You are here:

Human Resources/ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE

Advertisement


Question
“Training function in an industry is a gimmick.” Discuss in this connection whether there is any need of a training department in an organization.

Answer
1.Training function in an industry is a gimmick."Discuss in this connection whether there is any need of training department in an organization.

TRAINING  FUNCTION  IS  NOT A  GIMMICK
BUT  IT  IS   A  STRATEGIC  RESOURCE  OF
THE   ORGANIZATION.

Training and Development
Function of Training
The singular function of training is to produce change. It is the upgrading of a person’s skill or the addition of a new skill, which in turn can bring about the desired change an agency is seeking. It is important to understand that training in and of itself cannot motivate a work force. However, it is an integral part of what is needed to accomplish the long-term goals of the agency.
Value of Training
Often supervisors ask, "Why should I provide training to my staff?" There are many reasons agencies provide training to their employees:
•   to foster growth and development
•   to provide opportunities for employees to accept greater challenges
•   to aid employees in contributing to the achievement of department goals and the agency’s mission and vision
•   to build employee self-confidence and commitment
•   to produce a measurable change in performance
•   to bring about the desired changes that can solve a variety of problems
Benefits of Training
Providing training to an employee benefits both the employer and employee by:
•   improving an employee’s performance
•   developing the group and team skills needed to achieve organizational goals
•   giving employees the needed skills and knowledge to complete assigned jobs, duties and tasks
•   motivating employees to achieve higher standards
•   increasing overall efficiency
•   improving customer service, which leads to customer satisfaction
•   preparing employees for promotional opportunities
•   decreasing employee turnover, which reduces down time
•   enhancing employee morale, motivation, and creativity
•   enabling managers to reach unit goals and objectives
giving employees the tools needed to analyze interpersonal and situational factors that create obstacles to achieving high performance
Types of Training to Provide
There is no pre-determined "check list" regarding the type of training needed to ensure employees will always meet performance expectations. Since each individual is different, supervisors will have to make a thorough assessment of the type of training needed. Human Resource Management Services conducts a yearly training needs assessment to ensure programs are being offered that meet agency requirements. Agencies can also contact Human Resource Management Services to arrange for specific training based on performance management review, revised missions and vision, etc.
There are core or basic training programs needed when a person accepts supervisory or management positions, such as:
•   Understanding management, organizational and motivational theory, and application
•   Planning, setting, and carrying out organizational objectives
•   Planning and leading effectively
Specific training needed when an individual enters a supervisory position is:
•   Planning, scheduling, and delegating work assignments.
•   Communicating, handling conflict, and handling grievance procedures.
•   Understanding various state and federal employment laws.
•   Interviewing and completing performance management reviews.
•   Setting unit goals and objectives.
Levels and Types of Formal Training
We have identified three levels of formal training available to employees. The type of training selected should be based on the need of the individual, which can be determined through the performance management review, individual request, reorganization efforts, or supervisor observation. The Human Resource Management Services web site lists the various training programs offered to state agencies. The types of formal training available to employees are:
- Orientation Training
This training is geared for the newly hired or reassigned personnel. These programs are designed to give new employees the basic knowledge, understanding, and skill needed for successful job performance. Programs include orientation and various job skills training such as computer usage, communication techniques, phone usage, etc.
Human Resource Management Services provides general orientation that is designed to give employees a general knowledge of state policies, procedures, and practices relating to the employment relationship. The individual agencies complete orientation by providing information on agency policy and job-specific instruction.
- Remedial Training
This training is designed to correct observed deficiencies in employee knowledge, skill, and attitudes. Programs include stress reduction, time management, presentation skill building, assertiveness building, business writing, hands-on experiences in word processing, computer software, etc.
- Upgrading or Advanced Training
This training is designed to improve or upgrade individual job skills and knowledge. Programs include advanced computer training, decision making, employment laws, managing conflict, conducting performance evaluations, sensitivity training, supervisory responsibilities, resolving grievances, etc.
Right Training at the Right Time
Supervisors who perceive a training need, should contact their human resource officer or Human Resource Management Services, who can assist in developing a needs assessment to identify a specific training need.
Human Resource Management Services will assist supervisors to look into the future and consider such things as:
•   What skills will employees need?
•   What will be the organizational structure?
•   What technological requirements will be needed?
•   What services will be provided?
Once the direction is known, agencies may develop short and long-term plans in relation to staffing objectives, career ladders, organization development, etc.
After agencies know their focus and have developed their plans, they can determine the exact training needed to meet objectives through a needs assessment. There are four types of needs assessment. They are:
- Organizational needs assessment
Organizational needs emerge from agency goals, objectives, and priorities. This type of need can be universal for all employees, such as reducing stress, improving productivity, etc.
- Group needs assessment
These types of needs are easier to determine because they are closely related to specific job levels and categories of employees, such as team-building, problem solving, etc.
- Individual employee needs assessment
The needs uncovered with this type of assessment are more specific and can be easily identified by reviewing the individual’s background, education, training, experience, skills, knowledge, and past performance. Individual needs are those skills needed to do the employee’s current job, future assignments, and career plans.
- Job needs assessment
Based on the job in question, this type of need can be the most difficult or easiest to identify. Occupational, job, and task analyses are conducted to determine the type of training needed.
Challenges and Issues
How can we be assured that agency human capital is competent and contributing to their fullest? Making sure employees are managed, trained, and developed are primary factors that lead to efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, how do we do this?
•   Ensure employees have the necessary skill, knowledge, and experience needed to match current job descriptions.
•   Assist employees in achieving performance potential by:
o   Assigning effective developmental opportunities.
o   Involving employees in an interactive process to improve performance.
o   Increasing motivation.
o   Developing a harmonious work environment.
•   Improve work habits by obtaining employee commitment, developing an action plan, and providing support.
•   Manage employee performance through top-management involvement and role modeling of performance management practices, ensuring goals are aligned to agency mission and vision.
The challenge for managers is to gather the resources and skills required to meet the demands of today’s problems and tomorrow’s uncertainties.
Training is the answer to meet this challenge.
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

