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Question
1. Prepare a report on the cultural diversity of an HR Department in a
multi location IT ompany. examine the challenges it faces in the changed
business scenario.

2.Study and compare the performance appraisal system in a manufacturing
sector and service sector and evaluate the reasons for theirsuccess/failure
in the respective sectors.

3. Critically analyse the selection process vis-a-vis the HR strategy of an
organization, eamine whether the selection process is facilitating the
recruitment and retention of the manpower with the required skill sets and
competencies.

4.Analyse and ppraise the quality circle movement in a service organization
and suggest methods for its enhancement.

Answer
Question:   1. Prepare a report on the cultural diversity of an HR department in a multi location IT Company. Examine the challenges it faces in the changed business scenario.

What makes your company unique? Whether your company employs three people or three hundred people, in one office or five, every leader should constantly be working towards a singular company culture where employees feel aligned with the company mission. But as your company grows and you start managing remote employees, certain challenges will arise. The last thing you want is your satellite employees to feel unaligned with the company's mission, and to lose sight of company goals. Even worse, you don't want your employees to begin to feel like outcasts.
Creating a culture is unlike any other business endeavor; it involves creating an intangible set of subtle rules and ideas that are often difficult to manage. "Not everything that happens in a business is based on visible, objective, and formal rules,". "Some things are more subtle; they live between the lines of the company manual. These informal rules are a powerful hidden force—governing everything from where you sit in a meeting to how you address your superior."
These challenges are amplified when employees work in multiple locations, but there are tactical decisions that can make your company's employees feel more aligned with a company vision. After all, a strong company culture will keep turnover rates low, productivity high, and employees happy—whether they're in the company headquarters or half the world away.

Create a Unified Culture: Identify the Challenges
Opening offices in multiple locations may be the next logical step for your company is it grows. After all, having a market presence in diverse geographical locations may be the key to your company's success.
But perhaps the biggest loss in separating employees is the loss of personal interaction. Often, the tone of an organization is set by the little things—conversations by the water cooler, friendly exchanges in the elevator, and even a shared sense of 'office humor,' like little games played among co-workers. These aspects of office life contribute directly to the type of culture you set up—whether it's a rigid, formal setting, or a relaxed, Tony Hsieh-esque environment.
These personal interactions often will also set often the tone for employee collaboration in finding solutions to work-related problems. So if your employees are located in different offices, one of the biggest challenges will be finding ways for your employees to stay in touch and learn a bit about each other.   
Often, these companies had thousands of employees, located in offices around the world. But what made these companies so successful, Baghai found, was their ability to make their employees feel as if they were part of a clear company mission, or goal.  'One thing that we noticed is that if you want to get large number of people to do something, they tend to have a what we call a shared identity,' Baghai says. 'Somehow the group must begin to see itself as a group, and as long as there's reasonable consistency among the people in the organization, it seems to work well.'

How to Create a Unified Culture: Open Up Lines of Communication
Companies with a unified culture all have one common trait: they are effective communicators not just with customers, but also amongst themselves. These companies will value their employees opinions, and they'll work hard to recognize individual accomplishments (and not just as a plaque under the 'Employee of the Month' sign in the break room). While company-wide barbeques may work for some companies, employees in far-off offices won't get to participate, so internal, online communication becomes essential. Here are a few tips to instill bullet-proof company culture throughout all company offices.
•   Blog –  A company blog is a great way to reach customers and drive traffic to your site, but it's also a great way to keep all of your employees in the loop about what's going on in different departments or locations. For example, Johnny Cupcakes, the popular T-Shirt retailer, is keeping a detailed blog of its new store opening in the United Kingdom. It also featured, in pictures and in text, the employees that are spearheading their overseas expansion. While this is great for reaching current customers, it also illustrates how a company can give employees far and wide access to different parts of the organization.
•   Newsletter or Intranet –  'Internal communication is one of the most important, yet least focused on, areas of business,' says Carol Nicolaides for Insider Reports, an online journal that focuses on business issues. A newsletter or daily e-mail can inform employees about what's going on with the company, it can highlight employees accomplishments, but most importantly, a newsletter can set the tone for how employees think about their job and their company. Whether the newsletter tells a funny company story or highlights one of the company's customers, a company-wide newsletter can shed light on what your company truly values.
•   Online Collaboration Tools –  People connect with friends and family all over the world using Facebook—why not have them connect with co-workers using a similar service? There are many work-related collaboration tools on the market, but perhaps the most efficient is Yammer. With Yammer, employees can post pictures, send messages, and even chat with their co-workers. Yammer can reinforce the idea of personal interactions, and help build a singular vision among your employees.

How to Create a Unified Culture: Build it Into the Office—Literally
Having multiple office locations will inevitably spur jealously by employees who perceive their co-workers in other locations to enjoy certain amenities not afforded to them. 'Sure, we have a covered parking lot, but they have a gym,' one may say, or 'The food in their cafeteria is better than ours.'
A manager may think these types of differences to be immaterial, but they are not. Often, it's the little things that matter most to employees, and these differences tend to create an 'Us Versus Them' mentality. When thinking about your office build-out, it's essential to try and remain as fair as possible. This doesn't mean every office must be a cookie-cutter clone of all offices, but keep in mind that your employees will be offended if they find out their counterparts in a main office get special treatment.
'I think a head office tends to forget about the little guys; they feel like they're left in no-man's land and they feel like no one cares about them,' says Michelle Berg, president of the Calgary, Canada-based Eleveated HR. Berg, who works with organizations both in Canada and the United States, say that an employer must make a conscious effort to involve the smaller, satellite offices.
Berg also points out that a unified culture will 'rally the troops,' but with multiple locations, this task becomes more challenging. For example, Berg recently worked with a client that had a gong in his office; when an employee came back with a big sale, he'd ring the gong. But employees in other offices didn't get to experience that excitement, Berg says, so she needed to find a way to reach the satellite employees. The solution? The manager now sends out an 'e-mail gong" to complement the office gong. 'Hey, you have to rally the troops somehow,' Berg says.
Having a standardized set of policies is crucial to keeping that "Us Versus Them" mentality at bay. Offering perks to employees in one office, while not offering them to employees in a separate office, will create a negative feeling between locations. For example, if you have workers overseas that receive 30 vacation days, while workers in the United States receive 15, your employees may resent the international contingent, which may strain communication between the two groups. Even if governmental regulations vary on how much vacation an employee must be guaranteed, it could be a smart business decision to adopt the more liberal policy for your company—and it will certainly keep your workers happy.









