Human Resources/Kindly guide

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Question
Dear sir,
Kindly guide me solve be mention questions.

1.how business practices are changing?
2.discuss the business unit strategic planning?
3.explain the marketing decision support system.
4.what is organizational behaviour.
5.describe the market change strategies.
6.discuss the product life cycle.
7. write a short note on brand decision
8.explain the three additional Ps.
9.what is multi channel system.
10.how to managing the integrated marketing communication process.
11.discuss the public relation
12.what is the principles of personal selling
13.write a short note on marketing organization.

Regards,
Yogesh Mishra

Answer

HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
SOME  ANSWERS  HELD  BACK  DUE TO  SPACE CONSTRAINT.
PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
leolingham2000@gmail.com.
I  will send  the balance  asap.
Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================





1.How business practices are changing?


1.A  NUMBER  OF   ORGANIZATIONS ARE  ADOPTING  
BUSINESS  PLANNING

-Planning   change initiatives to deliver maximum benefit.
-Making  Change  to deliver  the  strategy and improving the performance of your business, enabling  to improve profitability, increase market share and provide a better service for an increased customer base.
-making  Initiatives which should quickly deliver benefits
-making  changes  in Resources  allocation  that deliver most benefit to the business
-using IT  information to recognise issues before they arise
-using Real time information about the implementation of  the   strategy and the  strategic initiatives
-utilising Instant access, to appropriate reporting, on the status of  the  Change Programme.

2.A  NUMBER  OF   ORGANIZATIONS ARE  ADOPTING  
 STRATEGIC    PLANNING
Taking control of change , putting in place a strategy , is the formula for success. Companies that take time to plan for the future achieve improved profitability, are in control, and eun a more stable, productive work-force.
Continuous revision of the plan is the environment for on-going success
It is a plan to identify and implement your goals and the objectives you have for your company.
A  STRATEGIC  PLAN is not a business or a financial plan; rather it will establish direction, what you want to do with your life and the relationship of these personal goals to your business objectives. Within any business you can only manage what you can measure. Where there is no plan, there is no measure of success.
Once you and your team have reached a consensus on direction the next stage is to plan the route to achieve your success strategy
Managing the implementation of a strategy is a core competency of a successful organisation .
-to ensure that profit and business benefit are acheived is complex. It is not simply a matter of managing projects.
-Every business initiative must be aligned with the strategy
-Every change initiative has to be tracked to determine whether it is delivering the forecast level of benefit in the required timescales.

3.MORE  COMPANIES  ARE USING  ''IT'' TECHNOLOGY
FOR  MANAGING  ORGANIZATION.

THE  INFORMATION  SYSTEM  IS   A  VALUABLE  RESOURCE
FOR  ANY  BUSINESS  PERSON, AS  IT   HELPS

-to make  timely  decision on   business
which helps  to develop  /  grow  the  business
which  in turn helps  to  improve  performance
which  in turn  helps  to  improve  the  productivity
which  in turn  helps  to   achieve  the  best results [ revenue/profit]
==============================================

The   information system  is  used  for   various  purposes,like

-strategic planning
-delivering increased  productivity
-reducing  service cycles
-reducing  product development  cycles
-reducing  marketing life cycles
-increasing  the  understanding  of  customers' needs
-facilitating business and  process re-engineering.

IS   is  also  be used across the  organization  as an  information
utility  to

-support  policy making
-meet  regulatory  and  legislative requirements
-support  research  and  development
-support  consistent and  rapid  decision  making
-enable  effective  and efficient  utilization  of resources
-provide evidence of  business transactions
-identify  and  manage  risks
-evaluate  and document quality, performance and achievements.

MAKING INFORMATION  AVAILABLE
The  availability  of  information is  fundamental  to  the  decision making
process. Decisions  are  made within the organization at
-STRATEGIC
-OPERATIONAL
-PROGRAMMES
-ACTIVITY  LEVEL.

