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Respected sir,
Please do needful help

1. Critically elevate the theories of Motivation and their relevance in today's context
2.Distinguish between Perception and Attitude?Who are Motivators?enumerate non financial Motivators
3.which theory of Motivation appeals to you why?

Question:   Respected sir,
Please do needful help

1. Critically
elevate the theories of Motivation and their relevance in today's context
2.Distinguish between Perception and Attitude?Who are Motivators?enumerate non financial Motivators
3.which theory of Motivation appeals to you why?

1. Critically
elevate the theories of Motivation and their relevance in today's context
Theories of Motivation
There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers. The most commonly held views or theories are discussed below and have been developed over the last 100 years or so. Unfortunately these theories do not all reach the same conclusions!
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917) put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following:
Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control
Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks
Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task.
Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.
As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity.
Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production.
Taylor’s approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management style (managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) and Macgregor’s Theory X approach to workers (workers are viewed as lazy and wish to avoid responsibility).
However workers soon came to dislike Taylor’s approach as they were only given boring, repetitive tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. Firms could also afford to lay off workers as productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by dis-satisfied workers.
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored). He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
Mayo conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne factory of the Western Electric Company in Chicago
He isolated two groups of women workers and studied the effect on their productivity levels of changing factors such as lighting and working conditions.
He expected to see productivity levels decline as lighting or other conditions became progressively worse
What he actually discovered surprised him: whatever the change in lighting or working conditions, the productivity levels of the workers improved or remained the same.
From this Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated by:
Better communication between managers and workers ( Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and also had the opportunity to give feedback)
Greater manager involvement in employees working lives ( Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving)
Working in groups or teams. ( Hawthorne workers did not previously regularly work in teams)
In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to encourage greater use of team working and introduce personnel departments to encourage greater manager involvement in looking after employees’ interests. His theory most closely fits in with a paternalistic style of management.
Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950’s, which focused on the psychological needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy (see below) and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others.
A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfill each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy (see below). Managers should also recognise that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.

Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)
Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Hygiene factors are factors which ‘surround the job’ rather than the job itself. For example a worker will only turn up to work if a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not make him work harder at his job once he is there. Importantly Herzberg viewed pay as a hygiene factor which is in direct contrast to Taylor who viewed pay, and piece-rate in particular
Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are:
Job enlargement – workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting.
Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement.
Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life.