2. Study and compare the performance appraisal system in a manufacturing sector and service sector and evaluate the reasons for their success/ failures in the respective sectors


performance appraisal system in a manufacturing UNIT
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
For: Staff and Officers (S & M Level)

Appraisal period:  July _____ June _______


Name of Employee: ___   ________________________Designation:__________________________ Ecode________

Grade :___________ DOJ________________ Qlfn: ___________________ Location_________________________



Name and Designation of Appraiser: _____________________________________________________________

Nature of Relationship:   ________________________________________________________________________


General Guidelines

Purpose of this evaluation is to make Appraisee understand his strengths, weaknesses and areas of improvement. The Appraisee must be briefed about the expectations of the management and mutually agreed upon. The methodology and evaluation must be unbiased and based on the facts and merits alone.  

Any specific achievement and outstanding contribution may be supported by your remarks and justification in a separate sheet.   For statements that do not apply to the person being evaluated, please mark “Not Applicable” (NA).  Comments should be specific (including examples) and explanatory.  If your evaluation and recommendations cannot be adequately covered in the space provided, you should prepare an attachment to this appraisal form.

Performance for each category is graded into the following:


  Outstanding   5 points   Performance is exceptional and far exceeds expectations.  Consistently          demonstrates excellent standards.

  Very Good   4 points   Performance is consistent and exceeds expectations.

  Good   3 points   Performance is consistent.  Clearly meets job requirements.

  Fair   2 points   Performance is satisfactory.  Meets minimum requirements of the job.
         
  Needs
  Improvement   1 point   Performance is inconsistent.  Meets requirements of the job occasionally.
 Unsatisfactory   0 point   Performance does not meet minimum requirements of the job.



PERFORMANCE OF KPAs FOR THE PREVIOUS YEAR



SL.NO   KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS   % ACHIEVED   REASON




        




        




        




        




        




        




        





      Signature of Appraisee          Signature of Appraiser
     Date:          Date:






PART I   CUSTOMERS   Outstanding   Very
Good   Good   Fair   Needs Improvement   Unsatisfactory   Not
Applicable
Customer
Focus   
1.   Follows instructions to the satisfaction of superiors
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0   
NA
  2.   Aims to develop good relations with internal and external customers
  5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA


PART II   EMPLOYEES          
Teamwork   
3.   Able and willing to work effectively with others in a team
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
         
Communication Skills   
4.   Communicates effectively to share information and/or skills with colleagues
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA



         

PART III   SOCIETY
         
Cost Consciousness   
5.   Uses practices that save company resources and minimize wastage   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
         











     


         

         
PART IV         JOB KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS   Outstanding   Very
Good   Good   Fair   Needs Improvement   Unsatisfactory   Not
Applicable
Job Knowledge/
Technical Skills   
6.   Possesses knowledge of work procedures and requirements of job   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  
7.   Shows technical competence/skill in area of specialization

8.   Shows the power of logical analysis, perceives inter connections and identifies cause and effect relationships

  
5


5   
4


4   
3


3   
2


2   
1


1   
0


0
  
NA


NA
         
         
Work Attitude   
9.   Displays commitment to work   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  10.   Plans and organizes work effectively
  5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA
  11.   Is proactive and displays initiative
  5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA
  12.   Has a sense of urgency in acting on work matters     
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  13.   Displays a willingness to learn   5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA
         
Quality of Work   
14.   Is accurate, thorough and careful with work performed   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
         
Quantity of Work   
15.   Is able to handle a reasonable volume of work
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0   
NA



  

         
         




Outstanding   



Very Good   




Good    




Fair   


Needs Improvement   




Poor    

Not Applicable
Safety   
16.   Ensures careful work habits that comply with safety requirements   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
Process Improvement   
17.   Seeks to continually improve processes and work methods   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  18.   Ability to bring new ideas, introducing new approaches and techniques   5   4   3   2   1   0   NA

PART V   MANAGEMENT ( to be completed for staff with supervisory duties only)
Problem Solving   
19.   Helps resolve staff problems on work-related matters   
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  
20.   Handles problem situations effectively
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
         
Supervision/ Motivation of Staff   
21.   Is a positive role model for other staff
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0   
NA
  22.   Effectively supervises work of subordinates
  5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA
         
PART VI   FAIRNESS          
Attendance/ Punctuality   
23.   Has good attendance
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  24.   Is punctual   5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA
         
Dependability/ Responsibility   
25.   Is able to work with limited supervision     
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  
26.   Is trustworthy, responsible and reliable
  
5
  
4   
3   
2   
1   
0
  
NA
  27.   Is adaptable and willing to accept new responsibilities   
  5
  4   3   2   1   0
  NA

         

Evaluation

     Formula   Score

Total  Score 
  Sum of Scores      X      100 %
___________________________________
No  of  Questions Answered  X 5
  

Grading ( √ )

Outstanding
95% - 100%    Exceptional Performance and exceeds Expectations   
Very Good
80-94%   Performance is consistent, and exceeds expectations in all situations.
  
Good
70-79%   Performance is consistent.  Clearly meets essential requirements of job.
  
Fair
60% - 69%   Performance is satisfactory.  Meets requirements of the job.
  
Needs Improvement
50 - 59%   Performance is inconsistent.  Meets requirements of the job occasionally. Supervision and training is required for most problem areas.   
Poor
<  49%   Performance does not meet the minimum requirements of the job.  
  