The  information  needs and decision making  activities  of the  
various  levels of  management

SENIOR  MANAGEMENT  use  IS  for
Strategic business  direction

-information  for  strategically positioning  the  organization
-competitive  analysis and  performance evaluation,
-strategic  planning and policy,
-external factors that  influence  the  direction
etc
---------------------------------------------------------

MID LEVEL MANAGEMENT  use  IS  for
Organizational and operational functions

-information  for  coordination  of  work units
-information  for  delivery  programmes
-evaluation  of  resources usage
-budget control
-problem  solving
-operational  planning
etc
------------------------------------------------------------
MID  LEVEL  MANAGEMENT  use  IS  for
Programme  management within units

-information  for  implementing programmes
-information  for  managing   programmes
-management   of  resources usage
-project scheduling
-problem  solving
-operational  planning
etc
-------------------------------------------------------------
LINE  MANAGEMENT  use IS  for
Activity management

-information for  routine  decision  making
-information  for  problem solving
-information  for  service delivery
etc.
========================================
MANAGEMENT  SUPPORT  SYSTEMS  IN  MIS

The  management  oriented  support  systems   provide support
to  various  levels  of  management.

Executive  Information  Systems  allow  executives to see where  a
problem  or  opportunity  exists.

Decision  Support  Systems are  used  by  mid-level management  
to support  the  solution  of  problems that  require judgement
by  the  problem solver.

Line  Managers   use Management  Reporting Systems  for  
routine operational  information.
============================================
4.MORE  ORGANIZATIONS  ARE MOVING
INTO  THE  GLOBAL  MARKET.
-using  the  marketing  information systems.
===================================
5.BUSINESSES   ARE  USING,MORE  THAN EVER,
HRIS  software      TO  MANAGE  THE  HUMAN
RESOURCE  OPERATION.
======================================
6.ORGANIZATIONS  ARE  USING  INCREASINGLY
THE ''ERP'' SOFTWARE  TO  MANAGE  EFFECTIVELY
-supply  chain
-procurement
-production planning
-warehousing
etc
=====================================
7.RECRUITMENT,  A  WIDE   SELECTION
PROCESS  IS  USED  TO  LOCATE  APPLICANTS.
1. Reference
2. Available data base
3. Ad on job portals
4. Mass mail
5. Job Portals search
6. Head hunting
7. Cold calls
=========================================
##############################################
2. Discuss the business unit strategic planning.

The  STRATEGIC  PLANNING  is  THE SEED   that

FUNCTIONALLY,    provides  

-opportunity   to  determine  the  environmental  impact  on the
organization /  business  UNIT.

-opportunity  to   assess  the  organization's  strengths/ weaknesses.

-opportunity  to  determine  the  business UNIT'S  opportunities/ threats
to  business.

-opportunity  to  develop   strategic  plans for the  BUSINESS  UNIT.

-opportunity  to  develop  long term/short  term  plans.

-opportunity  to  develop  a   vision  for  the  organization.

-opportunity  to  develop  a  mission  statement  for  the  organization.

-opportunity  to  develop    business  UNIT'S objectives for the  organization.

-opportunity  to  develop  business  UNIT'Sstrategies  for the  organization.

-opportunity  to  develop   the  action/ implementation planning
guidelines, which  provides  the  platform  for  

*helps  to   set  up and develop  organization  and  staffing.

*helps  to set  direction  for  the  organization  approach.

*helps  to  select  the  right  leadership  

*helps  to  select /  set  the  most  appropriate control.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SKILLWISE ,  The  STRATEGIC  PLANNING  is  THE SEED   that
provides   opportunity  to  use  various  skills/ knowledge  levels

-analytical  
-problem  solving
-making  judgement  
-decision  making
-lateral  thinking

-communication
-presentation
-negotiation

-goal setting
-evaluation
etc
====================================
STRATEGIC  PLANNING  IS  THE  PREMIER  FUNCTION,
without  this  seed,

-you  cannot  organize

-without  organization , you   cannot   direct

-without  direction, you  cannot  control.

-without  control , you  cannot  get results.


For  success/ results,  you  need  STRATEGIC  PLANNING.