Understanding McClelland's Theory In the early 1940s, Abraham Maslow created his theory of needs. This identified the basic needs that human beings have, in order of their importance - physiological needs; safety needs; and the needs for belonging, self-esteem and "self-actualization". Then, in the early 1960s, David McClelland built on this work by identifying three motivators that we all have. According to McClelland, these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory). McClelland says that, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver. This dominant motivator is largely dependent on our culture and life experiences. The three motivators are achievement, affiliation, and power. People will have different characteristics depending on their dominant motivator. These characteristics are as follows: Dominant Motivator Characteristics of This Person Achievement Has a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals. Takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals. Likes to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievements. Often likes to work alone. Affiliation Wants to belong to the group. Wants to be liked, and will often go along with whatever the rest of the group wants to do. Favors collaboration over competition. Doesn't like high risk or uncertainty. Power Wants to control and influence others. Likes to win arguments. Enjoys competition and winning. Enjoys status and recognition. Note: Those with a strong power motivator are often divided into two groups: personal and institutional. People with a personal power drive want to control others, while people with an institutional power drive like to organize the efforts of a team to further the company's goals. As you can probably imagine, those with an institutional power need are usually more desirable as team members! Using the Theory McClelland's theory can help you to identify the dominant motivators of people on your team. You can then use this information to influence how you set goals and provide feedback, and how you motivate and reward team members. You can also use these motivators to craft, or design, the job around your team members, ensuring a better fit. Let's look at the steps for using McClelland's theory: Step 1: Identify Drivers Examine your team to determine which of the three motivators is dominant for each person. You can probably identify drivers based on personality and past actions. For instance, perhaps one of your team members always takes charge of the group when you assign a project. He speaks up in meetings to persuade people, and he delegates responsibilities to others to meet the goals of the group. He likes to be in control of the final deliverables. This team member is likely primarily driven by the power. You might have another team member who never speaks during meetings. She always agrees with the group, works hard to manage conflict when it occurs, and visibly becomes uncomfortable when you talk about doing high-risk, high-reward projects. This person is likely to have a strong need for affiliation. Step 2: Structure Your Approach Based on the driving motivators of your workers, structure your leadership style and project assignments around each individual team member. This will help ensure that they all stay engaged, motivated, and happy with the work they're doing. Examples of Using the Theory Let's take a closer look at how to manage team members who are driven by each of McClelland's three motivators: Achievement People motivated by achievement need challenging, but not impossible, projects. They thrive on overcoming difficult problems or situations, so make sure you keep them engaged this way. People motivated by achievement work very effectively either alone or with other high achievers. When providing feedback, give achievers a fair and balanced appraisal. They want to know what they're doing right – and wrong – so that they can improve. Affiliation People motivated by affiliation work best in a group environment, so try to integrate them with a team (versus working alone) whenever possible. They also don't like uncertainty and risk. Therefore, when assigning projects or tasks, save the risky ones for other people. When providing feedback to these people, be personal. It's still important to give balanced feedback, but if you start your appraisal by emphasizing their good working relationship and your trust in them, they'll likely be more open to what you say. Remember that these people often don't want to stand out, so it might be best to praise them in private rather than in front of others. Power Those with a high need for power work best when they're in charge. Because they enjoy competition, they do well with goal-oriented projects or tasks. They may also be very effective in negotiations or in situations in which another party must be convinced of an idea or goal. When providing feedback, be direct with these team members. And keep them motivated by helping them further their career goals. Comparative Theories McClelland's theory of needs is not the only theory about worker motivation. Sirota's Three-Factor Theory also presents three motivating factors that workers need to stay motivated and excited about what they're doing: equity/fairness, achievement, and camaraderie. Sirota's theory states that we all start a new job with lots of enthusiasm and motivation to do well. But over time, due to bad company policies and poor work conditions, many of us lose our motivation and excitement. This is different from McClelland's theory, which states that we all have one dominant motivator that moves us forward, and this motivator is based on our culture and life experiences. Use your best judgment when motivating and engaging your team. Understanding a variety of motivational theories will help you decide which approach is best in any given situation. Note: You may also see these abbreviations for McClelland's three motivators: Achievement (nAch), Affiliation (nAff), and Power (nPow). Key Points McClelland's Human Motivation Theory states that every person has one of three main driving motivators: the needs for achievement, affiliation, or power. These motivators are not inherent; we develop them through our culture and life experiences. Achievers like to solve problems and achieve goals. Those with a strong need for affiliation don't like to stand out or take risk, and they value relationships above anything else. Those with a strong power motivator like to control others and be in charge. You can use this information to lead, praise, and motivate your team more effectively, and to better structure your team's roles. -