Signature of Appraisee          Signature of Appraiser
Date:          Date:



(This need not be discussed with the Appraisee and must be done separately by Appraiser and Reviewer)

Recommendations

  
            Can be promoted to next Grade          
            Extend increment as per above Grading
            No increment
  

______________          ________________
Appraiser          Reviewer
Date:          Date:



Growth and Development

(i)   List the appraisee’s strengths

  ___________________________________________________________________________   ___________________________________________________________________________   ______________________________________________________________________________   _

(ii)   List the areas for improvement

  ___________________________________________________________________________   ___________________________________________________________________________
  ______________________________________________________________________________   _

Training and Development

(i)   What specific plans of action, including training, will be taken to help the appraisee in their current job or for possible advancement in the company?

  __________________________________________________________________________   __________________________________________________________________________   __________________________________________________________________________

Achievement


(i)   Describe the appraisee’s areas of additional responsibilities and/or other work-related achievements
  __________________________________________________________________________   __________________________________________________________________________   __________________________________________________________________________   __________________________________________________________________________
(Mention achievement of KRAs, Outstanding Contribution, if any during the appraisal period)


Any other Remarks:

_______________________________________________________________________________________________



KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS (FOR THE YEAR _____________)


Sl.No   KRAs (Description)   Target
1.   



  
2.   




  
3.   



  
4.   



  
5.   




  





     
(Attach a separate sheet if required)



      Signature of Appraisee          Signature of Appraiser
     Date:          Date:



HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT’S USE

Date of Last Increment:   ______________    Present Salary:*   ____________Date of Last promotion: ______________

MANUFACTURING  SECTOR—CRITICAL PERFORMANCE  CRITERIA
1) Reduce lead times
2) Speed time-to-market
3) Cut operations costs
4) Exceed customer expectations
5) Manage the global enterprise
6) Streamline outsourcing processes
7) Improve business performance visibility

Traditional PMs// Innovative PMs
cost/efficiency based // based on valuetrade-off betweenperformances//performance compatibilityprofit orientation customer orientation//short-term oriented long-term orientedindividual measuresprevalence//team measures prevalencefunctional measuresprevalence//transversal measuresprevalence//evaluation with standard development monitoringaim at evaluating// aim at evaluating andinvolving

Business Drivers
1. Simplified organization structure.
2. Consolidation of business operations
3. Technical changes to the entire
organization
4. Real time data processing
5. Improving economies of scale
6. Cost saving
Simplified Organization Structure: One of the
business objectives of implementing ERP systems
is to simplify the organization structure [17],[5].
The efficiency of an organization depends on the
quick flow of information across the organization.
This can be done by having simple organization
structure and rich functionality across all areas
like sales, accounts receivable, engineering,
planning, Inventory Management, Production,
purchase, accounts payable, quality management,
distribution planning and external transportation.
Consolidation Of Business Information: More and
more companies are becoming global and
focusing on downsizing and decentralizing their
business. For these companies to manage their
business efficiently, ERP systems need to have
extensive multi-site management capabilities. It is
necessary to have centralized or decentralized
functions with complete flexibility to consolidate
corporate information. The ERP stops treating the
corporate information. The ERP stops treating the
different functions in an organization as separate
and stand-alone activities but considers them as
building blocks that make up a business [4]. The
implementation of a new ERP solution would
bring all operating plants to a common platform,
provide the opportunity for consolidating the
common business functions and information, and
reduce the dependence and cost of operating the
business in a decentralized state.[5]
Technical Changes in the Entire Organization:
Many organizations use the ERP systems as a
mode for improving the technology of the
organization [5]. Owens Corning, for example
used ERP systems as a technology driver to
enhance the technology in their organization. [17].
IT infrastructure improvements (i.e. networks,
servers, data management, skills management) are
frequently the objective for companies to undergo
implementation [7].
Real time data processing: At the core of an
Enterprise system is a single comprehensive
database. The database collects data from and
feeds data into modular applications supporting
virtually all of a company’s business activitiesacross
functions, across business units, across the
world. When new information is entered in one
place, related information is automatically
updated. Thus an ERP system provides real time
data. One of the business drivers for company’s
installing ERP systems is the availability of real
time data. An ES streamlines a company’s data
flow and provides management with direct access
to a wealth of real time operating information. For
many companies, these benefits have translated
into dramatic gains in productivity and speed.
Improving economies of scale: For multinational
companies, enterprise systems help to introduce
more consistent operating practices across their
geographically dispersed units and enjoy
economies of scale. By imposing common
operating processes on all units, they are able to
achieve tight coordination throughout their
business. They can rapidly shift sourcing,
manufacturing, and distribution functions
worldwide in response to changing patterns of
supply and demand. This allows them to utilize
their excess capacity and achieve economies of
scale. [9]
Cost saving: There are mainly two types of cost
savings when companies plan to implement ERP.
They are the hard savings typically include
reduction in procurement cost, inventory,
transportation cost, promotion administration cost,
increased manufacturing throughput and
productivity improvements. The soft savings
typically include general and administrative
expense reduction, revenue growth, margin
enhancement and sales and other productivity
improvements. [18]

#########################




performance appraisal system in a  service BUSINESS  UNIT

360 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FORM

EMPLOYEE CODE   DEPARTMENT   FORM SERIAL NO.
     
SURNAME   FIRST NAME   MIDDLE NAME
     

Appraisal to be done by following Appraisers
   Superiors
   Peers
   Internal Customers
   Subordinates
   Self Appraisal























The levels of rating are mentioned below and apply for ALL RATINGS mentioned in the Appraisal Form. In the column titled Rating, only the number needs to be indicated e.g., If the performance meets all required expectations, it will be rated “3”. The ratings given should be in the context of the Appraisal Process only.

RATING   DESCRIPTION OF PERFORMANCE LEVEL AGAINST EXPECTATIONS

1   SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS: Exceptional Performance

  -   Is a self-starter with a high level of initiative.

  -   Translates creative ideas into action in the face of adverse circumstances

  -   Performance is clearly distinguished and the very best that can be attained, which meaningfully impacts the Appraisee’s function and the business.

  -   Contribution and achievement consistently and significantly exceeds the qualitative and quantitative standards of the job.

  -   Assignments are accomplished ahead of time, in an exceptional manner with minimal direction and no rework.

2   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS: Performance goes beyond the job requirements and exceeds normally expected results.

  -   Consistently demonstrates significant and lasting achievements, which meaningfully impact the Appraisee’s role and function.

