Human Resources/Assignment:Organisational Development and management of change
Analysis the need for executive development program mes. Do you think the executive development program mes now followed in Indian industry are adequate?
Analysis the need executive development programmes. do you think the executive development now followed in Indian industry are adequate?
Executive Development Programme
The Executive Development Programme (EDP) is a management training programme specifically designed for today’s managers and supervisors
There is no single skill that makes a successful manager! To be effective in today’s demanding business world it is essential for managers to have comprehensive “all round knowledge” that will allow them to effectively contribute to the objectives and success of the organization - for too long managers have concentrated merely on their individual units, perhaps meeting their own goals, but failing to meet the overall objectives of their organisation, and therefore jeopardizing the organisation’s survival.
The EDP has been designed with this in mind, offering participants the opportunity to gain know-how in the key business functions. Managers, whether newly appointed or experienced need to be able to understand the professional arena of today and appreciate the many different areas that contribute to the productivity, and ultimate success, of the organisation.
The most essential ingredient lies with “people”, but as managers do we understand “people” – how they function, what influences them, how we get the very best out of them, what makes them motivated, productive and how to gain long term commitment; how engaged are employees - employee engagement has proven to be a vital component in having a committed and productive workforce, yet many managers do not possess the necessary skills to offer constructive feedback to their teams – in fact often, managers are afraid of giving feedback, not appreciating that this can lead to better performance and higher productivity!
Furthermore, managers today must understand strategic concepts and have a clear “road map” if they are to succeed – it is no longer enough for the organisations owners to dictate the strategy; managers need to have the know-how and skills to actively contribute to their organisation’s overall strategy. They need to be able to understand the market, know their competitors and how to approach potential customers. This will include having the skills to effectively manage current customers – knowing how to build and retain long lasting relationships as well as being aware of the many channels available for promotion that will ultimately increase the customer portfolio
And, of course, without correct financial knowledge organisations can very quickly become non-viable; today more than ever before “everyone” must be able to interpret key financial information so as to make the correct decisions needed for organisations to move forward.
By better understanding these business areas managers at all levels will be able to contribute to their organizations’ objectives, as well as increase their prospects of a successful professional career.
Key benefits to the participant
• Understand how successful businesses are run from an all-round perspective; financial, strategic, and marketing
• Gain a broad understanding of managerial concepts, techniques and decision-making skills
• Practice implementing the key functions of a manager through hands-on exercises
• Develop the ability to engage, recognize and motivate others
• Understand the basics of coaching to turn talent into strengths
• Examine proven tools to set and manage performance expectations
• Learn to create and maintain effective teams
• Discover ways to work through difficult conversations and discipline issues
• Learn strategies for introducing change and leading through organizational change successfully
Key benefits to the organization
• Develop the brightest staff into effective, professional managers
• Help managers realize their full potential – for themselves and their company
• Motivate managers to develop and implement the Company’s business strategy
• Inspire managers to devote their talents to the company’s success
• Let the most talented young executives know they are valued
• Enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the company
The approach to learning is highly interactive with a blend of best practices, principles and skills that can be taken back to the job and immediately applied. Decision-making exercises, role play and other action-based learning activities are also used to help participants discover more about their own management, teamwork and leadership style. The trainers bring real world business experience and keep content fresh and current with managerial techniques that respond to today’s work environment
Trends in Executive Development
The world around us is changing fast - and unpredictably. Old certainties are collapsing.
Development with impact
Organisations can no longer afford development for development’s sake. Executive development must have an impact, supporting the organisation in its strategic intent. And the impact needs to be both immediate and sustainable. This has a number of implications:
• What will the programme do for you?
Firstly the organisation, its learning team and their business school partner all need to be clear about the organisation’s strategy and cultural values - and how the programme will contribute to both.
• How relevant?
Secondly enough time and care needs to be taken in the design phase of the development intervention to ensure that it is aligned to the organisation’s strategy and culture, and reflects the challenges that the organisation faces. It is vital that time-pressed participants recognise the relevance of the development if real learning is to take place.
• How applied?
Thirdly the development initiative should allow individuals and teams to apply their learning to their real-life organisational issues immediately, with the support of both the business school tutors and the organisation itself. For this reason organisational projects, aligned to the organisation’s strategy, are often at the centre of the most impactful executive development programmes.