Critically evaluate the extent to which theories of motivation have remained static or evolved
the shift from economic to social factors that that theorise on motivation at work. The newer HR practices of management places value on employees as a resource. These practices introduce motivation by valuing the employee and linking this to organisational strategy. This has introduced new words to the employee such as empowerment and enrichment; these will be discussed for their merits.
The development of different theories on what motivates us at work highlights the changing schools of thought to the very concept of motivation. However it is argued that even with this knowledge, managers to not incorporate it into practice.  we know a good deal about human motivation and most of it is correct, then why the mystery, the answer is we simply don't act on it .
The theories fall into four main categories (1) Economic needs of man, money motivates, Taylorism (2) Social concept of motivation, from the Hawthorne studies (3) Self actualisation this took the findings from the Hawthorne studies further, psychological issues were studied (4) the contingency approach, large number of variables that influence a persons motivation .
Classical writers discussed the organisation in terms of its purpose, with its formal structure; the hierarchy of the organisation. The emphasis placed on planning work, achieving this through managing the technical requirements, and the presumption of logical and rational behaviour from within the organisation. Each individual classical writer puts forward their own interpretation of similar theories . Baker (1972) discussed these principals as it offered simple principals which claimed general application it also followed architectural and literary styles which emphasised formality, symmetry and rigidity (Baker (1972) cited in Buchanan D and Hucczynski, A 1991)
Classical theories of management began with the contribution by Henri Fayol in 1914; his work later was complemented on and added to by other authors. Taylor was one that expanded on his work, introducing his theories under the banner of Taylorism. This view is still discussed today. Although widely criticised, most organisations fit into the mould .
The majority of classical writers (also known as formal or scientific management) main concerns for improving organisational effectiveness were through structure of the organisation. They held fast to the principles of rigid rules offering very generalises solutions to common management problems. Mooney and Reiley offered three common principals that related to all types of organisations. (1) Co-ordination, people acting together in a unity of action, authority and the need for discipline. (2) Scalar, the structure of the organisation, the hierarchy, grading of duties and the process of delegation.
Functional, specialists brining the distinction between the various roles within the organisation, each member knows their exact role. Taylor clearly defined the supervisor's role, functional foremanship divided into planning and performance. Taylor bought rigid controls to all areas of the organisation. The values that underpinned the classical theory were held that to achieve a technically efficient organisation, required a unity of effort. Therefore the very principal limited the discretion and freedom of its members .
Taylorism view was that employees are rational and economic in their approach to work, but basically lazy, their sole motivation was monetary. To benefit their morale they were to be given job that provided them with the opportunity to maximise their earning potential. There was no thought to their physical or psychological well being. This style of management has been widely criticised, described this theory as equating people with machines. The assumption that the need to earn money is the one universal method for motivating people at work, although theorists disagree .
However, individuals within an organisation would act accordingly, to the way they are treated Rose (1978) discussed the concept of rational-economic person would lead to employees that are expected to be indifferent, hostile and only motivated economic incentives, these forms of management practices are likely to train them to behave like that .
Human relations movement developed in the 1920s, this depicted Social man rather than Economic man. This theory evolved from the Hawthorne studies, the tiredness of the worker was linked with productivity levels Workers were studied over a period of time, with alteration to factors such as rest periods, lightening, hours worked and refreshments. When the research was finished the findings did not correlate with production, this was higher than before. It concluded that the attention given to the employees is the main factor the increased production. Schein described this as shift from management to the worker workers did not always respond to incentive schemes as managers had expected, often they had their own goals .
