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Human Resources/Personnel Management


The process of selection involves three stages we Recruitment, Selection and Placement. Recruitment refers to making the vacancies known to potential applicants and thereby generating applications for position. This is generally done through advertisement in mass media, employment exchange, private employment agencies, deputation, word of mouth and campus recruitment. Once these applications are generated, the actual selection begins. The number of methods can be used to select. These may include application form, selection tests, interviews, business games, physical examination. Finally the employees are placed in the appropriate positions.

Q1) Define the term “Word of Mouth”.
Q2) Define the objective and importance of advertisement in the process of Recruitment?
Q3) Define the term selection in brief.
Q4) Explain the methods of selection?

Open and two ways communication ensures survival of the organization. It is means to make members work together. Formal communication can be downward and upward. Despite its significance communication can suffer from distortions both intended as well as unconscious. Some of the reasons for distortions are tendency to evaluate pre-existing attitudes, stereotypes, values and perceptions. Feedback can help improve the quality of communication. Feedback however should be prompt both positive and negative, focus an action and behavior instead of individual.

Q1) Distinguish between one way versus two way communication.
Q2) Define the tem formal and informal organizational communication?
Q3) Explain the most common channels available for downward communication in an organization?
Q4) what do you mean by communication filters?

The quality of work life (QWL) research programme, which has been in progress for sometimes now, has tried to understand human behavior in the work situation in order to enhance productivity job satisfaction and employee involvement. QWL takes a holistic view of the employee at the work place. The focus has shifted from time to time. QWL related activities are several but revolve around work restructuring, job design, participative problem solving, reward systems and work environment.

Q1) What do you understand by the concept of QWL?
Q2) Identify its major activities and concerns?
Q3) Discuss the relevance of QSL in the Indian context?
Q4) ‘Flexible working time arrangement can be an answer to the multifarious roles of the Indian worker’, Evaluate.

Q1) Define the term “Word of Mouth”.
What is word-of-mouth?
Word-of-mouth is a way of communication between people regarding product and service performances.
It is considered an unofficial form of
communication and there are various expressions
as to how people and academics refer to it. Words
like “buzz”, “grapevine” or “customer talking” are
often used to describe this communication activity
people engage in. In tourism, word-of-mouth
is among the first three sources of information
people use. Table 1 shows some numbers indicative
of the importance of word-of-mouth to people
planning vacations. Table 2 describes what
products consumers usually seek advice for and
the differences between males and females.
The role of word-of-mouth and how it can be used to develop
a competitive advantage for a destination
What do people “talk” or “buzz” about?
• Exciting  services /exciting experiences)
• Innovative  services
• Personal experience of  health problems
• Complex products (in order to reduce risk people talk about
Services  they do not understand like medical devices)
• Expensive products services
• Observable  services (people engage in discussions about what they see)
• Personal activities (like attending a centre
event, people usually talk about this kind of experiences while socializing with friends and relatives)
Power of Word-of-Mouth (WOM)
Some of the reasons that make wordof-
mouth a powerful source of information
are the following:
􀂾 WOM is an independent and
honest source of information
(when the information comes
from a friend it is more credible
because there is no association
of the person with the
company or product).
􀂾 WOM is powerful because it
provides the inquirer with an
indirect experience about the
product through the experiences
of friends and relatives.
For example, imagine that
someone wants to visit the city
of Frankenmuth in the State of
Michigan. Before he/she actually
invests time and money
into the trip, he/she gathers
information from friends or
acquaintances that visited the
place to get a more realistic
view on what to expect from
the destination.
􀂾 WOM is tailored to the people
that are interested in it. In
other words, a person will not
join a conversation unless he/
she is interested in the topic of
􀂾 WOM is a self-generating medium
of informal advertising.
WOM can start from a single
source depending how influential
and well networked this
source is and spread quickly
and widely to others.
􀂾 WOM is not limited by money
or other constraints like social,
time, family or physical constraints.
􀂾 Internet reduces even more
the boundaries of communication
between people
(e.g. on-line chat rooms).

“Word-of-mouth is important because it gives so much credibility
to the product , to the is the best influence
that you’ve got, although h at times it can backfire. If a
visitor has a bad experience he/she can go back and tell 10
other people about it. People use word-of-mouth to find out
about  healthcare  centres.

