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Question
"List down the role of a Line manager and an HR manager in:
1. Recruitment & Selection
2. Appraisals
3. Training

Answer
Question:   "List down the role of a Line manager and an HR manager in:
1. Recruitment & Selection
2. Appraisals
3. Training

====================
1. Recruitment & Selection

RECRUITMENT  AND  SELECTION  PROCESS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROCESS   ELEMENTS        FOR  ALL  POSITIONS       
---------------------------------------------!------------!----------------------
STEP  1……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR]

PREPARING  JOB ANALYSES
PREPARING JOB  DESC          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  2  ……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

PREPARING JOB SPECS          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  3……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

DECIDING TERMS AND          
CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT
[ MEETS  ALL GOVERNMENT  REGULATION  ON EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  4……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

ADVERTISING          
[COPY/MEDIA PLAN]          except  for senior positions [ head hunting]
[ MUST REFLECT TRUTH, NO  FALSE  INFORMATION,
 NO  GENDER  BIAS, NO DISCRIMINATION,NO AGE BAR, ETC]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP 5  ……………………………………[ HR MGR]

INTERNAL APPLICANT          
EXTERNAL APPLICANT          except for tech [ outsourcing ]
ONLINE APPLICANT          and senior positions [ head hunting]  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  6……………………………………[ HR MGR]

SIFTING APPLICATIONS          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  7……………………………………[ HR MGR]

PERSONAL INTERVIEW
-INDIVIDUAL PER TO PER          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  8 …………………………… ………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR]

-PANEL INTERVIEW          
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------          
STEP  9……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

-SELECTION BOARD          only for  senior positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  10……………………………………[ HR MGR]

TESTING [ BEHAVIORAL]
-PSYCHOLOGICAL     procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-PERSONALITY          procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-ABILITY          procedural element for all positions  except senior position          
-APTITUDE          procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-PSYCHOMETRIC          procedural element for all positions          
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STEP  11……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

TESTING [ TECHNICAL ]        only for  tech. positions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  12……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

ASSESSMENT CENTRE        only  for   senior  positions          
-POTENTIAL
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  13……………………………………[ HR MGR]

OBTAINING REFERENCE        procedural element for all positions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  14……………………………………[ HR MGR]

CHECKING REFERENCE        procedural element for all positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  15……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

MAKING DECISION          procedural element for all positions    
[ NO  DISCRIMINATION, NO COLOR BAR, NO SEX DISCRIMINATION,
PURELY  ON  MERIT ]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  16……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

OFFERING  EMPLOYMENT    procedural element for all positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP   17……………………………………[ HR MGR]

PREPARING EMPLOYMENT       procedural element for all positions    
LETTER
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STEP  18……………………………………[ HR MGR]

-HR  sends  out  letters  to  the  unsuccessful  candidates.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  19……………………………………[ HR MGR]

-HR  CHECKS  REFERENCES.

[ ABIDE  BY  LAW ]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  20……………………………………[ HR MGR]

-HR  SENDS  OUT  OFFER  LETTERS  TO  SUCCESSFUL  CANDIDATES.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  21……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

-THE  LINE  MANAGERS  /  AGREE  TO  THE  START DATE
AND  INDUCTION  PROGRAMME.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  22……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

PERSONAL FILE  CREATION

-HR  CREATES  ''PERSONAL  FILE ''.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  23……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

HANDOVER  TO  HR /  ADMINISTRATION
-THE  LINE  MANAGER  HANDS  OVER  THE  RESPONSIBILITY
FOR  PAYROLL  ADMIN  AND  INDUCTION  TO  HR.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  24……………………………………[ HR MGR]

-HR  PREPARES   WELCOME  PACK / EMPLOYEE  MANUAL.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  25……………………………………[ HR MGR]

ARCHIVING  OF  APPOINTMENT  FILES.

-HR  ARCHIVES  SELECTED  CANDIDATES  FILE.

-HR  DESTROYS  UNSUCCESSFUL   CANDIDATES  FILES
AFTER    6  MONTHS.