  In order to convincingly advocate the benefits of training to the management & staff of your company, it is essential that they understand the positive role that it can play in improving organisational performance.  Ensuring good performance of individuals and teams is central to the work of the Training & Development function. In order to do this a planned approach is necessary. The activities of the Training & Development function must be closely linked to the overall business plan.

  The impact T&D activity is meant to have on performance must be clearly defined and will communicated. To be successful T&D activities must be supported by wider T&D Policies and Procedures.

  Training Vs Development: Training needs should be based on immediate needs for changes in behaviour. The long range development goals should be based on the acquisition of knowledge and skills to be used in the present as well as in the future. Development looks down the road, and addresses helping people meet challenges, create change and ensure the success of the organisation in the future.


WHY TRAIN?


  
To ensure that the training initiative you embark upon makes a real impact, brainstorm your team's ideas on the impact of training under these 3 headings.

1.   Saving Time
2.   Saving Money
3.   Saving Effort


  It is important that the training manager is clear about the answers to these questions and is open to any other possible benefits which the team might suggest.  These responses should help shape the design of any subsequent training interventions and send out a message to management and employees that investment in training can result in real and tangible benefits to all stakeholders.  The following are a number of such benefits which can emerge from effective training:-

Benefits to the Company:

1   Increased productivity and profitability.
2   Raised standards of performance.
3   Expansion of  the business.
4   Increased cash turnover.
5   Maximisation of resources/greater efficiency.
6   Reduced waste.
7   Reduction in complaints.
8   Helps recruitment.
9   Lowers staff turnover.
10   Aids succession planning.

Benefits to Staff:

1   Shared work load.
2   Better team work.
3   Reduced overload.
4   Increased job satisfaction.
5   Better morale.
6   Greater professional and personal development.

Benefits to Customer:-

1   They know what to expect
2   Clearer brand association
3   More efficient, reliable service.
4   Less cause for complaint



Training  is concerned with the  teaching  of  specific, factual,  narrow - scoped  subject  matter  and  skills. It  is   a  formal
classroom  learning  activities.