HENCE  STRATEGIC  PLANNING  IS   THE  PRIMARY  seed
OF  ANY  ORGANIZATION  [  SMALL  OR  LARGE ]
===================================================
The process of strategic  planning has become essential for the organization interested in obtaining significant results. It matters little whether the organization is large or small or whether it is in the private sector or government service. When an organization has the need to move into the future with a high degree of confidence in what that future holds, it needs strategic  planning. The integrated approach of deciding on a set of long-range goals and then developing the objectives and plans to reach them is the most reliable tool that the organization can use to define its own future and ensure success. In other words, it is the surest way that the management team can become  "system makers"––people who are willing to take the time to make things happen instead of responding only when their buttons are pushed.6


THE  STRATEGIC  PLANNING --the seed -- helps you tie those opportunities to plan and optimize at a high level
over the long term. You can set overall objectives for capital utilization for capital  intensive
equipment, inventory and materials (direct and indirect), and labor.

With  STRATEGIC   PLANNING   SYSTEM  , you can:
• Drive tactical and operational plans based on STRATEGIC  vision and direction
• Optimize asset utilization including capacity and materials
• Support growth by identifying and proactively removing constraints
• Reduce risk by evaluating alternatives and outcomes before deciding
• Simplify   make/buy   decisions.


THE   STRATEGIC  PLANNING   SYSTEM
integrates the necessary competitive analyses, peer comparisons, and industry averages
that give STRATEGIC   Planning the proper context.  You see the entire set of
business opportunities and tie the financial analytics to the business issues, activities,
and processes that drive them. The result: a well aligned organization thats positioned
for long-term success.

¥ React faster to market changes
¥ Measure and compare your supply chain performance against competition
¥ Adjust your strategic plan frequently
¥ Analyze the ramifications of M&A opportunities
¥ Avoid excess warehouse capacity and unused equipment
¥ Perform long-range planning and analysis to determine the impact of simultaneous
business decision combinations
¥ Confidently optimize your supply chain network


THE  STRATEGIC  PLANNING    SYSTEM  delivers solutions that synchronize corporate planning with operations planning and
execution on a local and enterprise level, to ensure all assets are utilized to achieve strategic
objectives. This enables manufacturers to reduce the cost of goods sold, shorten lead-times for
orders and reduce inventory costs with improved supply chain collaboration and management.

Real  Solutions...Measurable Results
=====================================================
. Key elements of the strategic planning process.

1. External Assessment

Areas for opportunities and threats

* Markets [ what  is  the market  situation, which is forcing the change requirements
*Customers [ how can service the customer -internal / external -better .          
* Industry  [ is  the  industry  trend ]
* Competition [ is  it the  competitive situation      
*Factors of  business [ causing  the change]
* Technology [ is  it  technology  change ]

2. Internal Assessment

Areas  for strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to success

ORGANIZATION DIMENSIONS
*Culture  [ is the  working  culture  change ]
* Organization [  is the  organization  demanding  change ]
* Systems  [ is it  the  systems change ]
* Management practices  [ change in  managemement process]


OTHER KEY DIMENSIONS

*Cost efficiency[  is it for  cost efficiency ]
* Financial  performance  [ is  it for  financial  performance improvement ]
* Quality [ is  it for  quality  performance improvement
*Service [ is  it for  service   performance improvement
*Technology[ is  it for  technology   performance improvement
* Market segments [ is  it for  sales  performance improvement
* Innovation[ is  it for    performance improvement
*new products[ is  it for new product   performance improvement
*Asset condition[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement
*productivity[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement

3. Source  Strategic  objectives  and  programs

The critical issues that must be addressed if the organization
Is  to  succeed
Strengths
Weaknesses
  Opportunities
  Threat

PRIORITY   ISSUES

FROM  THE  ABOVE , DETERMINE   THE  CORE  ISSUES
WHICH  NEEDS  TO  SOLVED  WITH  YOUR  INVESTMENT.

STRATEGIC  PROGRAMS

FROM  THE  ABOVE  CORE  ISSUES , DETERMINE  YOUR
STRATEGIC  PROGRAMS.

 Mission  STATEMENT

VISION    STATEMENT

  Your CORE  PURPOSE  

   Your   CORE   OBJECTIVES
   Your   Core markets;
  Your  CORE  strategic thrusts.

BUSINESS DEFINITION:

The arena of products, services, customers, technologies, distribution methods, and geography in which you'll compete to get results.