  -   Accomplishment of task by overcoming serious constraints.

  -   Assignments are accomplished in a highly effective manner with only broad guidance and direction with no rework by superior; is dependable.

3   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS: Meets required standards and expectations of the job.

  -   Usually handles job very well, but is unable to add dimensions to his/her role and function

  -   Meets expected results criteria for quality and quantity of work

  -   Assignments are accomplished effectively with a normal amount of direction, supervision and minimal rework by superior

4   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT: Performance is somewhat below expectations for quality and quantity of work.

  -   Low ability to think independently

  -   Performance is inconsistent and falls short of what is expected

  -   Executes tasks diligently, but needs more than normal guidance and work instructions; Undesirable level of rework required

  -   A need for further improvement is clearly recognized, identified and must occur as recommended.

5   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS: Fails to meet required standards and expectations

  -   Performance is clearly less than acceptable as well as below the minimum job requirements.

  -   Situation requires immediate review and correction.


360 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FORM


Appraisee Details:

Surname      Department   

First Name      Location   

Middle Name      Designation   

Employee code      Department   

Grade      Date of joining (DD/MM/YY)   

Company experience      Date of birth (DD/MM/YY)   

Non- Company experience      Age (years)   

Qualifications & Year of passing   

Details of Superiors (Name, Designation, Department, Grade, Level, Location)



Details of Peers (Name, Designation, Department, Grade, Level, Location)







Details of Internal Customers (Name, Designation, Department, Grade, Level, Location)







Details of Subordinates (Name, Designation, Department, Grade, Level, Location)










This is an exhaustive list of areas for which the jobholder is responsible. The list should cover all key aspects of the job, which together contributes to achieving its overall purpose. The Principal Accountabilities are the basis to create mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive Strategic Objectives.
The description of PA should capture what has to be done and why it has to be done, and need not explain how it is done. It should point to a quantitative measure or a qualitative indicator of performance, e.g. sales value, inventory ratio, etc. The description of PAs should start with an active verb, e.g. plan…, develop.., maintain.., increase.., achieve.., track.., ensure.., introduce.., coordinate.., conduct.., take part in.., reduce.., advise.., prepare.., etc.
   EXISTING RESPONSIBILITIES: Indicate the main areas of your job for which you are personally accountable.
   MAJOR CHANGES IN RESPONSIBILITIES: Indicate the date from which the major changes have become effective during this Appraisal Period and describe the previous responsibilities.


































KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS: All the PAs should be grouped into 4 KPAs i.e. Superior, Peers, Internal Customers & Subordinates. Since these describe the Significant Contribution areas of a position. Whilst formulating KPAs following guideline must be considered:
   The Strategic Objective within each KPA should appropriately reflect the Appraisee’s Role, Hierarchical Position and Function
   The Goals/Targets within each KPA and the entire KPA must align with the KPA of the Appraisee’s Department and finally with the Division/Region Budget Folder. This should be achieved by a cascade of the Organizational Budget folder to each Department KPA and thereafter, to the KPA of every Executive individually; establishing this linkage is essential
WEIGHTAGE:
1.   The weightage for KPA-1 (Superior) and KPA-2 (Peers) should not exceed 50 in aggregate. The weightage for each KPA-Superior or Peers should not exceed 35
2.   The weightage for KPA-3 (Internal Customers) and KPA-4 (Subordinates) should not exceed 50 in aggregate. The weightage for each KPA-Process or People should not exceed 35
3.   The weightage for any Strategic Objective within each KPA should not be less than 5
4.   The Strategic Objective and the Goals/Targets within each KPA:
   Should reflect the Expectations from the Hierarchical Position of the Appraisee.
   Should progressively move away from operational issues to an emphasis on “development” as the Hierarchical level of the Appraisee increases
   Should be prioritised based on the impact of the KPA on the Role being performed by the Appraisee
   Should emphasize the future rather than the present
SPECIAL PROJECTS OR INITIATIVES: In addition to the 4 KPAs the Appraisee should also capture any special Project/Initiative as KPA-5. In this section the Appraisee should document any “Significant Contribution” to a Project/Initiative undertaken internally which is different from or in addition to the Appraisee’s Principal Accountabilities. The Appraisee’s Role in the Project/Initiative must be clearly defined.
“SMART” GOALS/TARGETS: All Goals/Targets should necessarily be Specific, Measurable (quantitative measures or qualitative indicators), Achievable (but a stretch target), Realistic and Time bound (time frame in which the work should be accomplished).
It is important that the focus be on constraints overcome to meet Goals/targets RATHER THAN explanation of inhibiting factors as to why Goals/Targets have not been achieved.  Each goal/Target should have a measure e.g., Sales volume (No. of units), Value (Rs.)

SELF APPRAISAL: The Appraisee is required to conduct a it, which comprises a description of what was actually achieved  against each goal and a rating against expected results for each KPA and special project









Strategic Objectives   Weight-age   Measures   Annual Goals    APPRAISAL (APRIL 2009 TO March 2010)
         Goals   Goal Dates & Action Steps   % Achie-ved   Evaluation by Appraiser




         




         




         




         
SUPPORT
REQUIRED   RESOURCES   
  OTHER DEPARTMENTS   
  SPECIFIC MEASURES   
Appraisee’s Comments:  Any additional point that the Appraisee would like to bring to the notice of the Appraiser/Reviewer. If there is any change during the mid-year review, the same may also be documented here.


Superior’s Comments: First-Half Inputs



(Please attach additional sheets, if necessary)


Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS


Strategic Objectives   Weight-age   Measures   Annual Goals   APPRAISAL (APRIL 2009 TO March 2010)
         Goals   Goal Dates & Action Steps   % Achie-ved   Evaluation by Peers




         




         




         




         
SUPPORT
REQUIRED   RESOURCES   
  OTHER DEPARTMENTS   
  SPECIFIC MEASURES   
Appraisee’s Comments:  Any additional point that the Appraisee would like to bring to the notice of the Appraiser/Reviewer. If there is any change during the mid-year review, the same may also be documented here.