Development  is  concerned  with  a  broader subject matter  of  a conceptual  or theoretical nature  and the development
of  personal  attitudes. It  comprises  all  learning  experiences, both on  and  off  the  job, including  formal, classroom training.

Education is  the  act, process  or  art  of  imparting  knowledge  and  skill
thru
-instruction
-pedagogics
-schooling
-teaching
-training
-tuition
-coaching
etc etc

Education can be divided into many different learning "modes" but the learning modalities are probably the most common:
Kinesthetic learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
Visual learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.
Auditory learning based on listening to instructions/information.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning is a "change" in knowledge, behaviour, attitudes, values, priorities, or
creativity that can result when learners interact with information. It occurs to the
extent that learners are motivated to change, and it is applied in the real world to the
extent they take successful steps to integrate that learning into the real world
situation.

WHAT DOES LEARNING DO?

It helps the participants become motivated to learn.

Helps the participants effectively handle course information and
experience.

Helps the participants develop knowledge, skills, values and
attitudes and creative ideas.

Helps the participants transfer their learning to the application
environment.

TRAINING  AND  DEVELOPMENT  CONTRIBUTIONS
TO  LEARNING.

TRAINING  AND DEVELOPMENT  ARE  THE  TOOLS    WHICH
HELPS   TO  DEVELOP  THE  LEARNING   CAPACITY   OF   THE
INDIVIDUAL  AND   THE  ORGANIZATION .


IT  IS  THROUGH   LEARNING, THE  PARTICIPANTS
IMPROVE - DEVELOP  THEIR  CAREER  AND  THE
OUTCOMES  OF  THE ORGANIZATION.



1.T & D Broadens  the participants'  interests  /  awareness.

2.  T & D  broadens  the  participants' business  perspectives.

3.T & D  Exposes the  participants  to new avenues  of  practices  thoughts.

4.T & D  Prepares the  participants  for  greater  responsibility.

5.T & D Permits the  participants  to  greater interaction  internal/external channels.

6.T & D Helps  to  prepare participants  for  promotions  within  the  organization.

7.T & D Helps  to  prepare the  participants    for  additional  responsibilities.

8.T & D Helps to  provide  the  participants   with modern  practices/ techniques.

9. T & D Helps  the  participants     to  share  ideas concepts  with  others.

10.T & D  Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new technologies.

11.T & D Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new  processes.

12.T & D Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  culture.

13.T & D Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  OD programs.

etc  etc.
========================
EXPERIENCE

practical knowledge, skill, or practice derived from direct observation of or participation in events or in a particular activity
Examples of EXPERIENCE
1.   The best way to learn is by experience.
2.   We need someone with experience.
3.   She gained a lot of experience at that job.
4.   I know that from personal experience.
5.   She has five years' experience as a computer programmer.
6.   He wrote about his experiences as a pilot.
7.   That experience is one I'd rather forget!
8.   She had a frightening experience.
9.   Human experience is the ultimate source and justification for all knowledge. Experience itself has accumulated in human memory and culture, gradually producing the methods of intelligence called “reason” and “science

######################
Establishing Training Objectives and Priorities
Once training needs have been identified using the various analyses, then training objectives and priorities must be established. All of the gathered data is usedto compile a gap analysis, which identifies the distance between where an organization is with its employee capabilities and where it needs to be. Training objectives and priorities are set to close the gap.
The success of training should be measured in terms of the objectives set. Useful objectives are measurable. For example, an objective for a new sales clerk might be to "demonstrate the ability to explain the function of each product in the department within two weeks." This objective serves as a check on internalization, or whether the person really learned. Objectives for training can be set in any area by using one of the following four dimensions:
•   Quantity of work resulting from training (for example, number of words per minute typed or number of applications processed per day)
•   Quality of work after training (for example, dollar cost of rework, scrap loss, or errors)
•   Timeliness of work after training (for example, schedules met or budget reports turned in on time)
•   Cost savings as a result of training (for example, deviation from budget, sales expense, or cost of downtime)
Because training seldom is an unlimited budget item and there are multiple training needs in an organization, it is necessary to prioritize needs. Ideally, training needs are ranked in importance on the basis of organizational objectives. Thetraining most needed to improve the health of the organization is done first in order to produce visible results more quickly.