  VALUES:
  Desired attitudes and behavior toward internal and external stakeholders that
will yield the culture and business results you want and that you will execute and turn into
action through

-policy,
-programs,
-processes,
-procedures,
-personnel selection.

levels and tiers of strategies

OVERALL FINANCIAL POSTURE
Grow; hold; milk; get out

PRIORITIES AND POSTURES
(Grow; hold; milk)
Market; business unit; product/services


Internal development
Divest
Restructure

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
Cost /Value/ differentiation


EXTERNAL STRATEGIES

Product      Convenience
Service      Image
Target customer      Geography
Distribution      Product design
Delivery      Quality
Value      Reliability
Pricing      Advertising/promotion

INTERNAL STRATEGIES

People/skills / Facilities
Organizational /   Product
structure    /         development
Management style   /Incentives/rewards
Training      Spending
Equipment      Sourcing/
         manufacturing
technology          /    Systems
R&D          /   Service
FINANCING        /  Quality
  

Strategy Statement Content

v Priorities and Posture
  Business unit
  Market
  Product
  Strategic thrust/competitive advantage
  External strategies
  Internal strategic thrust
  Internal strategies
  Strategic fixes
--------------------------------------------------
8. Strategic  Program Content

LEADERSHIP: who

OBJECTIVES

KEY STEPS: who, what, when

FINANCIAL AND STRATEGIC
GAIN AND COST

PEOPLE: numbers and skills

COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS:

People and organizational units outside your control who must contribute

LEVERAGE: the high leverage individuals and units who must contribute at lower levels

Strategic
Accountability~/Reviews

QUARTERLY: Programs and strategic numbers' progress

INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES:
Performance appraisal

REWARDS AND CONSEQUENCES: Based on strategic performance of teams and individuals

INFORMAL VIGILANCE
=========================================

#################################################

3. Explain the marketing decision support system.

MARKETING  INFORMATION  SYSTEM
DECISION  SUPPORT  SYSTEM

MARKETING  INFORMATION SYSTEM   is  an integrated  information  system, which is  used to provide
MARKETING  management  with  needed information on a  regular basis .



The information  can be  used  for   various  purposes,

-strategic planning
-delivering increased  productivity
-reducing  service cycles
-reducing  product development  cycles
-reducing  marketing life cycles
-increasing  the  understanding  of  customers' needs
-facilitating business and  process re-engineering.

THE INFORMATION CAN ALSO    can  also  be used across the  organization  as an  information
utility  to

-support  policy making
-meet  regulatory  and  legislative requirements
-support  research  and  development
-support  consistent and  rapid  decision  making
-enable  effective  and efficient  utilization  of resources
-provide evidence of  business transactions
-identify  and  manage  risks
-evaluate  and document quality, performance and achievements.

MAKING INFORMATION  AVAILABLE
The  availability  of  information is  fundamental  to  the  decision making
process. Decisions  are  made within the organization at
-STRATEGIC
-OPERATIONAL
-PROGRAMMES
-ACTIVITY  LEVEL.

The  information  needs and decision making  activities  of the  
various  levels of  management

SENIOR  MANAGEMENT
Strategic business  direction

-information  for  strategically positioning  the  organization
-competitive  analysis and  performance evaluation,
-strategic  planning and policy,
-external factors that  influence  the  direction
etc

MID LEVEL MANAGEMENT
Organizational and operational functions

-information  for  coordination  of  work units
-information  for  delivery  programmes
-evaluation  of  resources usage
-budget control
-problem  solving
-operational  planning
etc


MID  LEVEL  MANAGEMENT
Programme  management within units

-information  for  implementing programmes
-information  for  managing   programmes
-management   of  resources usage
-project scheduling
-problem  solving
-operational  planning
etc




LINE  MANAGEMENT
Activity management

-information for  routine  decision  making
-information  for  problem solving
-information  for  service delivery
etc.

MANAGEMENT  SUPPORT  SYSTEMS

The  management  oriented  support  systems   provide support
to  various  levels  of  management.

Executive  Information  Systems  allow  executives to see where  a
problem  or  opportunity  exists.

Decision  Support  Systems are  used  by  mid-level management  
to support  the  solution  of  problems that  require judgement
by  the  problem solver.