Taylorism did not provide answers for all the technical interventions that impinge on the success of organisations. Between the wars in the UK a new movement was commencing, from the National Institute of Industrial Psychology, Charles Myers in 1927 developed the New Psychology� This was based on instincts and adjustments from the mental hygiene movement, searching for the roots of minor social troubles and untreated problems that prevent efficiency. This theory had three distinctive features (1) it looked at the relationship between the individual and work, which their life outside of work continued in the work place. They brought with them their needs, motives and fears to the organisation. (2) It studied the relationship they had with their peers, supervisors and subordinates. (3)Interdependence was formed between the employee and the productive machine. The employee's personal life could have a disruptive affect on his work performance .
Although this attention to an employee's personal life looks like an attempt to increase production, it opened a new way of looking at the employees. The power of the boss and the wage relationship would be replaced with a bond that links employees' home life, work, peer relationships and society as a whole. The individual could not detach themselves from their personal and private life, when at work .
Originally published in 1943, Maslow developed a theory of individual development and motivation, there are five levels to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, (1) Physiological needs, these include the bodies automatic efforts to function, i.e. hunger, thirst and the need for oxygen also deep sensory pleasures. (2) Safety needs, security and comfort, freedom from pain, or physical attack, this is the need for order, (3) Love needs or social needs, a sense of belonging, friendship and social activities, this is not just receiving the need it is giving the need to others, (4) Esteem needs, This includes the receiving of respect, confidence and strength, obtaining a prestige status and being given the respect from that position, (5) Self actualisation needs, when and if one has reached their full potential, what we can be given the chance.
Maslow suggested that once the low orders of the hierarchy we satisfied they were no longer motivators. These base level motivators are widely accepted as surviving in the world. Maslow added that very few individuals would reach the top layer. These needs were relatively universal, they applied across different cultures. Some of Maslow,s motivational factors arise from helping others, satisfying the social need of man .
Herzberg divided motivation into two main areas (1) Hygiene or maintenance factors, they serve to prevent dissatisfaction; these include salary, job security, conditions of work, company policy and interpersonal skill. (2) The motivators or growth factors, including achievement, recognition, responsibility and personal growth .
The hygiene factors link closely to Maslow's lower order. Attention to hygiene will prevent dissatisfaction, but will not motivate, where as growth of the satisfiers will motivate employees. A criticism of Herzberg's work, is that employees are more likely to reflect the satisfying events at work, as what they have achieved, their own performance. With the hygiene factors attributed to outside influences, and the efforts of others around them, employees did not take responsibility for them .
The classic economic assumptions about the motivation to work, would lead to lazy employees that don't want to work, and will retire as soon as they can. However it is now recognised that employees have the desire for meaningful employment, although leisure time is important, it does not satisfy all their needs. The employment adds structure and purpose to the day, with guidelines on behaviour, and what is expected from the individual .
Although the payment received from the employer is not the sole motivator it satisfies the contract of employment. The monitory side of the employment relation satisfied the contract, and is not motivator. Hegewisch (1994) wrote the pay packet is one of the most visible expression of the employment relationship, its main issue is the exchange between employer and employee, expressing a connection between the labour market, the individuals work and the performance of employing the organisation itself .
Over the past century the unions within the UK have risen, then decreased in power, due to political persuasion. The unions were replaced with HR practices; the lack of union power allowed individualism of the employment relationship (Beardwell, I. et al. 2004). From its inception human resource management reflected the management agenda to the disregard of workers' concerns. Its appeal to management was the claim that it was a route to excellence and high performance .
The employee's role has changed; the word empowerment was first used in 1991, few organisations still describe employees as subordinates. With some organisations calling employees associate, making them sound almost like partners, this is a shift from the classic approach. The employees' role has changed in terms of compliance, the shift from command and control, within large bureaucratic organisations, supported by rulebooks and role compliance .
In the 1970s, job enrichment developed, when organisations wanted compliance from their employees they offered money and other tangibles benefits, Extrinsic rewards These are given by mangers and supervisors; they include bonuses, commission, perks and cash awards. The extrinsic reward, do not come from the work, they are tangible. These rewards were thought to be the answer to employee motivation; organisations were buying behaviour, but not commitment, innovation and initiative .

