially for experienced employees (who might contribute to the quality challenge just as much as novice ones). Users tend to be more aware of time on task variables and usually do not experience poor quality consequences in real time. Thus, a quality-assuring performance intervention might be regarded as a disturbance in real time and will meet some resistance by users.
Practical advice: Two strategies can be applied here. One focuses on internal communication of the solution and the other on its design.
•   Communicate the specified performance support procedure objectives and benefits to the user. Identify and communicate quality objectives for end-users and their measurement means. Link between objectives, achievements, and the use of the performance support solution. If possible, it might be helpful to reduce time on task goals of the specified procedures in the initiation days of the performance support solution.
•   When designing the solution, keep in mind it must support performance in real time. Choose the information presented on screen carefully. Only vital information referring to the specific performance should be included. Refrain from explaining issues or trying to teach principles while supporting performance. Research shows that learning is achieved while interfacing with the supporting information in real time. There is no need to design the intervention as a learning opportunity. This will happen over time and practice .


Human Resources

All Answers

Answers by Expert:

Ask Experts


Leo Lingham


human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.


18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd



©2017 All rights reserved.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]