Line  Managers   use Management  Reporting Systems  for  
routine operational  information.


IN   MARKETING   INFORMATION  SYSTEM,
FUNCTIONAL   INFORMATION  SYSTEMS

These  include

-PROVIDE   INFORMATION   FOR  DECISION  MAKERS  TO  MAKE  SOLUTIONS
FOR   THE  MOST  CHALLENGING  SITUATIONS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE    INFORMATION  FOR  MAKING  STRATEGIC  DECISIONS
IN A  COMPETITIVE  SITUATION.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR   STRATEGIC  PLANNING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  CORPORATE  PLANNING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  BUSINESS  PLANNING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  MARKETING  PLANNING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  INDUSTRY BENCHMARKING.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  PROCESS  ENGINEERING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  PRICING  MANAGEMENT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE INFORMATION  FOR  REVENUE  MANAGEMENT
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION FOR  DEVELOPING   STRATEGIC  ALLIANCES.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR   ALLOCATING  OF   RESOURCES
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  RESOURCE  MANAGEMENT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  MANAGEMENT  INFORMATION SYSTEMS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  Identifying strategic shifts and positioning  WITH   clients in anticipation of several possible outcomes – scenario planning --is a core part of our strategic and tactical planning.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO  SEE  Changes in market conditions, technical advances, and economic issues will all affect THE  INDUSTRY /  BUSINESS  in the future.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO   find the most effective marketing strategies in order to succeed in these challenging times.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  PROPRIETARY  DATABASES  AND  ANALYTICAL  SUPPORT.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  ON  ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS-PAST/PRESENT/FUTURE.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  THAT  enables  to provide  valuable understanding of the opportunities, challenges, potential pitfalls and market implications
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  WHICH   helps organizations realize the most value from their  assets.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDES  INFORMATION  TO  CONDUCT

portfolio management, remarketing assistance, sale and lease negotiations, asset sourcing and acquisition, appraisal and valuation,  auditS and management and expert testimony.
----------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  THE  RIGHT INFORMATION for  a clear and disciplined approach to
financial planning is vital to ensure success.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  OBJECTIVE  PLANNING.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION   FOR the execution of effective business planning and sound management usually defines these differences in profitability.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE   INFORMATION  TO   analyze and prioritize the  BUSINESS  drivers to help to  achieve a superior competitive position. Vital to this process is an understanding of the economic advantages of scale and scope.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDES   INFORMATION  FOR  Operational excellence results in the attainment of world-class quality and productivity in the delivery of services to customers
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDES  INFORMATION  to develop a clear understanding of their operating practices and associated costs, particularly relative to competitors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
When  running a  BUSINESS, the right information systems can have a critical impact operating costs, operating effectiveness, and customer satisfaction.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=========================================================================
THE OBJECTIVE  IS  TO  PROVIDE  THE   MANAGEMENT, A  RANGE  OF  
Business Intelligence
Business Performance Management
Business rules
Data Mining
Predictive analytics
Purchase order request
Enterprise Architecture
Information technology management
Knowledge Base
Online analytical processing
ETC ETC
===========================================================
THE EXPECTATIONS   OF  THE  MANAGEMENT   OF  MARKETING
INFORMATION SYSTEM
are to:
reach an understanding of the relevant processes on the basis of the available historic information. This element forms the basis for the development of models, required for forecasting and simulation.
provide information on the current situation, especially for early warning purposes, for instance related to issues impacting on business,  resources or business status.
forecast changes and impacts, either natural or man-made, as an element in vulnerability assessments.
forecast the consequences of policy decisions and measures before they are implemented in reality. This implies evaluating options for several given scenarios based on the possible results and predicted consequences, and selecting the most acceptable alternative.
==============================================================
Marketing  Information  Systems
-product group  sales
-customer    total  sales
-territory  sales
-regional sales
-national  sales
-channel  sales
- Average value and/or volume of sale by CUSTOMER
- Average value and/or volume of sale by type of CHANNELt
- Average value and/or volume of sale by  COUNTRY
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2A].Your  promotional  activities  by  individual  territories /  total  promotional  spend.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2B].COMPETITIVE  ACTIVITIES  BY   regions
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2C]  MONTHLY  IMPORTS  into  the  country
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2D].MARKET  INTELLIGENCE  BY  region
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 E]MONTHLY  TOTAL  SALES  VS TARGET [ % ACHIEVEMENT ]
  YEAR  TO  DATE  SALES  VS  TARGET  [ % ACHIEVEMENT ]
=========================================================
2F]BUSINESS INFORMATION  TRENDS.
2G]COMPETITIVE  INFORMATION.
2H]ANY SIGNIFICANT  MARKET  TRENDS.
2I ]POLITICAL  TRENDS/CHANGES
2J] LEGAL  IMPLICATIONS
2K] FISCAL  POLICIES  TRENDS/CHANGES
2L] MONETARY  POLICIES  TRENDS/CHANGES
2M] TRADE   POLICIES  TRENDS/ CHANGES.
2N] ECONOMIC  POLICIES TRENDS/ CHANGES
2O] TECHNOLOGICAL  CHANGES [  that  could   affect  the  sales]
=========================================================
2P]  Economic - rate of growth of GNP, level of inflation, incomes
2Q]  Social - people, demographics, culture, subculture
2R]  Political - risk, instability, attitudes to "foreigners"
2S]  Technology - current, rate of change, infrastructure
2T]  Resources - money, manpower, materials, acquisitions, joint ventures
2U ] Fiscal - taxes, exchange rates
2V]  Institutions - money markets
2X] Managerial - funds
2Y] MARKET  ANALYSIS
-customer  attitudes/behavior
-spending  power
-per  capita income
-channels  of  distribution /effectiveness
-market  potential
-media  potential/effectiveness
-Economic - rate of growth, structure, conduct, capital, economic blocs, (SADC), GNP, GDP, Nl
-Political/Legal - laws, regulations, investment, "climate", government ideology, stability
-Competition - type, structure, operations, strategy plans, programmes, acquisitions, mergers
-Terms of access - quotas, tariffs, duties etc
-Inflation   rate
-------------------------------------------------
#########################################