Today's issues of motivation are intricate and difficult, the closeness of supervision and in depth of the rules are no longer part of the work place. Employees are becoming self managed which requires them to be committed and demonstrate innovation and initiative in the work place. Since these new work patterns have emerged, new motivational factors have emerged intrinsic rewards, reward from the work. Satisfaction in the employees' role, pride in the work produced. The work itself fulfils the employees motivation, even with some set backs, they obtain satisfaction from a job well done .
Some claim that HRM offers a new model of the management of people at work, based around attempts to increase their commitment (Guest, D. 1999). The possible implications of HRM for employees in the UK have been highlighted by the division that has frequently been drawn between what were initially described by Storey (1987) as 'hard' and `soft" versions of HRM . The 'hard' version is widely acknowledged to place little emphasis on workers' concerns and, therefore, within its paradigm, any judgments of the effectiveness of HRM would be based on business performance criteria. In contrast, 'soft' HRM, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to advocate a parallel concern for workers' outcomes .
There are many models of HR theory, giving them warm accounts as to why there has been an increase in this management practice. Walton (1985) defined HR as mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards, and mutual responsibility Walton further added that the 'psychological contract' under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework .

However HR explicitly views employees as another resource for managers to exploit. In the past, managements had failed to align their human resource systems with business strategy and therefore failed to exploit or utilise their human resources to the full. The force to take on HRM is therefore, based on the business case of a need to respond to an external threat from increasing competition (Guest, D.1999). This view reflects a longstanding capitalist tradition in which the worker is viewed as a commodity. The consequential exploitation may be paternalist and benevolent; but, equally, it may operate against the interests of workers. Essentially, workers are simply resources to be squeezed and disposed of as business requirements dictate. More importantly, the interests of workers and their well-being are of no significance in themselves. As John Monks (1998) stated In the wrong hands HRM becomes both a sharp weapon to prise workers apart from their union and a blunt instrument to bully workers
Organisations no longer offer a job for life there is no longer guaranteed employment, with a pension as a reward for loyalty and compliance. The "psychological contract" between employer and employee has shifted. Employees are increasingly mobile, changing employment for promotion, reward and job satisfaction; top employees have more choice as to where to work (Thomas, K. 2000). With less job security, an organisation can increase the level of motivation by giving an employee transferable skills .
The principals of best practice within management theory state there are six basic elements that can motivate employees. (1) Training; Skills development is probably more important to all employees, transferable skills replacing a job for life. (2) Recognition; the employees need to know they, reassurance of their role, enforcing corporate norms and values. (3) Financial rewards; Rewarding exceptional performance, this re-enforces the value of the human resource to the organisation. (4) Communication; Weekly meetings, open door polices and regular visits with employees. (5) Alignment; There is a direct relationship between motivation and an individual's ability to contribute, therefore make all employees aware of the contribution they bring to the organisation (6)Leadership; the skills that can combined all above, with strategic out look of the organisation (Redshaw, B 2001).
It is possible to create an environment where employees are motivated to do their jobs to the best of their abilities. When management takes the time to learn what motivates employees to do their best work, and what contributes to a sense of well being and satisfaction. Motivating employees can be complicated, since individuals respond to different conditions. For example, some people are naturally self motivated and come to the workplace already equipped with good self-esteem. However, this can disintegrate if they are not treated as valuable members of the organisation, and rewarded accordingly .
Some employees are motivated by the fear of loss, i.e., if they do not get to the job on time, they will be fired and will lose their means of support. Still others respond to satisfactory monetary compensation, and do best with a program of periodic salary increases based on job performance. Employers can create an environment that motivates employees by providing the tools, resources, information, and emotional support others are motivated by the fear of loss, i.e., if they do not get to the job on time, they will be fired and will lose their means of support. Still others respond to satisfactory monetary compensation, and do best with a program of periodic salary increases based on job performance. Employers can create an environment that motivates employees by providing the tools, resources, information, and emotional support .
An employee's expectation of the workplace has dramatically changed over the last century, with motivation theories shifting from monetary to job satisfaction. Although there is no longer a job for life, employees seek security in other forms, transferable skills, to keep them employed throughout their working life. A requirement of managers is to understand and practice behaviour that is in tune with employee's motivation, therefore what maintains employee morale within the workplace.
Motivation of employees is a fluid topic, what motivates employees can differ immensely between individuals. The employee is no longer regarded as some one who is only motivated by money; there are social aspects that the work environment introduces that act as satisfiers.
The move towards HR empowering employees was viewed as a motivational and rewarding, placing value on the human resource. However this field of management is being widely criticised for the control it introduces to the work place.
Today's motivational issues are as complicated as they were over a hundred years ago, when they were first discussed as a management tool. Where motivation is individual, there is no cure all, therefore all theories have there merits and there failings. Attention to an employee's need and treating them with respect are the most valuable contributions to an employees motivation.