Training Approaches
Once objectives have been determined, the actual training can begin. Regardless of whether the training is job specific or broader in nature, the appropriate training approach must be chosen. The following overview of common training approaches and techniques classifies them into several major groups.
On-the-Job Training (OJT)
The most common type of training at all levels in an organization is on-the-job training (OJT). Whether or not the training is planned, people do learn from their job experiences, particularly if these experiences change over time. On-the-job training usually is done by the manager, other employees, or both. A manager or supervisor who trains an employee must be able to teach, as well as to show, the employee what to do.
JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING (JIT) A special, guided form of on-the-job training is known as job instruction training (JIT). Developed during World War II, JIT wasused to prepare civilians with little experience for jobs in the industrial sector producing military equipment. Because of its success, JIT is still used. In fact, its logical progression of steps is an excellent way to teach trainers to train. Figure10-9 shows the steps in the JIT process.
PROBLEMS WITH OJT On-the-job training is by far the most commonly used form of training because it is flexible and relevant to what the employee is doing. However, OJT has some problems as well. A common problem is that OJT often is haphazardly done. Trainers may have no experience in training, no time to do it, and no desire to participate. Under such conditions, learners essentially are on their own, and training likely will not be effective. Another problem is that OJT can disrupt regular work. Unfortunately, OJT can amount to no training at all in some circumstances, especially if the trainee simply is abandoned by an ineffective trainer to learn the job alone. However, well-planned and well-executed OJT can be very effective.
Simulation
Simulation is a training approach that uses a training site set up to be identical tothe work site. In this setting, trainees can learn under realistic conditions but beaway from the pressures of the production schedule. For example, having an employee practice on a PBX console in a simulated setting before taking over asa telephone receptionist allows the person to learn the job more easily and with-out stress. Consequently, there may be fewer mistakes in handling actual incoming calls.
Cooperative Training
Two widely used cooperative training methods are internships and apprenticeships. Both mix classroom training and on-the-job experiences.
INTERNSHIPS An internship is a form of on-the-job training that usually com-bines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools, high schools, colleges, or universities.
APPRENTICESHIPS Another form of cooperative training that is used by employers, trade unions, and government agencies is apprentice training. An apprenticeship program provides an employee with on-the-job experience under theguidance of a skilled and certified worker.
Behaviorally Experienced Training
Some training efforts focus on emotional and behavioral learning. Behaviorally experienced training focuses less on physical skills than on attitudes, perceptions, and interpersonal issues.
Classroom and Conference Training
Training seminars, courses, and presentations can be used in both skills-related and developmental training. Lectures and discussions are a major part of thistraining. The numerous management development courses offered by trade associations and educational institutions are examples of conference training.

Selecting Training Approaches
Once training needs have been assessed and training objectives identified, then the training approaches and methods must be selected. There are many different training methods, and training technology is expanding the number of options available. Figure 10-11 shows that numerous factors must be considered simultaneously when selecting the training approaches to use.
Make Training a Top Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Overcome Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Six More Reasons to Make Training a Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strategy #2:
Develop a Training Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Determine Training Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Determine Affected Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Know How to Train Adult Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Know Your Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Draw Up a Detailed Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Strategy #3:
Choose Effective Training Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Overall Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Classroom or Instructor-Led Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Interactive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Hands-On Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Computer-Based Training (CBT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Online or E-Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Blended Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Strategy #4:
Outsource Training if Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Government Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
What to Look for in Prepackaged Training Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Strategy #5:
Prepare for Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Promote Training to Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Prepare Training Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Prepare Training Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Prepare Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Prepare Trainees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Strategy #6:
Conduct an Effective Training Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
The 12-Step Method for Successful Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Make Training Memorable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table of Contents (cont.)
Qualities of Effective Trainers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Training Pitfalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Strategy #7:
Ensure Your Training Is Effective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Model of Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Evaluation by Return on Investment (ROI) Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Other Evaluation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Transferring Learning to Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7 Strategies for Effective Training

Introduction

This is the first of a series of guidance notes that the Judicial Studies Board (JSB) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) team will issue periodically on key training topics.  The target audience for this guidance note is primarily aimed at training ‘professionals’, for example Justices’ Clerks, Legal Advisers and Training Managers.  The note is written as a practical tool and provides working examples.