[ BY  LAW,  ALL  OLD  FILES  MUST  BE  DESTROYED  ]
=======================================================

2. Appraisals
1)   Identify key performance criteria
……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
2)   Develop appraisal measures
……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
3)   Collect performance information from different sources
……………………………………[ LINE MGR ]
4)   Conduct an appraisal interview
……………………………………[ LINE MGR ]
5)   Evaluate the appraisal process.
……………………………………[ HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]


STEP 1: IDENTIFY KEY PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

KEY DIMENSIONS OF PERFORMANCE
Competencies        Knowledge, skills, and abilities relevant to performance
Behaviours   Specific actions conducted and / or tasks performed
Results / outcomes   Outputs, quantifiable results, measurable outcomes and achievements, objectives attained

Organisational citizenship behaviours   Actions that are over and above usual job responsibilities


To ensure that the performance criteria are relevant to work practice and acceptable to appraisers and employees:
i) Base the performance criteria on an up-to-date job description
ii) Develop criteria in consultation with appraisers and employees.

i)   Base the performance criteria on an up-to-date job description:
Clear and explicit links between performance appraisal and a job description will ensure the relevance of the appraisal. If a detailed job description is not available or is out-of-date, it is strongly recommended that an accurate job description be developed prior to conducting a performance appraisal.
ii)   Develop criteria in consultation with appraisers and employee:
Linking performance appraisals with job descriptions can help to focus the appraisal process on the key competencies, behaviours and outcomes associated with a particular role or position. It can also be useful to consult with employees to:
•   Ensure that key aspects of a role / position are represented in the job description, for example:

   Conduct assessments
   Plan interventions
   Manage cases
   Liaise with and refer to other providers
   Keep up-to-date service records and case notes
   Write reports

•   Develop a clear understanding of the relative importance of various competencies, Behaviours and outcomes
•   Identify how these key competencies, behaviours and outcomes can be fairly and accurately assessed.

Employees are more likely to accept and be satisfied with the appraisal system if they participate in the development of appraisal criteria and measures, and in the process of conducting appraisals.
Strategies for facilitating employee’s participation include:
•   Engagement in formal meetings or informal discussions with supervisors to seek input and / or feedback on appraisal measures and criteria
•   Representation on groups / committees involved in the design and implementation of performance appraisals
•   Inclusion of self appraisals in the appraisal process
•   Providing opportunities for employees to contribute to the performance appraisal of coworkers and managers / supervisors.

It is also important that employees perceive the appraisal system to be equitable and fair.

STEP 2: DEVELOP APPRAISAL MEASURES
Once clear and specific performance criteria have been developed, the next step is to decide how to assess employee’s performance. It is recommended that a structured and systematic approach is taken to assessing performance. Problems that arise when an unstructured “blank sheet” approach is used include:
•   Increased chance of appraiser errors (i.e., reduced accuracy)
•   Knowledge, skills and abilities most critical to job performance may be overlooked(i.e., feedback may have limited impact on performance effectiveness)
•   Reduced consistency between appraisers (i.e., evaluations may reflect differences between appraisers rather than actual differences in a employee’s performance)
•   Perceptions of “subjectivity” in evaluations, which may in turn, reduce employee’s satisfaction with, and acceptance of appraisals.

There are three important considerations in the design of appraisal measures:
i)   Generic versus individually tailored measures
ii)   Objective versus subjective assessments
iii)   Assessing the impact of the work environment on performance.

i)   Generic versus individually tailored measures
Many workplaces use a generic rating form for all employees irrespective of their role or position within the organisation. Although this approach can save time and minimise cost, the accuracy and relevance of appraisals may be significantly diminished. The “one size fits all” approach of generic measures may overlook important performance criteria that are relevant to particular jobs, and may also include criteria that are irrelevant to others.
Where time and other resources permit, it is more appropriate to construct appraisal formats tailored to specific jobs or “families” of jobs. If the development of job-specific (i.e., individually tailored) appraisal formats is beyond the resource capacity of the organisation, an alternative would be to develop two groups of criteria:

1) Core competencies that have applicability to the performance appraisal of all employees within the organisation
2) Additional competencies applicable only to some jobs and included in the performance appraisal if relevant.