The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are driven to perform actions in order to maintain an optimum level of physiological arousal. What exactly is the optimal level of motivation? Well, it varies from one individual to the next.
How It Works?
According to the arousal theory of motivation, when our arousal levels drop below our individually mandated optimal levels, we seek out stimulation to elevate them. For example, if our levels drop to low we might seek stimulation by going out to a night club with friends. If these levels become too elevated and we become overstimulated, we might be motivated to select a relaxing activity such as going for a walk or taking a nap.
One person might have very low arousal needs, while another people might require very high levels of arousal. The person with low arousal needs might be motivated to pursue simple activities such as crocheting or watching a movie in order to maintain their arousal levels. The individual with the high arousal needs, on the other hand, might need to seek out risky or thrilling activities such as motorcycle racing or sky diving in order to maintain the ideal levels.
Arousal theory shares some commonalities with drive-reduction theory, but instead of focusing on reducing tension, arousal theory suggests that we are motivated to maintain an ideal level of arousal.
Arousal and Performance
One of the assertions of the arousal theory of motivation is that our levels of arousal have an influence on our performance. This is commonly referred to as the Yerkes-Dodson Law. The law states that increased levels of arousal will improve performance, but only up until the optimum arousal level is reached. At that point, performance begins to suffer as arousal levels increase. Most students have experienced this phenomenon when taking final exams. Increased arousal can lead to better test performance by helping you stay alert, focused, and attentive, but too much arousal can lead to test anxiety and leave you nervous and unable to concentrate on the test.
To help you get the most from your employee relationships, here are the nine (9) things that ultimately motivate employees to achieve.  As you read this, think of how you associate with each of them.  Share your story and perspectives – and comment about it.  This is a hot topic and the more we can discuss it, we can help one another become better leaders.
1.       Trustworthy Leadership
Leaders that have your back and that are looking out for your best interests – will win the trust of their employees who in turn will be more motivated to achieve.    I once had a department manager that always looked out for me.  He was upfront in communicating his performance expectations and his feedback was direct.   He never treated me like a subordinate and looked for ways to include me in senior management meetings.  This opened my eyes to what lied ahead in my career and thus motivated me to reach the next level and in the process exceed the expectations of my boss.
Trust is a powerful motivational tool and those leaders that are more transparent with their employees will find surprising results and new types of opportunities to develop talent.
2.       Being Relevant
In today’s world where everyone wants to be noticed and recognized for their work – employees are motivated to achieve to remain relevant.   As such, employees are in search of new ways to learn, improve their skills and invest in themselves.   This is an opportunity for leaders to get involved and understand how to build the depth and breadth of their employee’s skill sets and aptitudes.  For example, find ways to elevate your employees’ high-potential status.
Helping employees increase their relevancy is important and those leaders that participate in this process will help cultivate increased performance levels and loyalty.  Helping your employees get discovered will elevate their motivation to achieve.
3.       Proving Others Wrong
This particular motivation to achieve has been heighten as of late from younger professionals that seek to prove themselves faster amongst older generations in the workplace.   Employees never want to be stereotyped or marginalized, but for many younger professionals this serves as the trigger to awaken them from within.  This certainly is not a generational issue as many of us have been questioned about our ability to achieve at a high-level.  I learned this the hard way throughout my career.   For example, as a former C-level executive (in my early 30’s) and later as a successful entrepreneur – people begin to envy and / or doubt me thus igniting my hunger and drive to over achieve.
As a leader, encourage your employees to exceed expectations by taking responsible risks.  Embrace diverse thinking and measure one’s ability to innovate.  Never underestimate an employee’s ability to perform until you have properly evaluated and tested their abilities and potential.
4.       Career Advancement
Perhaps the most important factor on this list is the ability to advance.   Employees are extremely motivated to achieve if this means that advancement awaits them.   This requires employees to be mindful of opportunities that lie around, beneath and beyond what they seek.  As leaders, you will sustain high levels of motivation from your employees if you can open doors of opportunity and accelerate their chances for advancement.  Remember, just because your employees may be relevant, it doesn’t guarantee advancement.  So make it a point to help them get there.
How proficient are you at seeing and seizing opportunity?  If you haven’t taken my assessment, I suggest that you do (click here).   Over 200,000 people have taken it and less than 1% of them have ever scored over 35.
5.       No Regrets
People only have a few real chances in their careers to reach their ultimate goals.   In fact, how many times do you meet people that are more successful than you are and you wonder how they got there.   People don’t want to live with any regrets in their career/life and thus are motivated to not disappoint themselves.
As a leader, don’t allow your employees to walk around carrying a load of guilt.  Share your journey with them – your failures and successes.   An employee that doesn’t believe will never achieve.    Help your employees embrace the unexpected and help them navigate uncertainty and change.   Many people are confused in today’s workplace about their future.  Motivate them by giving them the perspectives they need to achieve.
6.       Stable Future
People are motivated to have safety and security.  Everyone wants a stable future, but you never know when time will pass you by.  That’s why we are all in a race against time and thus motivated to achieve faster than ever before.   We have all learned from the 2008 economic collapse that we can all quickly become victims of unexpected change without preparation.
As a leader, be mindful of providing security and stability in how you lead your employees – and watch their motivational levels rise.
7.       Self-Indulgence
This factor is quite interesting and extremely important to put into proper perspective.   People are motivated for selfish reasons to achieve – albeit money, attention, fame, etc.    Must we be reminded that greed and selfishness contributed greatly to America’s current economic hardship?
8.       Impact
As mentioned earlier on, today’s employees are motivated to achieve more than ever simply by the opportunity to create impact.    As employees reflect on their lives and careers – they want to contribute in ways that measure their achievements based upon the long-term benefits that the company they serve bears.
As a leader, allow your employees to have sustainable impact in the work they perform.  Allow them to make a mark toward significance.   Create the opportunity for their achievement to leave a long lasting legacy that rewards the organization they serve and for future generations to learn from.
9.       Happiness
In the end, happiness is one of the greatest motivations to achieve.  Happiness fuels ones self-esteem and gives people hope for a better tomorrow.   We are all victims of taking our work too seriously.   Step back and enjoy the journey.  Your motivation to achieve is ultimately based on earning a living that brings you tremendous joy and satisfaction.
As a leader, be aware of whether your employees are satisfied in their work and that you are deliberate in having this type conversation with them.  Never assume.   Employees will smile to save their jobs even if they aren’t content.   Assure your employees happiness shines and allow the previous eight motivational factors to influence the process organically.
Let me tell you what motivates your people.
It doesn’t matter what your theory is.
Here is what the people you lead and support want.
1. The truth – They are big enough, they are smart enough and they are competent enough to handle it.
2.  Skill – Skills that will elevate them in their career.
3. Clarity – Clarity about how if they apply the skills appropriately they can advance in the organization.
4. Accountability – They want to know how the company and their direct supervisor is going to separate, recognize and reward those who do from those who don’t.
Do you and your organization want your associates, your team members, the people in your business when you are not there to take care of your customers like you would if you were there?
If you want this outcome, you better figure out a way to make them feel like they are trusted to take care of every customer who comes into your place of business like they were your long lost friend you rediscovered.
When you can create a culture where every interaction is like rediscovering a long lost friend, and every interaction is an opportunity to create delight, you know you are doing the right thing to motivate your people.
This is not theory.
This is reality.