The likelihood of sustainable learning is greatly increased where external development and internal organisational processes and structures are aligned. Equally, executive development should contribute to the development of an organisational culture that fosters agility and the capacity to innovate in response to market needs – factors that are critical to success in turbulent, fast-moving times. The boundaries between executive development and organisational development are increasingly blurred.
Commitment to customisation
It is clear that customisation to the organisation’s needs underpins the approach to executive development outlined above. Increasingly too, customisation to the individual participant is part of successful executive development – and essential in helping individuals with the ‘how’ as well as the ‘what’ of achieving strategic objectives.
This is achieved in a number of ways. Well designed individual assessment built around psychometric and 360 feedback processes that reflect organisational values, enable the identification of individual development needs and the design of interventions that reflect these. Building individual, peer and group coaching into programmes ensures further customisation to individual needs. The provision of extensive online learning resources during and after a development intervention empowers participants to access specific expertise at the point of need - ‘just in time’ rather than ‘just in case’.
Business schools that are responding to client needs for more customised development are extending their capability to encompass a wide range of such learning services that go far beyond traditional, faculty based, knowledge delivery.
Demonstrating a return
The drive for impact on executive development, and the investment in customisation, is accompanied by pressure to demonstrate a return on investment. This is notoriously difficult in the world of learning, where it is very difficult to isolate the impact of a development initiative from other ‘noise’ in the system.
Nevertheless, impact can be demonstrated at both an individual and organisational level. Pre- and post-programme ‘stock-takes’ using 360 feedback mechanisms track behavioural change. Identifying the revenue generated, or costs saved, by applying specific tools and models learnt during a development programme helps identify financial benefits. Building real projects into the development process, aligned to the organisation’s strategy, makes organisational impact immediately visible.
New routes to learning
Global organisations with geographically dispersed management populations, operating in virtual teams, across multiple time zones and cultures, are shaping new approaches to the design of executive development. Executive development providers must have a global delivery capability in today’s world.
But this is not enough. Yes, organisations need to facilitate better global working, knowledge sharing and networking, but there are also economic and environmental considerations around ‘value for time’ and the accrual of unnecessary ‘learning miles’. These drivers are inspiring programme designs that combine intensive, high impact face to face modules with web-enabled content delivery and virtually supported action learning teams, group and individual coaching.
Innovative use of Web 2.0 technologies are key to transforming simple programme portals into living learning hubs, that enable global project working, and where learning is as much in the process undertaken as in the academic content ‘delivered’.
Leverage on-job learning
Currently, many Learning and Development teams are exploring how they can work more effectively with the 70:20:10 model of organisational learning. The model focuses attention not only on the delivery of formal learning (10%), but also in providing support for the 20% that comes via learning from others (encouraging this through coaching, mentoring and networks), and also in leveraging the 70% of learning that arises from experience ‘on the job’.
As the best business schools integrate new learning services into their offering, and new technologies into their delivery mechanisms, they too are moving well beyond the 10%, supporting the development of coaching cultures and social and knowledge networks in organisations, and contributing to workplace learning by bringing their faculty expertise to managers’ desktops. Increasingly the traditional barriers between the confines of the business school and the demands of the workplace are dissolving.
Staying ahead of change
So simply delivering a programme is no longer enough: to stay ahead of change, executive development is increasingly a process that incorporates a whole range of activities that focus on performance, rather than just skill acquisition; on access to networks and information more than accumulation of knowledge, and on enabling continuous learning rather than staging learning ‘events’. Changing times ahead.
Tough and uncertain business environment has consequently resulted in swift changes in the business environment and the modern business world demands quality, ethics and excellence, properly injected into the organization at the level of person, process, product and services. To cope with these changes, core competency is identified and leverage for success and all this is made possible through competitive, skilled and professional executives. This kind of changing management requires training anddevelopment i.e. executive development. Executive development should not be viewed just as a capitalinvestment and asset building for the future but also as a tool of employee motivation and retention. Ithelps contribute in job satisfaction and creates new roles and functions for existing employees of theorganization. Therefore, the basic purpose of executive development program is to promote managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing behavior and enhancing professional and attitudinalskills. Hence the knowledge is the need of the 21 st
century due to changing business environment not onlyin India but also globally.