How to stimulate WOM and make it work for your tourism business
􀂾 Create a unique product or service that will intrigue your customers’ attention and potentially make
them talk about it with friends, relatives and colleagues. People usually talk about exciting and new products
or services.
􀂾 Locate opinion leaders for your product and find a way to talk about your product or service. For example,
these people will call repeatedly your business to ask for information or they will visit your business
premises on a regular basis to acquire the most recent information about the product or service. These
were two examples of how you can track them down. Also, these people are usually the innovators and
they are characterized by curiosity, activism and indulgence. These characteristics make them trendsetters
regarding products and services. Reingen & Kernan (1986) found that although the number of opinion leaders
is relatively small they account for 60% of the referrals paths. They also found that multiple group
membership is important in the spreading of referrals.
􀂾 Identify the customers who do the talking for a business and stimulate their interest even further. For
example, if a customer sends a letter of praise to a business, action should be taken to show the business’s
appreciation for his/her praise. Product or service discounts can be offered, as well as hosting of special
events that will have a related product/service theme to stimulate the customers’ interest even further.
Also, ‘thank you’ letters increase positive impressions about a business.
􀂾 Stimulate knowledge about your service or product. For example, a business can regularly “test”
how familiar the customers are with the business. The trivia can include questions about educational background
of employees, business achievements, community services, years of existence or how the business
has dealt with problems in the past. Do not forget to reward those who answer all the questions correctly!!
􀂾 Satisfy all inquiries. An e-mail that has not been answered no matter how insignificant its content may
create dissatisfied customers who will spread negative WOM. For example, think of the following scenario: a
travel agency receives an e-mail from a potential customer who inquires about the working hours of the
agency. The e-mail remains unanswered and the potential customer becomes a source of negative information
spreading. If the agency satisfied his/her simple inquiry, then in the worst case scenario the outcome
would be not to produce negative information and in the best case scenario to spread positive information
about the efficiency of the agency in responding to all requests.
􀂾 Quietly and efficiently deal with complaints. Addressing a complaint can turn that person into a supporter
who will tell others. Not addressing it means not only risk losing that customer but others they may
communicate with.
􀂾 Feed the business’s loyal customer base with more information about the offered products and services
through e-mail, electronic newsletters, brochures and special invitations to events.
􀂾 Respond to positive comments as well as complaints to maintain high levels of customer satisfaction.
According to a research by Richins (1983) “if complaints are encouraged, the retailer has the
chance to remedy legitimate complaints and win back a customer who also makes positive reports to others,
enhancing good will.” Technical Assistant Research Programs (1979, cited in Richins) found that even if
the complaint is not settled to the consumer’s satisfaction, he/she is more likely to repurchase than if no
complaint is made.
􀂾 Develop and implement WOM offensive strategy by identifying activities that stimulate positive recommendations
(Stokes & Lomax, 2002). For example, make the visitors feel at home in your hotel by providing
an area that is cozy and allows the guests to behave as if they were home. More specifically, create a
movie living room where the guests could enjoy a movie of their preference and at the same time provide
an open self-service bar with refreshments and popcorn. This different and new element will make your
customers talk about their experience with their friends.
􀂾 Use the Internet to nurture word-of-mouth by placing phrases like “send this page to a friend”, “You
think your friend might be interested in this page? E-mail your friend about it!” prominently in the business
web page.

Q2) Define the objective and importance of advertisement in the process of Recruitment?
The Objective of Recruitment Advertising
The objectives of recruitment advertising are to:
(1) Attract suitable candidates, and
(2) Deter unsuitable candidates
 The  importance of a good job advert
Whilst there are no hard and fast rules about the contents of a job advert, the following features are likely to be in an effective advertisement:
Accurate - describes the job and its requirements accurately
Short - not too long-winded; covers just the important ground
Honest - does not make claims about the job or the business that will later prove false to applicants
Positive - gives the potential applicant a positive feel about joining the business
Relevant - provides details that prospective applicants need to know at the application stage (e.g. is shift-working required; are there any qualifications required)
Content of a job advert
Most job adverts contain:
- Details of the business/organisation (name, brand, location, type of business)
- Outline details of the job (title, main duties)
- Conditions (special factors affecting the job)
- Experience / qualifications required (e.g. minimum qualifications, amount of experience)
- Rewards (financial and non-financial; the financial rewards may be grouped together under a total valued "package2 - e.g. total package circa £50,000)
- Application process (how should applicants apply, how to; deadlines)
Choice of medium
What kind of advertising medium should be chosen? The following factors are relevant:
Type of job: senior management jobs merit adverts in the national newspapers and/or specialist management magazines (e.g. the Economist, BusinessWeek). Many semi-skilled jobs need only be advertised locally to attract sufficient good quality candidates
Cost of advertising: National newspapers and television cost significantly more than local newspapers etc
Readership and circulation: how many relevant people does the medium reach? How frequently (e.g. weekly, monthly, annually!. Is the target audience actually only a small fraction of the total readership or Viewer ship?
Frequency: how often does the business want to advertise the post?
Q3) Define the term selection in brief.

The process of interviewing and evaluating candidates for a specific job and selecting an individual for employment based on certain criteria. Employee selection can range from a very simple process to a very complicated process depending on the firm hiring and the position. Certain employment laws such as anti-discrimination laws must be obeyed during employee selection


Q4) Explain the methods of selection?