 4. What is organizational behaviour?
. Explain the organization behavior.
Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.
As you can see from the definition above, organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc.

Elements of Organizational Behavior
The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.

Models of Organizational Behavior
There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of:
Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation
Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives
Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.
The first model, autocratic, had its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models begin to build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one "best" model. The collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.


Why Study Organizational Behavior?

1   Success isn’t a destination – it’s a process.  And the margin between successes is often small.  Learn the principles of defining and achieving success in your own life and begin the journey today.
2   This journey begins with understanding the behaviors between the leader, the followers, and the organization.
3   This is also a leadership course of study.  To be successful leader, one needs to understand the behaviors of people, organizations, and the situation.


Organizational Behavior

1   Is organizational behavior really just common sense ?
2   When employees are happy workers are more productive .  
3   Friendly, trusting, and approachable bosses can motivate their workers.
4   Leaders who exhibit a stable behavior, regardless of the situations faced, make the best leaders.
5   Experiences have shown us that interviews where the interviewer leads with “tell me about yourself” are very effective selection methods.
6   A challenging job appeals to everyone.  

1   When people feel a little intimidated, they will work harder and do their best.
2   Nonspecific goals allowing individuals to work at their own pace will motivate individuals to work harder.
3   Money is a motivator for all employees.
4   Most people are much more concerned about their own salaries than they are about the salaries of others.
5   Conflict has a negative effect on work group effectiveness.  


Organizational Behavior
1   Does organizational behavior (OB) require a systematic study ?
2   Many people think OB is just common sense.
3   Some would add OB is just intuition.


Intuition versus Common Sense
Common Sense Defined
  The unreflective opinion of ordinary men and women, unsophisticated judgment.

Intuition Defined
A feeling not necessarily supported by research.

Organizational Behavior
1   Does organizational behavior (OB) require a systematic study?
2   The answer is YES!!!
  Consistency vs. Individual Differences
3   Systematic Study
4   Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence.
5   Behavior is generally predictable.
6   There are differences between individuals.
7   There are fundamental consistencies.
8   There are rules (written & unwritten) in almost every setting.