“Executive Development is an ongoing systematic process that assesses,develops, and enhances one’s ability to carry out top-level roles in the organization.”
It is a scientific process for executives to enrich their
, so as tomake them competent to manage their organization effectively. It aims at developing
skills of executives through organized and systematic procedures.The process is designed to help the executives focus on issues as identifying andmodifying the impact of an executive’s management style on an individual and teams, morerapidly and effectively adapting change, establishing individual development needs, and the keydimension of executive performance
is the process of equipping people with the tools,
they need to develop themselves and become more effective. This process helps executives toaddress behavior or issues that are impending their own job effectiveness.
Executive development programme
, increase company profitability, develop succession planning to ensurecompany sustainability, and receive customized training geared to their company’s needs. Today,it is the growth that makes one person stay at the company. The opportunity and challenges iswhat keeps a person satisfied and charmed with his job. Companies have understood this fact andtherefore are forming policies and procedures to develop their employees.Executive development may be referred as systematic process of growth anddevelopment by which the managers develop their abilities and managerial skills to manage. It isthe result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual jobexperience. Executive development programs can be organized in various situations i.e.
in the company or out side the company. It involves the use of manytechniques e.g.
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etc. These techniques of executive development program are deployed by
The programme of executive development aims at achieving following purposes: -
To increase function knowledge in specific fields in which the executives works ,like marketing, production ,finance personnel etc.;
To increase proficiency in different management techniques like work study ,inventory control,operation research, quality control etc.;
To stimulate creative thinking for improving methods and procedures.
To understand different function in a company.
To develop the ability to analyse problems in one’s area or function.
To sustain good performance of managers throughout their careers by exploiting their full potential.
To understand economic, technical, and institutional forces in order to solve business problems.
To acquire knowledge about problems of human resources.
To think through problems which may confront the organization now or in the future.
To develop responsible leaders.
To inculcate knowledge of human motivation and human relationships.
Enhancing managerial skills of executives to enable them to shoulder higher responsibilities inthe future.
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Enable executive to understand managerial concept and techniques relevant for formulating andimplementing strategies in different functional areas.
Enable executives to communicate effectively with subordinates and top management people.
Importance of EDP :-
Executive development is important for the following reasons: -
Executive development programmes are required to train and develop professionalmanagers.
It helps managers to develop skills to face cut throat competition.
It enables managers to face problems related to technology and institution.
It helps in developing better relations with the labors.
Executives need training and education to understand and adjust to changes in socio-economic changes.
Executive development is required to broader the outlook of managers.
Benefits of Executive DevelopmentProgramme :-
Networking takes place between executives.
More cohesiveness between team members .
Positive effect on the bottom line .
More patience and better understanding of another department’s limitations .
Skill and knowledge enhancement is substantial .
Executives develop the right attitude .
Characteristics of EDP
The characteristics of executive development are as following: -
1. A continuous process :-
It is an ongoing and never ending exercise .It should encompass the entire professional career of executives. Executive development is a long term process as managerial skills can not be developedovernight.
2. A knowledge updating activity :-
The imperative need for management development should be appreciated as there always exists agap between actual and potential performance. This, therefore, provides scope for continuousimprovement in all functional areas.
Executive development programs
always attempt to bridge this gapenriching the functional capacity of executives , continuously updating their knowledge and skill. Thegap between potential and actual capacity is always high for executives across the world as knowledgeand skill can never get plateaued.
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3. A vehicle for attitude change :-
Human behavior is dynamic . Its complexity can only be appreciated once executive development programs are attempted to understand the behavioural and attitudinal aspects through simulating sessions.Better interpersonal skills is an important prerequisite for managerial success , which can be assuredthrough such properly designed Executive development programme.
4. A stimulant to higher competence :-
Unless executives are stimulated to the intricacies of managerial stress and strain throughdifferent
executive development programmes
,their full potential cannot be exerted for the benefit of theorganization .
Executive development programmes
can be designed considering such issues likeemployee’s motivation , habits, age-mix , pattern of conflict and chaos ,and this can enable elevation of managerial functions of the executives during the post training face.
5. A deficiency improver :-
Executive development programmes
are catered to the individual requirements to improve thefunctional deficiencies of the individual executives ,thus enabling the organization to derive immediate benefits from such programmes.