Peer’s Comments: First-Half Inputs





(Please attach additional sheets, if necessary)

Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS


Strategic Objectives   Weight-age   Measures   Annual Goals   FIRST HALF APPRAISAL (APRIL 2009 TO March 2010)
         Goals   Goal Dates & Action Steps   % Achie-ved   Evaluation by Internal Customers




         




         




         




         
SUPPORT
REQUIRED   RESOURCES   
  OTHER DEPARTMENTS   
  SPECIFIC MEASURES   
Appraisee’s Comments:  Any additional point that the Appraisee would like to bring to the notice of the Appraiser/Reviewer. If there is any change during the mid-year review, the same may also be documented here.


Internal Customer’s Comments: First-Half Inputs




(Please attach additional sheets, if necessary)


Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS


Strategic Objectives   Weight-age   Measures   Annual Goals    APPRAISAL (APRIL 2009 TO March 2010)
         Goals   Goal Dates & Action Steps   % Achie-ved   Evaluation by Subordinates




         




         




         




         
SUPPORT
REQUIRED   RESOURCES   
  OTHER DEPARTMENTS   
  SPECIFIC MEASURES   
Appraisee’s Comments:  Any additional point that the Appraisee would like to bring to the notice of the Appraiser/Reviewer. If there is any change during the mid-year review, the same may also be documented here.




Subordinate’s Comments: First-Half Inputs



(Please attach additional sheets, if necessary)

Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS

SPECIAL PROJECTS/INITIATIVES
(Different from or in addition to the Appraisee’s Principal Accountabilities)

Please indicate a if each of the special project/initiative undertaken during the appraisal period is:
 Budgeted at the beginning of the appraisal period           Unplanned

Please replicate this sheet for additional projects/initiatives and attach it to the form. The Appraisee and the Appraiser have to rate performance on each project/initiative and not on each goal.
SELF APPRAISAL
Project/Initiative:
Role:  Please indicate with a      Leader    Team Member    Advisor    Others (specify)
Goals/Targets Planned
(Please number each goal/target under this KPA)   Goals/Targets Achieved
(What was achieved, how was it measured, constraints overcome to meet these goals/targets)













  










Appraiser’s Comments: Avoid monosyllabic responses. Should comment on achievement of goals/targets in all respects, its impact on the role/function and timeliness.



Appraisee’s Rating:      Supervisor’s Rating:   

RECOMMENDED RATING FOR SECTION III: (BY APPRAISER)          

(Before providing this rating, ensure that the KPAs have been evaluated carefully and there is a consistency with the ratings of each individual KPA and the Appraiser’s comments, thereon).

Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS
1) Reduce lead times
2) Speed time-to-market
3) Cut operations costs
4) Exceed customer expectations
5) Manage the global enterprise
6) Streamline outsourcing processes
7) Improve business performance visibility
APPRAISAL DISCUSSION-ANNUAL REVIEW (By Superiors)
       (All comments by the Appraiser should be used to provide feedback to the Appraisee. In case of more than  one Appraiser, gist of comments of other Appraisers also needs to be reflected below. The feedback needs to  capture observations made during the Last Year’s Appraisal Discussion and Half-Year Review).
  
Appraisal Discussion Conducted   Yes    No 
Have the contents of Last Appraisal form and Half Year Review been referred whilst conducting Current Appraisal-Appraiser’s comments, KPA and ratings on attributes   Yes    No 

TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION:
   Identify Attributes areas which the Appraisee needs to focus on for improvement.
   Based on the tick-marked (), identify the training needs of the Appraisee.
   Fix a time frame and an action plan for each of these training needs with the Appraisee to understand the purpose and evaluate the improvement.

Attributes   / X   Behavioral   Functional   Time Frame & Review Dates
     







     
         
         
         

Overall comments by the Appraiser: Please indicate Areas of Strength and Areas of concern





The overall rating should be completed, after assessment of the “WHAT” and “HOW” components of the year-end achievements, consistency of performance, and the observations of the Half-Year Review.

OVERALL RECOMMENDED RATING : (BY SUPERIOR’S)

Appraisee’s Sign:   Sign of  Appraiser :   Date:

Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS
  --------------------------------------------------FOR APPRAISEE ONLY--------------------------------------------------
Comments by the Appraisee:
After the Appraisal Discussion, to improve the effectiveness of the Appraisal Process, the Appraisee may document his/her observations below. All such observations should be supported by specific instances with a perspective to improve the objectivity of the process.




















Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS


REVIEW OF LATENT ABILITY (To be filled in by the Superiors ONLY)

         
Employee Code   Department      Form Serial No   
         
Surname   First Name   Middle Name
         
Details of Qualifications:   Please mention Year of Qualifications & Institution/University:

         
Present Grade      Year of Last Grade Change      Appraisal rating
(previous years, if available)   
         
1.   During this appraisal period, has there been any change in the Appraisee’s job responsibilities?                
If yes, has the change been in the nature of:          
(i)   Better utilization of Appraisee’s time and current abilities:            
(ii)   Managing higher responsibilities, from_________________   Give Details below:
        _______________________________________________________________________________
        _______________________________________________________________________________
        _______________________________________________________________________________
        _______________________________________________________________________________
2.   Is the Appraisee recommended for:
(i)   Movement within a Level            
(ii)   A promotion from one Level to the Next            

DETAILED REASONS:
(if the Appraisee falls under 2 (i) & (ii) above, the Appraisee Performance Action and Potential must be comprehensively documented. If NOT recommended as per Corporate HR Policies, details for such decisions must also be given below)



OVERALL RATING       Sign of  Superior’s :      Date:   

Rating Scale
1   2   3   4   5
SIGNIFICANTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS   MEETS ALL EXPECTATIONS   NEEDS IMPROVEMENT   FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS


FINAL RECOMMENDATION
(Gist of discussion during the Moderation Process to be recorded below by the Moderation-In-charge)
































FINAL RATING      Movement within
the Level   YES      NO   
GRADE CHANGE   From:_____   To:_____   Movement to the
next Level   YES      NO   
Name of the Moderation-In-Charge   
Sign of the Moderation-In-Charge      Date   
………………………FOR HR DEPARTMENT USE ONLY……………………....

the following as being characteristic of services:
•   Intangibility the service cannot be touched or viewed, so it is difficult for clients to tell in advance what they will be getting;
•   Inseparability of production and consumption the service is being produced at the same time that the client is receiving it (eg during an online search, or a legal consultation);
•   Perishibility unused capacity cannot be stored for future use. For example, spare seats on one aeroplane cannot be transferred to the next flight, and query-free times at the reference desk cannot be saved up until there is a busy period.
•   Heterogeneity (or variability): services involve people, and people are all different. There is a strong possibility that the same enquiry would be answered slightly differently by different people (or even by the same person at different times). It is important to minimise the differences in performance (through training, standard-setting and quality assurance).
Dimensions of Service Quality:
There   are  various aspects that a customer expects from different services.