Why care about aims and objectives?

Aims and objectives are essential for designing effective training.  Without understanding the purpose and expected results of the training, things can go badly wrong.  If clearly defined aims and objectives are lacking, there is no sound basis for the selection or design of materials, content and methods.  A clear statement of what is to be achieved through the training will provide a sound basis for choosing appropriate evaluation methods.  In other words learners will know precisely in which direction they are travelling and trainers will know whether or not they are getting there.  As a result evaluating training becomes a much easier process within the four main areas identified in the JSB M&E Evaluation Guidance (on the JSB M&E website).

Thus, aims and objectives play a vital role in planning:

•   a training programme
•   a course
•   a short training event for individual learners
•   evaluation methods.



Tackling terminology

Aims and objectives are often used loosely (and sometimes incorrectly) although they are very different.  Other words are also used such as goals, purposes (rather like aims) and learning outcomes (similar to objectives).  The terminology has become a minefield, but there is no need to get too bogged down in fine differences.


Aim
  Objective

An aim is a general statement of intent.  It describes the direction in which the learner will go in terms of what they might learn or what the training will do.
  
An objective is a more specific statement about what the learner should, or will be able to do, after the training experience.


Purpose of an aim

Aims are very important tools in the design, implementation, and evaluation of training.  Simply put, an aim gives a general indication of what may be learnt and what the benefits are from attending the training.  However, aims do not give any details or means of assessing whether the learning has been successful.  Objectives are used for this purpose.


The qualities of well-formed learning objectives

Objectives are very important tools in the design, implementation, and evaluation of training.  Simply put, a usefully stated objective is one that succeeds in communicating an intended result to the learner.

Unfortunately, there are many slippery words that are open to a wide range of interpretation when writing objectives.

Consider the following phrases in this light:

Words open to many interpretations
  Words open to fewer interpretations
to know   to describe
to understand   to state
to appreciate   to sort
to grasp the significance of   to solve

What is meant by, to know something?  Does it mean learners have to recite, or to solve or to read aloud to a group?  The word in itself can mean different things to people.  Until the definition is understood in terms of what learners ought to be able to DO, very little has been said.

A well-formed learning objective contains all of the following elements.

•   Performance.  An objective always says what a learner is expected to do and must be measurable; the objective sometimes describes the product or result of the doing (for example to make a presentation, state the actions to take).  Words such as state, describe, list, compare, and explain all describe things that people might do.

•   Conditions.  An objective always describes the important conditions (if any) under which the performance is to occur (for example with reference to the course notes, in the court environment).

•   Criterion.  Wherever possible, an objective describes the criterion of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable (for example correctly, accurately, according to the Adult Court Bench Book).


Example of an aim and a well-formed learning objective

Bearing this in mind, let’s examine an existing aim and objective from the Magistrates National Training Initiative (MNTI2) core training materials, to see whether this meets the definition of an aim and the qualities of a well-formed learning objective.  It is also important to look closely at the style of writing and how this comes across to the learner.


Example of an aim


Existing aim
  Revised aim


To provide an overview of the training and development framework for magistrates.   
To provide an overview of the training and development framework, in order to equip you with the knowledge and understanding of the purpose of the Magistrates National Training Initiative (MNTI).

The aim now gives an indication of how learners might benefit from this module.

When writing an aim that a delegate will read, try try and use an “enabling voice”
(e.g. ‘in order to equip you….’ rather than ‘for magistrates’).  This expresses an aim in a more personal manner.



Example of a well-formed learning objective


Existing objective
  Revised objective


By the end of the session, delegates will be able to:

•   explain in outline the six key qualities required of a magistrate, the undertaking, and the judicial oath.

  
Key code

The objective is coded for ease of reference.

- Performance is in bold
- Condition is underlined
- Criterion is in italics.