6. A self-development process :-
Executive development facilitates self-development of executives ,as they learn manythings through action learning methods ,sharing the experiences of each other in a simulated classroomatmosphere.
Key elements that are essential inhaving an effective executivedevelopment framework in a business:-
1. Accountability :-
Executive development programme works because the person being developed holds himor herself accountable and responsible for the results. People who benefit from programme are people who want to be developd. They keep an open mind as they think critically through theinformation that has been generated in and around them. They are prepared to listen honestly tothe feedback, even if at times this may be uncomfortable and confronting for them.Insights about their performance gleaned from psychometric instruments and tools andinput from others who work alongside them serve as valuable sources of information.By thinkingthrough the issues and using their coach as an honest broker, effective business owners andmanagers are able to interpret the information, assign meaning to it and develop a plan aroundwhat to do. They take responsibility for their subsequent words and their actions.
Executive development programme
is particularly well suited for successful people whoare already performing at a high level of competence. They are self-motivated; they desire to
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achieve at a higher level; they have the necessary drive for learning and taking personalresponsibility for managing both perceived and real gaps in performance as a means by whichthey raise the bar toward excellence.
2. Direction :-
Effective development is part of an integrated and planned approach to achieve businessobjectives and results. The tasks to be undertaken are measurable and achievable. People beingcoached incorporate their new learning into practical results that further the objectives of the business.In successful businesses, the development function is outlined as part of the small business plan and integrated into the developmental culture of the business.The direction of development is determined by achieving agreed results through having individual development plans that are tied back to corporate plans at the strategic level. These are reviewed on anongoing basis so that development is seen as a never-ending task.Effective business owners and managers are always learning themselves, and they seethis learning as part of the continuous improvement cycle of the business.Often, individualdevelopment interventions reveal and uncover structural barriers to an individual achieving high performance within the business itself. Breakdowns in systems, processes, policies and so onmay need to be addressed, within the business itself, for the individual to perform at a higher level.Development at the executive level in this sense becomes everyone’s responsibility,within the high performance business culture, in terms of developing plans that will remove such barriers to performance.It is worth noting that
Dr. W. Edwards Deming
, the father of the qualityimprovement approach, said that 85% of so called ‘people performance’ problems are caused bystructural issues in and around the person concerned.
3. Openness :-
Development is a business proposition. The demand for open communication andongoing learning in relationships between people in successful businesses informs the changesthat need to be made by the individual.This calls for strong relationships and straight talking at the business owner and managementlevels. Remember, development interventions are a function that is primarily for the benefit of the business, not the person being coached.This being the case, the whole business must create asupportive, collegiate environment of mutual respect, where truth telling is the norm.Performance issues and behaviors are the focus. Proposals for courses of action are talkedthrough and discussed openly so that an individual’s particular strengths are enhanced and their weaknesses are managed and compensated for within an overall team context.Development isnot about ‘fixing’ people. It is about getting high performance business results. People being
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developed in high performing businesses self manage and self correct around the issues beingraised with them.
Executive development programme
is not therapy. It is not financial, medical advice or counselling. If people need these kinds of interventions, they should be referred to trained professionals in those fields
Process of EDP :-
The process of executive development is as follows:-
1. Analysis of development needs :-
First of all the present and future development needs of the organization areascertained. It is necessary to determine how many and what type of executives are required tomeet the present and future needs of the enterprise.
2. Appraisal of the present managerial talent :-
A qualitative assessment of the existing executives is made to determine the typeof executive talent available within the organization.
3. Inventory of management Manpower :-
An inventory of qualified personnel should be prepared and a selection for thevarious development programmes should be made. Such inventory will provide all necessary personnel data regarding the individuals qualified for development.
4. Planning individual development programmes :-
Each one of us has a unique set of physical, intellectual and emotionalcharacteristics. Therefore, development plan should be tailor-made for each individual.
5. Establishing training and development programme :-
The HR department prepares comprehensive and well conceived programmes.
6. Evaluating developing programs : -
Considerable money, time and efforts are spent on
. It is therefore natural to find out to what extent the programme’s objective has been achieved.