What is an Organization?
1   This behavior occurs in organizations.
2   Organizations are simply groups with two or more people that share a certain set of goals and meet at regular times.

Looking at the Big Picture
1   The number one reason for failure among executives of Fortune 500 companies is poor interpersonal skills.  In short, they don’t have a command of the needed people skills and, as a result, they come across as not really caring about their people.
  
  Organizations and OB
2   What is changing that requires a more systematic study?  
3   Organizations
4   Diversity
5   Global competition
6   Technology’s influence on behavior
7   Society – social changes

Looking at the Big Picture
1   With strong interpersonal skills through a study in organizational behavior, we can begin to predict how others will behave in a given situation.  What a valuable leadership skill to have!
  
  Organizational Behavior   
2   Human behavior depends on contingencies.
3   Behavior can be predicted, but you have to understand the circumstances.
4   Understanding circumstances and predicting behavior require a systematic study.


Developing an OB Model
1   Dependent variables
2    Productivity
3    Absenteeism
4    Turnover
5    Job Satisfaction


Developing an OB Model
1   Independent variables
2   Individual-level variables
3   Group-level variables
4   Organizational systems-level variables

Basic OB Model
1   Independent Variables
2   Dependent Variables
  
1   Behavior can be predicted, but you have to understand the circumstances.
  
  Summary
2   Organizations come in many shapes and sizes – we need to study these.
3   Behavior of organizations, groups, and individuals, if studied, is predictable.
4   To study Organizational Behavior, one needs to move from an intuition and common sense approach to a systematic study.
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5. Describe the market change strategies.

AS  THE  MARKET  CHANGES,  THE  MARKETERS
CHANGE  THE STRATEGIES.

*CHANGING  PRICES   STRATEGY

-develop  a  pricing  strategy  which  will allow  the  organization  to  lower  prices
to  gain market monoploy  and / or prevent competition from entering.
===========================================================
*IMPROVING  PRODUCT  DIFFERENTIATION  STRATEGY

-improve  the  product  features/ benefits  to gain significant  advantage in the  market.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-develop  and  implement  innovations  in  the  manufacturing  process  to gain
advantage  for  the  product  cost/ distribution.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-develop  a  brand  consciousness  in the  market  to  reduce  substitution  from  
entering  the  market.
=============================================
*CREATIVELY  USING  CHANNELS  OF  DISTRIBUTION   STRATEGY

-using  vertical  integration, to  acquire  a  channel  and dominate.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-developing   a   new / unique distribution channel  which  is  a  novel
to  the  industry.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
*EXPLOITING  RELATIONSHIP  WITH  SUPPLIERS  STRATEGY

-developing  /  setting   E-COMMERCE   with suppliers.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-developing/ extending  TQM [total  quality management]  and JIT [just in time]
with  suppliers to  meet  the demands  of  product specifications / price.
==================================================
*COST  LEADERSHIP
-develop  the  manufacturing  to  achieve  a  gross  margin, which
could  be  used  to cut price  to  gain  market  share, if/when required.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-develop  the  product  sourcing  from   anywhere,   to  achieve  a  gross  margin, which
could  be  used  to cut price  to  gain  market  share, if/when required.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-develop  a   trade  rebate system  for  large  quantity  buyers
which  could  block  competitors  entry.
==============================================
*PRODUCT  DIFFERENTIATION  STRATEGY
-develop  unique  patented  or  proprietary  product  know-how
which  is hard  to copy/ compete.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-develop   an   unique  customer loyalty program
which will  make  brand  switching   difficult.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-develop   a  incentive  strategy  for  major buyers, so  that
they  would  always  use  your  brand.
============================================
*FOCUS   STRATEGY
-within  your  organization, develop  your  core competences
which  are  unique  for  your  product  /  market.
----------------------------------------------------------------
-develop  a  strategy  to  lift  the  profile/ image  of  
your  organization.
===================================
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6.   Discuss the product life cycle.
) Product Life Cycle

PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

Products pass through a series of stages. Successful products progress through four basic stages: (1) Introduction; (2) Growth; (3) Maturity; and (4) Decline.