By the end of the session, you will be able to:

•   describe, accurately, using your Induction Pack the six key qualities required of a magistrate, the undertaking, and the judicial oath.

When writing an objective that a delegate will read try and use an “enabling voice”
(e.g. ‘you will be able to ….’ rather than ‘delegates will be able to ….’).  This expresses an objective in a more personal manner.



Other examples of aims and well-formed learning objectives are provided at Annex 1.
Practical tips

•   Always spend time considering what the aim and objectives of the training are before designing the programme.  In this way well written aims and objectives will help to provide a sound basis for identifying the purpose, content and learning methods required.  They will also be key in evaluating whether the training has been successful.  See Framework of Standards for Magistrate Training and Development.

•   Think of objectives in terms of the outcome of the training, that is what do you want the learner to differently as a result of attending the training?

•   Use a checklist (example at Annex 2) to see whether performance, condition and criterion are included in all learning objectives.  If the condition and criterion apply to all of the objectives, consider including these in the stem sentence for the objectives (for example ‘By the end of the session you will, with the use of your handouts, be able to correctly:’).

•   Constantly refer to the aims and objectives when designing materials/exercises and ensure that learners are fully aware of them throughout the event.

•   Refer specifically to the aims and objectives when designing evaluation methods.  You can find detailed guidance in the JSB M&E Evaluation Guidance on the JSB M&E website.

Example 1

Aim: To introduce the concepts of judicial decision-making, bias and fairness so that you understand and apply these principles in court.

Key code

The objectives are coded for ease of reference.

- Performances are in bold
- Conditions are underlined
- Criteria are in italics.

Objectives:

By the end of the session, you will be able to:

•   describe using suggestions from within syndicate groups, three reasons for, and elements of, the structured decision making process, as outlined in your pre-course reading pack

•   name correctly five different types of question style, without using your course notes

•   summarise accurately, by reference to your pre-course reading pack, the concepts of bias, impartiality and fairness as applied in the magistrates’ court.

Note: These are only illustrative examples.








)

Example 2

Aim: To explain the concept of case management and the role you play; and to identify and explore the key preliminary stages in a criminal prosecution.

Key code

The objectives are coded for ease of reference.

- Performances are in bold
- Conditions are underlined
- Criteria are in italics.

Objectives:

By the end of the session, with reference to your course notes and/or Adult Court Bench Book, you will be able to correctly:

•   describe what case management is and why it is important

•   state four actions to consider when dealing with the impact of delays in court proceedings

•   explain the procedure for making adjournment and remand decisions and the key issues to consider when making bail/custody decisions.

Note: These are only illustrative examples.


Example 3

Aim: To examine the key reforms within the Criminal Justice Act (CJA) and provide you with the knowledge and skills needed to apply the new sentencing provisions.

Key code

The objectives are coded for ease of reference.

- Performances are in bold
- Conditions are underlined
- Criteria are in italics.

Objectives:

By the end of the session, you will be able to:

•   describe, using suggestions from within syndicate groups, the structured approach to sentencing within the CJA ensuring this accurately covers the Sentencing Guidelines Council (SGC) requirements

•   list the correct steps to consider from case study exercises, in accordance with the SGC and course material, using the new structured decision making form

•   name correctly at least five requirements that can be attached to a community order without reference to your course notes.

Note: These are only illustrative examples.


Checklist for testing well-formed learning objectives


Characteristics of objectives
  Met
( or x)   Comments
Performance

Do the objectives state what the learner is able to do?

Examples in the form of doing words such as describe, name, write, list, summarise or explain.
     
Condition

Do the objectives state the specific conditions under which the performance is expected to occur?

Examples such as with or without reference to course materials, to a group of people, or given a list of.
     
Criterion

Do the objectives state the quality or level of performance that will be considered acceptable?

Examples such as according to specific references, accurately or correctly.
     


Training programme/course:  …………………………………………………………………….

Name:   …………………………………………..          Date:  ………………………………..