1. Reliability: This refers to the ability of the company to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Reliability is probably the single most important dimension of quality. Customers expect that companies will do what they say and they will do when they say they will do it.

2. Tangibles: This refers to the appearance of the physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials. As services are intangible, the tangibles give an impression to the customers about the quality of service they can expect from a firm. A bank in a shabby building will make the customer wonder whether their money will be safe in such a bank.

3. Responsiveness: This refers to the willingness of the employees to help customers and provide prompt service. When you go to a bank the minimum that you expect is that the employees would attend to you rather than chit-chat amongst themselves.

4. Assurance: This factor is linked to several minor factors such as competence, courtesy, credibility and security. Competence depends on the service provider's possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. The politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of the service providers can be bundled into the term courtesy. Credibility refers to the perceived trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the service provider. Security refers to the fact that the service should be free from danger, risk, and doubt. In sum, the assurance factor refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence.

5. Empathy: Empathy refers to the caring, individualized attention the firm provides to its customers. It includes access, communication and understanding. Access refers to the approachability and ease with which the customer can contact the firm. Communication refers to keeping the customer informed in the language they can understand and listening to them. Understanding has to do with the efforts made by the service provider to know customers and their needs.


Obviously we can find many critical success factors, like finding and retaining high-value customers, which apply to companies that are product centric or services centric. Here are a few which I believe are at least most relevant and important to the services arena:
1.   Do what you know and what you love
2.   Make sure your service is innovative. Networking and relationships.
3.   Networking and relationships.
4.   Clearly communicate the vision, mission, and values.
5.   Attract and retain the highly skilled and motivated people.
6.   Define and document the service process you sell.  
7.   Create and maintain the highest level of customer satisfaction.











##########################

3. Critically analyse the selection process vis-à-vis the HR Strategy of an organization, examine whether the selection process is facilitating the recruitment and retention of the manpower with the required skill sets and competencies.


RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS

         The recruitment and selection procedure followed by XXXXX is as follows (Some steps may be interchanged in order, depending on the situation):
1.   A Need Assessment is carried out as to how many people are / will be required and at what level(s). These would normally include Management Trainees or other recruits at middle or senior levels. This stage is referred to as manpower planning (MPP).
2.   A Talent Acquisition Request form (TAR) is filled in case of any openings, based on which the Job Profile and other details are laid out. This is filled by the H.R head of the respective operating division which has to be approved by the business head.
3.   On the basis of the nature of job and present employee inventory, skills, the HR Department decides whether to go for Internal Recruitment or External Recruitment.
4.   In case of Internal Recruitment, a Job Posting is made on the notice boards of the company for the employees to make applications.   
5.   Also they have an internal employee scheme  wherein the employee working in the company recommends an outsider for the required post.
6.   The company also goes for PCO i.e. POLICY FOR CAREER OFFER wherein an employee from one department can apply for another position in another department with the consent of the local HR consultant.
7.    In case of External Recruitment, the sources for applicants would include consultants, media such as newspapers, online applications through XXXXX website and third party recruitment which include EXT consultants.          
8.   After receiving applications, they are first short listed on the basis of their Resumes.
9.   Depending on the post, the candidates may be required to go through different Tests.
10.   At junior level, (individuals with an experience of 1-2 yrs) different tests like general aptitude test, attitude tests etc are conducted. The interview is then conducted, by the Recruitment Manager and Jr. HR Manager.
11.   The second interview may be conducted, again depending on the post, normally by the HR Head, the Head of the concerned functional department. In case of senior level positions, the senior managers from XXXXX  are present.
12.   Candidates for the senior post have to give a psychometric test which is self designed by the company itself. This test checks on the functional knowledge, communication skills, interpersonal skills, commercial skills of the candidates.
13.   These candidates are then taken to assessment centers where they play business games. Also the candidates are required to prepare on a topic within 45mins and present it for a 1/2 hour in front of the panel.XXXXX has in-house assessment centers .      
14.   After the Interviews, the applicants are sent Regret / Offer letters, depending on whether they are selected or not.
15.   Once the candidate accepts the Job Offer, the salary is negotiated and they are asked for 2 reference letters. The respective HR heads speaks to the 2 people regarding the overall performance of the applicant.
16.   A compulsory Medical Examination is done for every single candidate before he is given the appointment letter. This is done so as to ensure that the employee will not face any health problems during the course of his service.
17.   The Appointment Letter is given.

The entire process lasts for 1 month on an average but it can extend to 3 months if necessary
RECRUITMENT  AND  SELECTION  PROCESS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROCESS   ELEMENTS        FOR  ALL  POSITIONS       
---------------------------------------------!------------!----------------------
STEP  1

PREPARING  JOB ANALYSES
PREPARING JOB  DESC          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  2

PREPARING JOB SPECS          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  3

DECIDING TERMS AND          
CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT
[ MEETS  ALL GOVERNMENT  REGULATION  ON EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  4

ADVERTISING          
[COPY/MEDIA PLAN]          except  for senior positions [ head hunting]
[ MUST REFLECT TRUTH, NO  FALSE  INFORMATION,
 NO  GENDER  BIAS, NO DISCRIMINATION,NO AGE BAR, ETC]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP 5

INTERNAL APPLICANT          
EXTERNAL APPLICANT          except for tech [ outsourcing ]
ONLINE APPLICANT          and senior positions [ head hunting]  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  6

SIFTING APPLICATIONS          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  7