Methods or techniques of executivedevelopment :-
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deserves utmost attention and importance .These objectives of the programme need to be defined at the outset .Objectives may be either to impart knowledge andskills for more effective functioning of the manager in their present positions or may be equipthem for holding higher position in future. Most of the organizations through adequate career planning, work out promotion path for the managers .Unlike career planning programmes for non managerial employees, which shows such career progression path in similar or allied jobfamilies,
may even chalk out career planning for executives in different functional areascutting across departmental barriers. Good
are carefully planned so as to giveresponsibility to each executive to prepare a replacement for him in successive gradesThe various techniques of executive development may be classified into two broad categories: -
On The Job Techniques :-
1. Coaching :-
In this method , the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach or counselor sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggests how to achieve these goals, periodicallyreviews the trainee’s progress and suggests changed required in behavior and performance.Coaching method offer several advantages: (i) It is learning by doing. (ii) Everyexecutive can coach his subordinate even if no executive development programme exists.(iii)Periodic feedback and evaluation re a part of coaching. (iv) It is very useful for orientation of new executives and foe developing operative skills. (v) It involves close interactions between thetrainee and his boss.Coaching method , however , suffers from certain disadvantages: (i) It tends to perpetuatecurrent managerial styles and practices in the organization. (ii) It requires that the superior isgood teacher and guide. (iii) The training atmosphere is not free from the worries of dailyroutine. (iv) The trainee may not get sufficient time to make mistake and learn from experience.Coaching will work well if the coach provides a good model with whom the trainee canidentify ; if the both can be open with each other , if the coach accepts his responsibility fully,and if he provides the trainee recognition of his improvement and suitable rewards.
2. Under Study :-
An understudy is a person selected and being trained as the heir apparent to assume at thefuture time the full duties and responsibilities of the position presently held by his superior.In this
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way, a fully trained person becomes available to replace a manager during his long absence or illness, on his retirement, transfer, promotion or death. The superior routes much of thedepartment work through juniors ,discusses problems with him and allows him to participate inthe decision-making process as often as possible.Understudy method provides many advantages: (i) The trainee receives continuous guidancefrom the senior and gets the opportunity to see the total job. (ii) It is practical and time savingdue to learning by doing. (iii) The trainee takes interest and shares the superior’s workload. (iv)The junior and the senior come closer to each other. (v) It ensures continuity of managementwhen superior leaves his position.Understudy method, however, suffers some disadvantages: (i) It perpetuates the existingmanagerial practices. (ii) As one employee is identified in advance as the next occupant of ahigher level managerial position , the motivation of other employees in the unit may be affected.(iii) The subordinate staff may ignore the understudy and treat him as an intruder without clear authority and responsibility. (iv) Under an overbearing senior , the understudy may lose hisfreedom of thought and action. The success of this method depends upon the teaching skills andcooperation of the superior with whom the understudy is attached.
3. Position Rotation :-
It involves movement or transfer of executives from one position or job to another on some planned basic. These persons are moved from one managerial position to another according tothe rotation schedule..Position rotation is also called job rotation. The aim is to broadenknowledge, skills and outlook of executives. Job rotation or position is often designed for junior executives. It may continue for a period ranging form six months to two years.Job rotation method offer following advantages: (i) It helps to reduce monotony and boredom by providing variety of work. (ii) It facilitates interdepartmental cooperation and coordination.(iii)Itinfuses new concept and ideas in to elder personnel. (iv) Executives get a chance to move up tohigher position by developing them into generalists. (v) Best utilization can be made of eachexecutive’s skills.Job rotation method suffers from following disadvantages : (i) Job rotation may causedisturbance in established operations. (ii) The trainee executive may find it difficult to adjusthimself to frequent moves. He may feel insecure in the absence of stable interpersonalrelationship. (iii) The new incumbent may introduce ill-conceived and hasty innovations causinga loss to the organization. (iv) Job rotation may demotivateintelligent and aggressive trainees toseek specific responsibility in their chosen specialization. (v) It may cause jealousy and frictiondue to the game of musical chair’.Job relation can cause class destinations and misunderstanding,executive who are not moved may develop defensive reactions. (vi)It may upset family andhome life when transfers are made to different geographical areas.