  



MONDAY, OCTOBER 12, 2009
OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
Objectives of training methods can be determined generally as below.

a) Increase job satisfaction and morals among employees

b) Increase employee motivation

c) Increase efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain

d) Increase capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

e) Increase innovation in strategies and products

f) Reduce employee turnover
g) Enhance company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)
h) Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training
Objectives of orientations are different from other methods, because it is given for the new employees of the organization at the beginning of their career at organization. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
(i) The company's history and mission.

(i) The key members in the organization.

(ii) The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company.

(iii) Personnel rules and regulations.
Objectives of the telling methods give an idea about the training area. Some times written parts also can be seen in this method, but generally this method gives an understanding about the learning area.
Showing methods create a picture in trainees mind and it helps to bring the trainee to real situations and that helps to practice decision making and general understanding in wide area, than telling method. This method also helps to increase the creativity of the trainee.
Role playing generate leaders and decision makers. Such kind of things help the trainee to get a deep understanding about the learning and working area. These kind of trainings can be used for junior management levels and finally can make a competence, skillful employees. Job rotation reduces the individual stress while training employees as generalists. By this training method, employer or management can assign the trained employee to fill an internal vacancy, with out giving training again. This will help the smooth flow of work at the organization. These kinds of trainings are better to face absenteeism of an employee in any manner.
Technical training is unique for a job. Most of technicians are specialized for their fields. So these technical trainings reduce wastage and accidents while maximizing the profit of a firm or the line. These kinds of trainings create efficiency in the organizational production.
What HR should know about training

Information on training should be gathered with purpose. The questions here facilitate a clear purposeful approach to training. The checklist below is designed to allow the key information to be gathered and kept in a current form by HR:
•   Has training policy been considered in the light of company/business philosophy — in other words, does it fit with the company's general culture?
•   Have decisions about training been made in the context of the broader corporate/business direction of the employer — in other words, are the skills be promoted consistent with the skills needed by the business in future years?
•   If a deliberate decision has been taken not to train employees, or to train only to the minimal degree required to keep the business functioning, then what plans are in place to acquire the new skills or changing skills needed to keep the business competitive? This could extend to simply paying the market rate for the skilled personnel required rather than continuing to train staff.
•   Has a thorough needs analysis in relation to the training needs of the business been conducted?
•   Have the options for satisfying these needs been investigated?
•   Has training been considered as a means of conveying: company philosophy; necessary information (eg OHS); required skills; attitudinal and personal development aspects?
•   What is the portfolio of skills that the employer needs across the board (ie be comprehensive)?
•   Has thought been given to the pros and cons of in-house training as opposed to outside training?
•   Are enough staff qualified to conduct in-house training (by attending train-the-trainer courses)?
•   Has the scope and potential for computer-based training been assessed?
•   What university courses are available to fill some of the needs identified?
•   What TAFE courses are available to fill some of the needs identified?
•   What other educational organisations cater to the needs of your business?
•   What other organisations offer courses/training that is particularly suited to the needs of your employer/business?
•   What on-the-job training support is in place?
•   What on-the-job training support should be in place?
•   What government assistance schemes exist that are relevant to the training needs of the business?
•   What kinds/types of group training should be investigated to assist the business?
•   Is apprenticeship/traineeship relevant to this employer?
•   What are the details concerning training re relevant apprenticeship/traineeship?
•   Has an effective induction program been put in place to cover all positions?
•   What regular group training has been organised (eg re the IT system)
•   Has a well-designed system for evaluating the effectiveness of training been implemented — this would include staff feedback as well as objective criteria?
•   Has an effective record-keeping system been implemented that can trace the training history of each member of staff?