PERSONAL INTERVIEW
-INDIVIDUAL PER TO PER          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  8

-PANEL INTERVIEW          
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------          
STEP  9

-SELECTION BOARD          only for  senior positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  10

TESTING [ BEHAVIORAL]
-PSYCHOLOGICAL     procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-PERSONALITY          procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-ABILITY          procedural element for all positions  except senior position          
-APTITUDE          procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-PSYCHOMETRIC          procedural element for all positions          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  11

TESTING [ TECHNICAL ]        only for  tech. positions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  12

ASSESSMENT CENTRE        only  for   senior  positions          
-POTENTIAL
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  13

OBTAINING REFERENCE        procedural element for all positions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  14

CHECKING REFERENCE        procedural element for all positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  15

MAKING DECISION          procedural element for all positions    
[ NO  DISCRIMINATION, NO COLOR BAR, NO SEX DISCRIMINATION,
PURELY  ON  MERIT ]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  16

OFFERING  EMPLOYMENT    procedural element for all positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP   17

PREPARING EMPLOYMENT       procedural element for all positions    
LETTER
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  18

-HR  sends  out  letters  to  the  unsuccessful  candidates.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  19

-HR  CHECKS  REFERENCES.

[ ABIDE  BY  LAW ]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  20

-HR  SENDS  OUT  OFFER  LETTERS  TO  SUCCESSFUL  CANDIDATES.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  21

-THE  LINE  MANAGERS  /  AGREE  TO  THE  START DATE
AND  INDUCTION  PROGRAMME.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  22

PERSONAL FILE  CREATION

-HR  CREATES  ''PERSONAL  FILE ''.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  23

HANDOVER  TO  HR /  ADMINISTRATION
-THE  LINE  MANAGER  HANDS  OVER  THE  RESPONSIBILITY
FOR  PAYROLL  ADMIN  AND  INDUCTION  TO  HR.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  24

-HR  PREPARES   WELCOME  PACK / EMPLOYEE  MANUAL.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  25

ARCHIVING  OF  APPOINTMENT  FILES.

-HR  ARCHIVES  SELECTED  CANDIDATES  FILE.

-HR  DESTROYS  UNSUCCESSFUL   CANDIDATES  FILES
AFTER    6  MONTHS.

[ BY  LAW,  ALL  OLD  FILES  MUST  BE  DESTROYED  ]
=======================================================
==========================================================

This procedure is intended to give staff and management  of
organisations clear and straightforward guidance on recruiting potential
employees on a fair and equitable basis. It will help you to:

*recruit and select the best candidate for every vacancy;
ensure that access to employment opportunity is based on fair, objective
and consistent criteria;
*identify discriminatory practices;
*monitor and measure the effectiveness of your recruitment practices, and
*increase your overall professionalism in the recruitment & selection
process.

====================
The  recruitment / selection process is facilitating the recruitment and retention of the manpower with the required skill sets and competencies  AS  PER  THE  HR STRATEGY  / MANPOWER  PLAN.  



============================
4. Analyse and appraise the quality circle movement in a service organization and suggest methods for its enhancement.

service business
A commercial enterprise that provides work performed in an expert manner by an individual or team for the benefit of its customers. The typical service business provides intangible products, such as accounting, banking, consulting, cleaning, landscaping, education, insurance, treatment, and transportation service.


Quality Circles are (informal) groups of employees who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify, define, analyze and solve work related problems.
Usually the members of a particular team (quality circle) should be from the same work area or who do similar work so that the problems they select will be familiar to all of them. In addition, interdepartmental or cross functional quality circles may also be formed.
An ideal size of quality circle is seven to eight members. But the number of members in a quality circle can vary.

Informal Groups ====
•   Employees meet near water cooler and gossip.
•   Five salesmen from marketing department meet once a month for lunch to discuss mutual concerns and to seek relief from tedious aspects of their job.
•   Four computer programmers form a jogging club that meets three days per week at lunch time to run two miles.
•   All employees of a section meet and discuss how to improve and beautify office layouts.
•   Seven workers of a production shop floor meet once a week to solve their technical problems.
•   Maintenance department staff meet regularly to maintain machines in a better way.
Objectives of Quality Circles===============ok
•   Promote job involvement
•   Create problem solving capability
•   Improve communication
•   Promote leadership qualities
•   Promote personal development
•   Develop a greater awareness for cleanliness
•   Develop greater awareness for safety
•   Improve morale through closer identity of employee objectives with organization's objectives
•   Reduce errors.
•   Enhance quality
•   Inspire more effective team work
•   Build an attitude of problem prevention
•   Promote cost reduction
•   Develop harmonious manager, supervisor and worker relationship
•   Improve productivity
•   Reduce downtime of machines and equipment
•   Increase employee motivation
Quality Circle Meetings====ok
•   Meetings are important part of quality circle's working.
•   Meetings are attended by all the members of the quality circle.
•   In general, meetings take place once a week or once in a fortnight.
•   Each meeting lasts for approximately one hour, though variations are possible.
•   Apart from the frequency of the meetings, what is important is the regularity of the meetings.
What Takes Place During Quality Circle Meetings?=======ok

Any of the several activities may occur during a meeting such as:
•   Identifying a theme or a problem to work on.
•   Getting training as required to enable members to analyze problems.
•   Analyzing problem(s).
•   Preparing recommendations for implementing solution(s).
•   Follow up of implementation of suggestions.
Prepare for a presentation to the management

What Quality Circles are Not? (Misconcepts)====ok problems
•   Quality Circles do not tackle just quality problems.
•   Quality Circle is not a substitute or replacement for task forces, product committees, joint plant councils or works committees, quality assurance department, suggestion schemes.
•   Quality Circles do not change the existing organizational structure or the chain of command.
•   Quality Circles are not a forum for grievances or a spring board for demands.
•   Quality Circles are not a means for the management to unload all their problems.
•   Quality Circles are not just another technique.
•   Quality Circles are not a panacea for all ills.