Inter-departmental transfer can :
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Ensure high return on investment
Increase the knowledge pool
Enable better coordination and efficiency
4. Project Assignments :-
Under this method a number of trainee executives are put together to work on a projectdirectly related to their functional area. The group called project team or task force will study the problem and find appropriate solution. For instance, accounts officers may be assigned the tasksof designing and developing an effective budgetary control system. By working on this project,the trainees learn the work procedures and techniques of budgeting. They also come to learn theinterrelationship between accounts and other department. This is a flexible training device due totemporary nature of assignments.Sometimes a syndicate of team consisting of persons of nature judgment and provenability is constituted. It is given a task properly spelt out in terms of briefs and background papers. Participants represents different functional areas to facilitate interchange of ideas andexperience. Each syndicate prepares a report to be discussed by other executive group.
5. Selected Readings :-
Managing has become a specialized job requiring a close touch with the latestdevelopments in the field. By reading selected professional books and journals managers cankeep in touch with the latest research findings, theories and techniques management. Noexecutive can afford to rely solely on others to keep in informed on innovations in management.Reading of current management literature helps to avoid managerial obsolescence.Selective readings constitute an individual self development programme for executives. Manyorganizations maintain libraries for their executives and managers are encouraged to continuallyread and improve their skills.
6. Multiple Management :-
The technique was developed by Charles P. McCormick of the McCormick corporationof Baltimore, USA. Under it, a junior board of young executives is constituted. Major problemsare analyzed in the junior board which makes recommendations of the Board of Directors. Theyoung executives learn decision-making skill and the Board of Director receives the collectivewisdom of the executive team. Vacancies in the Board of Directors can be filled from the junior board members who have received considerable exposure to problems and issues.Committees and union boards offer the following advantages : (i) The participants gain practical experience in group decision-making and team work. (ii) The committee or boardcontributes to the productivity and human relations in the organizations. (iii) The method helps toidentify executive talent. Board rating system provides multiple judgment on each individual.(iv)It is relatively inexpensive method.
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The method suffers from some disadvantages : (i) Specific attention to the developmental needsof executives is not possible. (ii) The method is not suitable for lower level executives. (iii) Thediscussions in committees and board often degenerate into academic debates. There is lack of purpose and commitment on the part of participants.
Off The J ob Techniques :-
1. Lectures :-
These are formally organized talks by an instructor on specific topics. Lectures essentialwhen technical or special information of a complex nature is to be provided. These can besupplemented by discussion , case studies, demonstrations, audio-visual aids and film shows.It is very useful when facts, concepts, principles, attitudes and problem solving skills areto be taught. More material can be presented within a given time by any other method.The lecture method , however suffers form the following limitations: (i) Lecture is a one-way communication .There is no participation and feedback from the audience (ii) Theaudience loses attention quickly as they are passive listeners. The focus is on accumulation andmemorization rather than on application of knowledge. (iii) It requires a great deal of preparationand speaking skills for which executives may lake time. (iv) The presentation of material has to be geared to a common level of knowledge. (v) It becomes unpalatable to the audience when toomuch information is packed in the lecture.Lecture method can be made effective in the following ways:-(a)A lecture should be well planned as to its purpose and contents.(b)The lecturer should be competent and a good speaker.(c)He should keep in mind the listener’s needs and interests.(d)The lecture should not be more than one hour.(e)The lecture should be made interesting through leading questions ,guided discussionsand audio-visual aids.
2. Case Studies :-
Under this method , a real or hypothetical business problem or situation demandingsolution is presented in writing to the trainees. They are required to identify and analyse the problem , suggest and evaluate alternatives courses of action and choose the most appropriatesolution.Advantages of this method : (i) It promotes analytical thinking and problem solving skills. (ii) Itencourages open-mindedness and provide a means of integrating interdisciplinary knowledge.(iii) The trainees become aware of managerial concept and process and their application tospecific situations.(iv) Detailed descriptions of real life situations helps to create trainees interest.
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Case study method suffers from the following advantages : (i) A case may degenerate into adreary history undermining analytical reasoning.(ii) It may suppress the critical faculties of mediocre trainees. (iii) The case may be used indiscriminately as permanent precedents. (iv) It istime saving and expensive to prepare good case studies. (v) A real life case may not be useful indifferent cultural situations.
3. Group Discussion :-
It is a variant of lecture method under it – paper Is prepared and presented by oneor more trainees on the selected topic. This is followed by a critical discussion. The chair man of discussion or seminar summarise the contents of the papers and discussion which follows. Oftenthe material to be discussed is distributed in advance. Seminars and conferences enable executiveto learn from the experience of each other and have become quite popular.