Measuring the success of training

The evaluation of training, like motherhood and apple pie, is inherently a good thing. But, because short term priorities always crowd out their longer term competitors, it's typically something we plan to do better next year - after all, we've got away with it so far, so another year won't hurt!
And even if training evaluation is undertaken, it is usually at the easiest and lowest level - the measurement of student reactions through happy sheets. Reactions are important and the happy sheets serve a purpose, but will they be enough to back up your arguments when there is a need for a greater investment in training, when major changes need to be made in direction, when there is stiffer competition for resources, when times get tough?
Why evaluate training?
Let's summarise the main arguments for better evaluation of training:
To validate training as a business tool
Training is one of many actions that an organisation can take to improve its performance and profitability. Only if training is properly evaluated can it be compared against these other methods and expect, therefore, to be selected either in preference to or in combination with other methods.
To justify the costs incurred in training
We all know that when money is tight, training budgets are amongst the first to be sacrificed. Only by thorough, quantitative analysis can training departments make the case necessary to resist these cuts.
To help improve the design of training
Training programmes should be continuously improved to provide better value and increased benefits for an organisation. Without formal evaluation, the basis for changes can only be subjective.
To help in selecting training methods
These days there are many alternative approaches available to training departments, including a variety of classroom, on-job and self-study methods. Using comparative evaluation techniques, organisations can make rational decisions about the methods to employ.
Criteria for measuring training success
The form of evaluation that we undertake is determined by the criteria that we choose, or are told to use, to measure success:
Numbers
One way of measuring the success of training is the good old ‘bums on seats’. Although by no means a true measure of the effectiveness of training, student numbers do reflect the fact that the training is addressing a need and that the design and methodology is meeting expectations.
Direct cost
Direct costs are those costs that are incurred directly as a result of a training programme – external design and development, consultancy fees, travel expenses and so on. If the programme did not take place, these costs would not be incurred. Many organisations only ever take direct costs into consideration when measuring training costs.
Indirect cost
Indirect costs are costs that may or may not be directly associated with a training event, but which would have been incurred anyway, whether or not the training took place. Examples are salaries of in-house trainers and students and the costs of rooms and equipment. Any analysis of the true costs of training will include both direct and indirect costs.
Efficiency
Efficiency is a measure of the amount of learning achieved relative to the amount of effort put in. In practical terms this means the amount of time it takes to complete a piece of training. Efficiency has a direct relation to cost – the more efficient a training method is, the less it will cost.
Performance to schedule
Sometimes with a training programme, ‘time is of the essence’ – the training needs to be completed by a given date if a particular business objective is to be achieved. In these situations, the extent to which a training programme performs to schedule is a critical measure of success.
Income received
If you are a training provider operating externally to a client organisation, then income received is a vital measure of your success. It’s the financial equivalent of ‘bums on seats’ – the more courses you run or places you fill, the greater the benefit. Some internal training providers may also cross-charge their clients, although, because this correspondingly increases the cost to the organisation, this is not regarded as a benefit when assessing return on investment.
The extent to which trainees mix
A justification often made for training, particularly group events, is that it provides an opportunity for students who work in different departments or regions to meet with each other, share experiences and make contacts. Because this is a valued outcome of training, it needs to be considered when comparing training methods. Similarly, some training may be regarded as a perk, a benefit of some value, even if this is not directly related to learning.
Reactions
Reactions are what you measure with the ‘happy sheet’. Reactions are important because, if students react negatively to your courses, they are less likely to transfer what they learned to their work and more likely to give bad reports to their peers, leading in turn to lower student numbers.
Learning
Learning, in terms of new or improved skills, knowledge and attitudes, is the primary aim of a training event. Learning can be measured objectively using a test or exam or some form of assessed exercise. If a student has to achieve a certain level of learning to obtain a ‘pass mark’, then the number of passes may be used as an evaluation measure. Another important aspect of learning is the degree of retention – how much of the learning has stuck after the course is over.
Behaviour change
If a student has learned something from a course, you hope that this will be reflected in their behaviour on the job. If a student employs what they have learned appropriately, then their work behaviour will meet desired criteria. Behaviour can be measured through observation or, in some cases, through some automated means. To assess behaviour change requires that the measurements are taken before and after the training.
Performance change
If, as a result of training, students are using appropriate behaviours on the job, then you would expect that to have a positive impact on performance. A wide variety of indicators can be employed to measure the impact of training on performance – numbers of complaints, sales made, output per hour and so on. It is hard to be sure that it is training that has made the difference without making comparisons to a control group – a group of employees who have not been through the training.

####### ###############

Human Resources

All Answers


Answers by Expert:


Ask Experts

Volunteer


Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

©2016 About.com. All rights reserved.