2.Distinguish between Perception and Attitude?Who are Motivators?enumerate non financial Motivators

-is   a  way  of  conceiving  something.
-the  process of  perceiving and the  way of conceiving something.  
-perception is  the process  of  acquiring, interpreting , selecting  and
organizing  sensory  information.
-perception is  the  way,   we   react  for  any  particular  situation.

Why Is It Important?
•   People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
•   The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.
Factors That
Influence Perception

• Perceiver
• Situation
• Target

Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others
Basically, the theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused.

1. Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations.
2. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation.
3. Consistency: responds in the same way over time.


-human nature can be very  simple, yet  very  complex  too. An  understanding
and  appreciation  of   this  is  no  pre-requiste  to  effective  employee  perception
in  the workplace  and  therefore  effective management  and  leadership.

-there is   a  known  fact that  without  perception , nothing  can be  done  
in  an  organization  and  for  doing  any  task we  need a  perception
which is  accepted by  all the  employees  in an organization. It  is the  key
for  the  manager  to  make  her  team work and  get   the  better  output
for  the  organization.

-perception  helps  each  and  every  individual in  the  organization  to
carry  the  things  in  different  ways as  the  organization  needs
different  perceptions to  make  sucessful  results.
-if  the  manager has  good  perception in  any department  of
the  organization, the  department  team  will  have   SAFE  SOLUTIONS
-to  find  innovative  solutions for  the  problem.
-to  leverage  creativity  and  motivate the  higher plateau  of  thinking.
-with  the help  of  perception,  habits  and  attitudes will  get  changed.
-with  the  help  of perception,  we can  find solutions  the  most
difficult  problems.

*Employment Interview

-Perception  can  help  the manager  to
recruit   the best  fit.
– Perceptual biases can  affect the accuracy of
interviewers’ judgments of applicants.
*Performance Expectations

-Perception  can help  the manager  to make
the most  effective  judgement  on  the  expectation.

– Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The
lower or higher performance of employees
reflects preconceived leader expectations about
employee capabilities.

*Performance Evaluations
-Perception  can help  the manager  to make
the most  effective  performance  appraisal
of  the  employee.

– Appraisals can  be subjective perceptions of

*Employee Effort

-Perception  can  help  the  manager  to  make
the  right  judgement  of  the employee's   effort.

– Assessment of individual effort is a subjective
judgment subject to perceptual distortion and

Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
•   Selective perception
•   Halo effect
•   Contrast effects
•   Projection
•   Stereotyping  
Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organization
•   Employment Interview
•   Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants.
•   Performance Expectations
•   Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.
•   Performance Evaluations
•   Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance.
•   Employee Effort
•   Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.
•   Employee Loyalty
•   Employee support towards the organization.
•   Whistle-Blowers
•   Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders.
Attitudes are a way of responding either favourably or unfavourably to objects, persons, concepts etc. They are evaluative statements. They reflect how one feels about something. Attitudes are related to behaviour. It is an unidimensional variable, i.e., positive or negative. They are hypothetical constructs. It is something inside a person. It may be observed but the attitude itself cannot.
Attitudes in a person could be observed in three ways: 1) Direct experience with the person or situation. 2) Association with other similar persons or situations. 3) Learning from others their association with the person or situation. `Direct experience' is the concrete experience stage of learning. Association is similar to abstract conceptualisation and generalisation. Learning from others is like reflection and observation. Attitudes evolve out of perception and learning process. One is not born with attitudes but acquires them through life experiences. But certain basic attitude of trust or mistrust occurs during the infancy. If a child's basic needs are met in a loving manner, the child will develop a sense of trust otherwise a sense of mistrust develops. The child also develops a sense of autonomy or shame and doubt. All these affects one's behaviour. And this linkage to behaviour is what managers are concerned with; and they also tend to understand the ways in which behaviour affects attitudes.
In organisations, attitudes are important because they affect the job behaviour. These job related attitudes top positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. There are three primary attitudes; job satisfaction, job involvement, and organisational commitment.
Job satisfaction refers to an individual's general attitude towards his or her job, which is either positive or negative, i.e., satisfied or dissatisfied.
Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job, actively participates in it and considers his performance important to his self-worth.
Organisational commitment is an orientation in terms of loyalty, identity and involvement in the organisation. These attitudes are measured so that behaviours like productivity, absenteeism and turnover can be predicted.
Managers need not be interested only in understanding the attitudes of the people, but also in changing them. Since attitudes are learned they can be changed. Persuasive communications are used to change attitudes. But attitudes are slow to change. Because they are based on deep-seated beliefs and values.
From this Unit, it was learnt that understanding human behaviour is essential for an effective manager, as it facilitates to achieve organisational goals better. The reasons for individual differences and approaches of understanding human behaviour are explained.
It was understood from this unit, that attitudes are opinions about things. Values represent deep-seated standards by which people evaluate their world. The past plays an important role in the development of attitudes and values. Personality is the result of person's experiences and genetic influences. Approaches, theories and determinants of personality were explained. Finally, the process of socialisation in an organisation that alters one's personality, values and attitudes was discussed.

Motivators are a collection of learned attitudes and beliefs. They provide an individual with information regarding which motivators are most important to him at the present time. There are many attitudes and beliefs.. Individuals and corporations use motivators for goal setting, management development, team building, decision-making, and other important areas throughout an organization. Recent studies indicate that motivators are flexible. As a result this allows employees to adapt to the motivational system of an organization.

There are six motivators in this model:

1. (Conceptual)
2. (Aesthetic)
3. (Economic)
4. (Power & Authority)
5. (Social)
6. (Doctrine).

These Motivators, like behaviors, can be viewed in degrees of intensity. Your personal motivators are reported here on a 100- point scale.

The intensity of each motivator is determined by the importance placed on it by our personal priorities. Motivators can be flexible and will often change throughout our career and life. As an individual’s situation changes, the priorities of their motivators tend to change also.