4. Role Playing :-
In this method the trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage play. Twoor more trainees are assigned part to play before the rest of the class. Thus , it is a method of human interaction which involves realistic behavior in a imaginary or hypothetical situation.Role playing primarily involves employer employee relationships, hiring, firing, discussing agrievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview or disciplining a subordinate or asales man making a presentation to a customer.
5. Management Games :-
Management or business games are designed to be representative of real lifesituation. These are classroom simulation exercise in which teams of individual compete oneanother or against an environment in order to achieve a given objective. In this exercise ,the participants play a dynamic role , and enrich their skills through involvement and simulatedexercise. Management games can be of interactive or non interacting types. In the interactingtypes of games, the decisions of one team influence the performance of other teams. In the noninteracting games each team is independent and its performance entirely depends upon its oncompetence.Advantage of the method (i) It has to analysis and collect the relevant data from a mass of information and also helps to decide with incomplete data. (ii) It is useful in developing problemsolving skills (iii) It helps in developing leadership skills and in fostering team work.Disadvantages:- (i) It is very difficult and expensive to develop and implement goods game. (ii)The games are artificial because in real life executive are rewarded for creating new alternativesrather than for choosing from a given list of alternatives. (iii) The trainees who are successful inthese games may not be successful of the job.
6. Sensitivity training :-
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This method is also called T-group training and laboratory training. He purpose is toincrease self awareness. Develop inter personal competence and sharpen team work skills. Thetrainees are brought together in a free and open environment where in participants discussthemselves. The discussion is lightly directed by a behavioral expert who creates theopportunities to express their ideas, beliefs and attitudes.The following steps may be taken to make sensitivity more effective: (a) The trainer must be ableto translate emotional situations into constructive consequences. (ii) The participant withmotional suitability and high tolerance for anxiety should be selected.(iii) The programmeshould be strictly voluntary. (iv) The participant should be told in advance what they are going to be experience. (v) A mechanism for transferring the learning to the work situation should becreated.
Principles of Executive Development :-
Top management should accept responsibility for executive development .A senior executive should be made incharge of initiating and implementing the company ‘sexecutive development programmes.
Every manager must accept direct responsibility for developing the executives under his control on the job.
Executive development programs must be geared to the need of the company andthe individual.
Executive development begins with the selection of the right man for executivedevelopment programmes at the entry levels.
A definite strategy spelling out the objective s, coverage and type of executivedevelopment programmes should be formulated.
A realistic time schedule for the development of executive personnel should be preparedkeeping in view the present and future needs of the organization.
In view of knowledge explosion and the consequent threat of executive obsolescence ,development programmes should be available for every executive .
An organizational climate , conductive to Executive development should be created .In such a climate manager At all level encourage and guide the development of subordinate executives opportunities are provided to last and experiment with newconcept and practices. A feeling of self confidence genuine faith in development andwillingness to accept change are essential element of proper organizational climate.
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Learner’s participation in essential for development and spoon-feeding seldom bringssignificant of long lasting growth.
Feedback should be made available to the learner so that he can take step to improve inself , there is always opportunity for improvement due to gap between actual performanceand capacity..
Programs for Executive Development :-
These programs fall into two broad categories: those
to an organization and those
to it.Some corporate houses designed their own
executive development programme
for their executives. In the private sector,
management Development Centre (TMDC)at Jamshedpur
conducts such programmes for Tata executives .In the public sector ,
Steel Authority of India Ltd.(SAIL)
has its full-fledged executive development centre at
group(Chennai) have developed their own
executive development centers
to train their executives on general and organization specific issues. In addition ,
division of the business houses are also developing requisite infrastructure to train their executives ,in an attempt toreduce their dependence on outside agencies.The second classification is
: These are the programs which are conducted byoutsider institution to train other organization’s executives. In India many professional institutes areorganizing executive development programs.
Institutes offering Executive Development P rogramme inIndia :-
Administrative Staff College of India
Management Development Institute
Indian Institute of Management
Quality Management International
National Institute of Training in Industrial Engineering
All India Management Association
Indian Society for Training and Development
National Institute of Personal ManagementThese institutes conduct different development programs for executive to different emerging problems of the corporate world.