The product life cycle concept provides important insights about developments at the various stages of the product's life. Knowledge that profits assume a predictable pattern through the stages and that promotional emphasis should shift from product information in the early stages to product promotion in the later stages should allow the marketing manager to improve planning.

=======================================
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE   BENEFITS


Here is a brief description of what is expected to take place in the stages of the life cycle:

1.   Initiation starts with the initial conception or discovery of the product idea and runs until it has been evaluated, has become specific, and has been approved for development.

2.   Development covers the various activities that transform an abstract product idea into a concrete prototype model of the product (if it is a tangible good) that can be manufactured.

3.   Market plans and tests is our term for the final gestation phase, in which the product would pass its last tests and everything be ready for commercialising it.

4.   Introduction starts when the offering is made available to buyers, probably on a limited scale, and continues as it is tried by innovators and experiences show slow sales growth.

5.   Growth begins when numerous tryers like the product, word of its virtues spread, and the product sales "take off". Since the product is not established until this takes place, we include it in this chapter of "evolving products6.   Maturity comes eventually, for the halcyon days of sharply rising demand vanish when most potential buyers have become actual customers. This may be a very long period during which demand decelerates and then reaches a plateau.

7.   Decline sets in persistently when the product eventually becomes obsolete. When it actually starts to toboggan, it is time to give the product a merciful death and burial.

The marketing strategist should never assume that the PLC operates inexorably, but should rather examine a brand's or product's actual position carefully. Further a serious effort should be made to find a winning strategy can revive a slumping demand, rather than summarily abandoning the possibility. In that context, the PLC does pose a hypothesis of product or brand behaviour that is useful for sales forecasting. It also enables us to clarify strategies in terms of their timeliness.

==============================================
WHY YOU  SHOULD USE THL CURVE    FOR ANALYSIS

The product life cycle curve can be extremely important in generating strategist, and it should be monitored and controlled by the marketing manager. This is necessary due primarily to five reasons:

1 . Rapid Maturity of Products
2. Life Cycle Product Mix
3. Strategic Implications
4. Product Planning
5. Changing the Life Cycle Curve

=============================================

THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

Successful products progress through four basic stages: Introduction. Growth. Maturity and Decline. This progression is known as the Product Life Cycle.

1.INTRODUCTION

The company's objective in the early stages of the product life cycle is to stimulate demand for the new market entry. Since the product is not known to the public, promotional campaigns stress information about its features and benefits. They also may be directed toward marketing intermediaries in the channel to induce them to carry the product.

In this phase, the public becomes acquainted with the merits of the product and begins to accept it.

Losses are common during the introductory stage due to heavy promotion and extensive research and development expenditures.

However, the ground is being laid for future profits. Companies expect.to recover the costs and to begin earning profits when the new product moves into the second phase of its life cycle   the growth stage.


2.GROWTH

Sales volumes rise rapidly during the growth stage as new customers make initial purchases and early buyers re purchase the product. 'Word of mouthl and advertising induce hesitant buyers to make trial purchases.

As the company begins to realise substantial profits from its investment during the growth stage, the product attracts competitors.

Success breads imitation and other companies rush into the market with competitive products. The majority of firms in a particular market enter during the growth stage.


3.MATURITY

Industry sales continue to grow during the early part of the maturity stage, but eventually they reach a plateau as the backlog of potential customers is exhausted. By this time, a large number of competitors have entered the market, and profits decline as competition intensifies.

In the maturity stage, differences among competing products diminish as competitors discover the product and promotional characteristics most desired by the market. Heavy promotional outlays emphasise subtle differences among competing products, and brand competition intensifies.

In this stage, often available products exceed industry demand. Companies attempting to increase their sales and market share must do so at the expense of competitors.

As competition intensifies, the competitors tend to cut prices in an attempt to attract new buyers. Even though a price reduction may be the easiest method of inducing additional purchases, it is also one of the simplest moves for, competitors to duplicate.

Reduced prices result in decreased revenues for all firms in the industry unless the price cuts produce enough increased purchases to offset the loss in revenue on each item sold.

     
4.DECLINE

In the final stage of the product's life, innovations or customer preferences bring about an absolute decline in industry sales.

Sales and profits decline and companies begin to leave the industry in search of more profitable products.
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Human Resources

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human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

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18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

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