ii)   Objective versus subjective assessments
A basic distinction between different types of appraisal measures concerns the use of objective or subjective criteria.
   Objective assessments of work performance
         Objective measures of job performance involve counts of various work-related   
         behaviours. Some common objective job performance measures include
Absenteeism (number of days absent)
Accidents (number of accidents)
Incidents at work (number of incidents / assaults / altercations)
Lateness (days late)
Meeting deadlines.
Objective measures can be relatively quick and easy to obtain (given good organisational record-keeping). However, it can be unwise to place too much emphasis on these types of objective measures. An exclusive focus on results / outcomes may mask factors that impact on employee’s performance that are beyond their control (e.g., client workload).

   Subjective assessments of work performance
Subjective measures rely on the judgment of an appraiser (self, coworkers, or supervisor). Subjective assessments are commonly used in performance appraisals and often involve the use  of rating scales. Subjective assessments are more likely to provide accurate performance appraisals when:
   The behaviours and outcomes being assessed are stated in clear behavioural terms
   The employee understands the measures (e.g., rating scales) being used to evaluate their performance, and agree that the measures are fair and accurate (i.e., measures what it is supposed to)
   Measurement is as brief as possible whilst addressing essential behaviours and outcomes (frustration with long and unwieldy questionnaires may introduce error in responses).

iii) Assessing the impact of the work environment on performance
The goal of a performance appraisal is to support and improve employee’s performance and effectiveness. Therefore, it makes sense for an appraisal to include an assessment of factors in the work environment that help or hinder a employee’s capacity to perform effectively. Explicit assessment of environmental factors is also likely to increase the perceived fairness and acceptability of performance appraisals.
For example, an employee’s capacity to provide effective treatment interventions is influenced by factors such as:
•   Access to private, soundproofed, adequately sized rooms for counselling
•   Availability of validated, user-friendly assessment tools
•   Availability of reliable and approachable management / administration.


STEP 3: COLLECT PERFORMANCE INFORMATION FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
Once the appraisal measures are developed, the next step involves collection of accurate performance information. A common trap is to begin noting observations of employees just before conducting appraisals. This is likely to give an inaccurate picture of a employee’s performance. Ideally, employee’s performance should be observed in a systematic way over time (e.g., in a diary). This method ensures the accuracy of information about their performances.
Many employees in the organisation operate with a relatively high degree of autonomy. This combined with the heavy workload of most managers / supervisors, may limit opportunities to conduct regular observation of employee’s performance. In addition, perceptions of ongoing monitoring may foster a sense of surveillance which can damage staff morale.
A more suitable approach may be to keep critical incident reports that note specific examples of both excellent and unsatisfactory performances. Supervisors can also encourage employees to keep track of their own performance records such as emails or letters that commend them on their achievements.
Traditionally, it has been the sole responsibility of managers / supervisors to assess performance.  However, other organisational members can be a valuable source of information as they are likely to have exposure to different aspects of a employee’s performance. This approach is known as 360-degree feedback. For instance, coworkers can provide valuable information on teamwork skills, and subordinates can provide useful information on leadership style.
There are many advantages to obtaining feedback on performance from sources other than supervisors or managers. Key benefits include:
•   Accuracy and reduced bias (incorrect information from one source can be corrected from another)
•   Increased likelihood that employees will perceive the performance appraisal system to be a fair and accurate reflection of their performance (compared to relying on supervisor ratings alone).
If time and resources are limited, it is recommended that supervisor appraisals be conducted in conjunction with self-assessment. Including self-assessments as part of the appraisal process is likely to enhance employee’s commitment to, and satisfaction with, the appraisal process. It also provides employees with an opportunity to identify barriers and facilitators to effective performance in their work environment.
Five different sources of performance appraisal information are considered here:
i)   Manager / supervisor appraisals
ii)   Self appraisals
iii)   Coworker appraisals
iv)   Subordinate appraisals
v)   Client appraisals.