Pitfalls and Problems=======ok
•   Lack of faith in and support to Quality Circle activities among management personnel
•   Lack of interest or incompetence of leaders/facilitator
•   Apathy, fear and misunderstanding among middle level executives
•   Delay or non-implementation of Circle recommendations
•   Irregularity of Quality Circle activities
•   Non-application of simple techniques for problem solving
•   Lack of or non-participation by some members in the Circle activities
•   Circles running out of problems
•   Inadequate visibility of management support
•   
•   Non-maintenance of Quality Circle records
•   Too much facilitation or too little
•   Language difficulty in communication
•   Communication gap between Circles and departmental head
•   Change of management
•   Confusing Quality Circle for another technique
•   Resistance from trade unions

How Do Quality Circles Operate?=====ok
•   Appointment of a steering committee, facilitator and QC team leaders.
•   Formation of QCs by nomination/voluntary enrolment of QC members.
•   Training of all QC members (by an expert consultant).
•   Training of non-participating employees (by an expert consultant).
•   Problem data bank and identification of problems for QC work.
•   QC problem resolution by QCs through standardized techniques.
•   Presentation of QC solutions to management.
Evaluation of award/recognition













Structure of Quality Circles Program====ok
What is  required

Six Basic Elements
•   Circle participants or members.
•   Circle leaders/deputy leaders.
•   Program facilitator.
•   Steering/advisory committee.
•   Top management.
•   Potential members and non-participating management/members.
Roles and Responsibilities of Various Elements

Roles of Members
•   Focus on organizational objectives through the theme(s) selected for one's quality circle
•   Theme/problem should be related to work.
•   Do not bring in the personal issues or problems as the themes of quality circles.
•   Demonstrate mutual respect.
•   Take training in all the aspects of quality circles.
•   Acquire the necessary skills in various quality circle tools and techniques.
•   Participate wholeheartedly in problem-solving process by giving ideas and views voluntarily and suggesting the solutions.
•   Attend all the meetings of quality circle. When unavoidable to attend the meeting, seek prior permission of the quality circle leader.
•   Participate in implementing the finalized solutions.
Roles of Leaders
•   Decide date and time of each quality circle meeting  and inform to all the members.
•   Ensure maximum attendance of all the members in the meetings.
•   Conduct the meetings effectively.
•   Motivate the members for their full participation in the proceedings of quality circle meetings and related activities.
•   Facilitate the members in data collection.
•   Maintain the records of quality circles meetings and other related activities.
•   Interact with other quality circle leaders.
•   Interact with the quality circle facilitator frequently.
•   Make presentations of solutions to the management. Involve the members in making the presentations.
•   Seek management approvals of the solutions.
•   Ensure implementation of the approved solutions with the active involvement of the members.
•   Arrange first time training and later on, the refresher training of the members and self in the quality circles group process, tools and techniques.
Roles of Facilitators
•   Act as an effective link between the quality circles and the management.
•   Coordinate the work of several quality circles through their respective leaders.
•   Act as a resource person for the quality circles being facilitated.
•   Arrange for obtaining necessary expertise from other agencies and quality circles.
•   Keep the motivation and morale level of all the leaders and members at the highest level.
•   Review the progress of each circle periodically and lead them appropriately.
•   Continually update the knowledge and skills pertaining to the working of quality circles by studying the relevant literature and attending the training programs.
•   Transfer the knowledge and skills to the leaders and the members.
•   Arrange for additional training to the leaders and members as required.
•   Arrange for necessary monetary budgets and keep the required records.
•   Facilitate and guide the quality circle leaders and members to make the management presentations.
Roles of Steering Committee (Management)
•   Formally announce the launching of quality circle initiative in the organization.
•   Provide full support and encouragement to quality circle movement in the organization.
•   Provide leadership and guidance to develop the quality circle models, structure and policies.
•   Design the opportunities for presentations by the quality circles.
•   Facilitate the approval and implementation of the solutions presented by quality circles.
•   Sanction the necessary monetary budgets for smooth working of quality circles.
•   Provide the logistic support as needed (presentation venues, meeting rooms, time, finance, training facilities etc).
•   Plan out and execute various training programs for the existing and prospective quality circle facilitators, leaders and members.
•   Give due recognition to quality circles, their members and their work by way of prizes, felicitations and other means.
•   Develop guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of quality circles and also the quality circle initiative as a whole.
•   Review the performance and progress of quality circles periodically.
Code of Conduct for QCs
•   Attend all meetings and be on time.
•   Listen to and show respect for the views of other members.
•   Make others feel a part of the group.
•   Criticize ideas, not persons.
•   Help other members to participate more fully.
•   Be open to and encourage the ideas of others.
•   Every member is responsible for the team’s progress.
•   Maintain a friendly attitude.
•   Strive for enthusiasm.
•   The only stupid question is the one that is not asked.
•   Look for merit in the ideas of others.
•   Pay attention- avoid disruptive behavior.
•   Avoid actions that delay progress.
•   Carry out assignments on schedule.
•   Give credit to those whom it is due.
•   Thank those who give assistance.
•   Do not suppress ideas- do express.
•   Objectives and causes first, solutions next.
•   Give praise and honest appreciation when due.
•   Ideas generated by the group should not be used as individual suggestions to suggestion scheme.
Problem Solving Tools and Techniques Used by Quality Circles

Given below are the most commonly used tools and techniques. These are called the old QC tools:
•   Brainstorming.
•   Pareto analysis.
•   Cause and effect diagram (or fish bone diagram or Ishikawa diagram).
•   Histogram.
•   Scatter diagram
•   Stratification
•   Check sheet
•   Control charts and graphs
New QC Tools

Quality circles started using additional seven tools as they started maturing. These are:
1.   Relations diagram.
2.   Affinity diagram.
3.   Systematic diagram or Tree diagram.
4.   Matrix diagram.
5.   Matrix data analysis diagram.
6.   PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart).
7.   Arrow diagram.
Benefits of QC
•   Self development.
•   Promotes leadership qualities among participants.
•   Recognition.
•   Achievement satisfaction.
•   Promotes group/team working.
•   Serves as cementing force between management/non-management groups.
•   Promotes continuous improvement in products and services.
•   Brings about a change in environment of more productivity, better quality, reduced costs, safety and corresponding rewards.
######################################################################  

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Leo Lingham

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human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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