The closer individuals motivators are to the norm, the easier it becomes for individuals to understand and appreciate the motivators that are charted on their graphic scale.The further an individual’s score is from a specific motivator’s norm, the greater emotional investment individuals have in that particular motivator. Having a motivator with a score below the 50th percentile on the graphic scale does not necessarily indicate an individual has little interest or emotional feeling invested in this motivator, but that at the present time it has a lesser priority. Individuals will often have more difficulty understanding the motivators of others that are very different from their own.

Since motivators are judgment free, they are suggestive of what we hold as individuals to be important. They are what give us a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Motivators add depth and dimension to behaviors by providing insight into “why we do what we do.” Psychologists often refer to the motivators as the initiators of behavior.
enumerate non financial Motivators
Non-financial Motivators
These include:
•  Free Children education
•  Discount on firms products
•  Health care facilities
•  Company vehicle
•  Free accommodation
•  Expense for clothing and food
•  Leave travel allowance
•  Pension facilities
Job rotation
Where workers switch from one job to another. So a worker is doing different jobs on different times. Usually these jobs are of the same type and do not involve any extra responsibility or skills. The idea is to give variety to the worker.
Job enlargement
It involves increasing the scope of a job or broadening the task assigned to the worker. More variety in the job carried out by the worker leads to more job satisfaction.
Job enrichment
Where employees are given greater depth to their range of tasks rather than simply a wider variety of tasks of a similar level. They take part in decision making and problem solving. They help set targets and accept responsibility for the organisation and the quality of their own work.
Team working
This is where a group of workers is given responsibility for a particular process, product or development. The group is free to decide the way the job is done and how to organise the job. Each worker is involved in decision making and is responsible for the results. This creates a sense of purpose and commitment to the job at hand thus leading to greater job satisfaction.

Empowerment involves giving people greater control over their working lives. Organising the labour force into teams with a high degree of autonomy can achieve this. This means that employees plan their own work, take their own decisions and solve their own problems. Teams are set targets to achieve and may receive rewards for doing so. Empowered teams are an increasingly popular method of organising employees at work.

20 Tips for No-Money Reward and Recognition
1.      Post a thank-you note on the employee's or team member’s office door.
2.      Have your director    call an employee or team member to thank him or her for a job well done, or have the same person visit the employee at his or her workplace.
3.      Greet employees and colleagues by name when you pass their desks or pass them in the hall.
4.      When discussing an employee's or a group's ideas with other people, peers, or higher management, make sure you give credit.
5.      Acknowledge individual achievements by using people’s names when preparing status reports.
6.      Name a continuing recognition award after an outstanding employee.
7.      Ask five people in your department or company to go up to the person sometime during the day and say "{Your name} asked me to thank you for [the task or achievement]. Good job!"
8.      Write five or more Post-it notes thanking the person for a job well done and hide them among the work on his or her desk.
9.      Have lunch or coffee with an employee or a group of employees you don't normally see.
10. Make a thank you card by hand.
11. Lunch outings for the entire group as an everyone-pays-his-own-way event. The value is in the going, so encourage but don't force anyone who isn't comfortable going with the group.
12. A personal letter of thanks to the employee or team member from the CEO/senior manager for a significant contribution (you might need to get the information to this person before the letter can be written).
13. Let the person you are recognizing know what you are doing or requesting on his or her behalf (i.e., send the person a copy of your requesting memo). Even if upper management doesn't approve the request, the person will know you were trying.
14. Clippings of special articles on a topic you know is meaningful to the individual. Attach a note to relate the articles to something that is special to the person.
15. Share verbal accolades. Don't forget to forward voice mail messages that compliment a team member’s work.
16. Ask a person to teach or share his accomplishment with others as a way of recognizing the person's ability and role.
17. Ask a person for advice or her opinion; this demonstrates respect.
18. Recognize an individual's accomplishments in front of peers -- yours or theirs.
19. Practice positive nonverbal behaviours that demonstrate appreciation.
20. Make a large calendar that can be posted. Call it the "celebration calendar" and use Post-Its and written notes of recognition tacked onto specific dates to honour contributions made by team members.

3.which theory of Motivation appeals to you why?

One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.

As per his theory this needs are :
(i) Physiological needs :
These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work.
(ii) Security or Safety needs :
These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm.
(iii) Social needs :
Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship.
(iv) Esteem needs :
According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as states, recognition and attention.
(v) Need for self-actualization :
Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something.

As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level.
Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theory. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it.
Importance of Hierarchy of Needs Theory

it holds many advantages or merits. It helps the managers to understand the behaviour of their employees. It also helps the managers to provide the right financial and non-financial motivation to their employees. This overall helps to increase the efficiency, productivity and profitability of the organisation.

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Leo Lingham


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18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
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