i)   Manager / supervisor appraisals:
Managers / supervisors play a central role in the appraisal process, and should always be included as one of the main appraisers. In essence, managers and supervisors have two roles in performance appraisal:
1.   “Judge”: assessing performance
2.   “Coach”: providing constructive feedback and identifying areas for improvement.
Performing both roles simultaneously can be difficult. Employees may be reluctant to admit areas for improvement if performance assessment is linked with desired outcomes such as pay, promotion or opportunities to work in desired areas. One solution is to separate the judge and coach roles by conducting separate appraisal meetings.

ii)   Self-appraisals:
The process of evaluating one’s own performance can help to increase employee’s commitment to the appraisal process, perceptions of appraisal fairness, and satisfaction with the appraisal process. Self-appraisal can also be useful for identifying areas for development. Not surprisingly, self-appraisals are usually biased towards leniency. Strategies to increase the accuracy of self appraisals include:
a.   Using clear definitions of performance criteria linked to specific, observable behaviours
b.   Informing employees that their ratings will be checked and compared to other sources of appraisal (i.e., for accuracy)
d.   Ensuring employees receive regular feedback on their performance.
It is recommended that self appraisals are used for professional development purposes, rather than for making administrative decisions (i.e., pay increases, promotion).

iii)   Coworker appraisals:
Coworkers can provide valuable feedback on performance, particularly where teamwork occurs. Coworkers are often aware of different aspects of a employee’s performance that managers /supervisors may not have the opportunity to observe. In addition, as there is usually more than one coworker who rates a worker’s performance, their evaluations tend to be more reliable. Coworker evaluations, however, may be biased towards those individuals most well liked in an organisation (i.e., friendship bias). Furthermore, coworker appraisals may have a negative impact on teamwork and cooperation if employees are competing with one another for organizational incentives and rewards. It is recommended that coworker appraisals are used for professional development rather than administrative decisions.
iv)         Subordinate appraisals:
Subordinates are a valuable source of information regarding particular aspects of a supervisor or leader’s performance such as communication, team building or delegation. Subordinates can provide feedback to help managers / supervisors develop their skills in these areas. The focus should be on aspects of managerial performance that subordinates are able to comment upon. This source of appraisal may only be appropriate in larger organisations where there are sufficient subordinates to allow anonymity.
iv)   Client appraisals:
Clients may also offer a different perspective on a employee’s performance, particularly for jobs that require a high degree of interaction with people. For example, client appraisals can be a valuable source of feedback regarding the quality of service provision (e.g., the quality of interaction, degree of empathy, level of support, degree of professionalism).
     Organisations often have performance contracts that specify goals and deliverables for client outcomes. Whilst it is important that organisational goals and deliverables are reflected in the appraisal criteria for individuals and teams, it is recommended that particular care be taken if incorporating client outcomes.
  
Relying on client outcomes as an indicator of performance can have undesirable effects due to the complex and sensitive nature of work. A range of factors may influence client outcomes, many of which are outside the control of an individual employee. It is rare for a successful (or otherwise ) outcome to be the sole result of one person’s efforts. This makes client outcomes a poor reflection of the quality of treatment provided by the employee. For example, “good” employee performance will not always bring about client improvements, and client relapses may not be due to “poor” employee performance.
In addition to considering client outcomes, it may also be beneficial to focus on employee’s skills and abilities in providing services per se (i.e., independent of client outcomes).
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3. Training


Training and Development
[HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
 =================
Types of Training
HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
=================

Orientation: Training for New Employees
[HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
=================
Establishing and Effective Orientation System
[HR MGR ]
=================
Systems Approach to Training
[HR MGR ]
================
Training Need Assessment

HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
==================
Establishing Training Objectives and Priorities
HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]

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Training Approaches
HR MGR ]
==================
Selecting Training Approaches
HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
===============
Evaluation of Training
HR MGR/ ]

==================
Evaluation Designs
HR MGR/ ]
===============

HR Development y
HR MGR ]
====================
Development Needs Analysis and Succession Planning
HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
=============
Planning and Choosing a Development Approach
HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
============
Career
HR MGR/
===============
Career Planning: Individual Issues

HR MGR/ LINE MGR ]
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Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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