Selection methods:
1. Interview methods
This is most popular methods of selection. You can use 10 methods of interview to select candidates.
2. Application Forms and CVs
This method is used to review all records of candidates such as Application form, CVs, Certificates…
3. References
Involves assessment of an individual by a third party, usually a former work colleague or boss.
4. Work Sample
Work samples involve an individual or group of candidates completing exercises that they would be required to undertake as part of the position.
5. Test methods
Test methods include Ability testing, Aptitude testing, Personality test…
6. Assessment Centres
Assessment centres provide an opportunity to review and assess the performance and ability of candidates in a variety of ways including individual and group exercises, case studies, role- plays, and presentations.
7. Presentations method
Presentations is a method of recruitment and selection. The applicant is provided with a topic and given a timeframe to deliver a presentation on that topic.
8. Group discussion
Group discussion is a method of recruitment and selection. It include 3-5 candidates who discuss about a topic or some ones given by employer.
9. Online screening and shortlisting
It review, screen candidates ‘s knowledge, skills by online checking.
10. Biodata
With an increase of CVs in internet, applications have become more and more similar so that biodata (biographical data) forms have been developed to identify selection of people that are similar to those high performers already in the organization.
11. Informal meetings
Informal meetings can be used as a way of observing a candidate’s behavior in a less formal environment, such as lunches or morning tea, cafes.
12. Graphology
The essence of graphology is that analysts claim to be able to describe an individual’s personality from a sample of their handwriting. Their theoretical basis is that of trait psychology, which holds that personality has a number of fixed dimensions which are relatively unchangeable and do not depend on the situation.
The of the most effective, valid methods of employee selection will be described below in detail.  They include:
1.   General Mental Ability
2.   Structured Interviews
3.   Situational Judgment Tests
GMA (a.k.a., cognitive ability or g) is possibly the single most effective tool for selection.  In fact, this approach is effective at predicting future performance in every type of job, at all job levels (from entry-level to CEO) and in every industry.  GMA can be assessed in a variety of ways, from 30 minute paper and pencil tests like the Wonderlic, to more expensive online computer adaptive tests.  Both computer and paper & pencil tests are equally valid, allowing organizations to select the approach that fits best.
1.   Cognitive ability is universally related to performance across all jobs and levels, from manufacturing to executive directing, agriculture to zoology
2.   GMA tests need little to no customization when used for different jobs
3.   Tests are affordable, quick, and easy
4.   No special training is needed to administer tests (although expert guidance is usually required to build GMA testing into an organization’s selection system)
   1.   It is very important to track demographics, scores, and hiring decisions because GMA tests can have an adverse impact on the selection of certain groups.  Adverse Impact occurs when a selection procedure leads to substantial disadvantage for members of a minority group.

The effects of adverse impact can be mitigated in several ways:
1.   by combining GMA tests with other selection tools
2.   by avoiding tests that require advanced English language skills
3.   by using “banding” to establish scoring clusters
4.   by using tests shown to have LOW adverse impact, such as the Wonderlic and Raven’s Progressive Matrices

These are not your standard interviews that start with “So tell me about yourself…”  In structured or behaviorally-based interviews, applicants are asked a series of specific, predetermined, job-related questions while their responses are scored using detailed criteria (often presented in a scoring guide that provides detailed descriptions on what constitutes each rating).  An “interview panel” approach is often used, where 2-3 trained managers ask the questions and score each response separately.  After the interview, their ratings are compared to determine the consistency or interrater reliability.  When responses are scored inconsistently, interviewers discuss their rationale and come to consensus.
1.   Structured interviews are extremely good at predicting performance when applied properly
2.   Scoring guides reduce the effects of personal biases from interviewing managers
3.   Applicants can be evaluated on organizational/cultural and job specific dimensions
4.   Existing competencies can be integrated into structured interviews
5.   They can be used for any type of job and at any job level
6.   They easily replace regular interviews as the final selection hurdle (and are almost 2x better at helping select high performers!)
7.   Once a structured interview process has been created, it can be used again and again   1.   Developing interview questions and scoring guidelines requires the guidance of a selection expert (e.g., conduct job analyses, interview current job incumbents to identify critical incidents)
2.   Interviewing managers must have a firm understanding of the process of structured interviewing, which may require a 1/2 day training

These tests have been described as the multiple-choice equivalent to structured interviews.  In SJTs, applicants are asked to choose how they would respond to a variety of hypothetical situations that are relevant to the target job.  Results indicate how that particular applicant will behave when faced with particular situations and decisions.  The ability of this method to predict how applicants will respond to complicated decisions makes SJTs one of the best approaches for managerial and technical positions.

1.   Among managerial-level positions, SJTs are more accurate than any other method for predicting future performance
2.   It can be given as a paper and pencil or computer test and is relatively easy to administer
3.   Responses give you a good idea of how applicants would respond in a variety of situations
4.   Responses can provide targeted interview questions (for applicants)
5.   Results can identify areas for growth & development (when given to current employees)
6.   Once developed, a single SJT can be used again and again for applicants in the same position   1.   Because SJTs must be designed in-house through conducting a thorough job analysis, they can be costly and time consuming to create
2.   SJTs usually cannot be applied universally – they are often specific to one job (e.g., an SJT developed for a branch manager would not be valid for other positions)

YES!  It is important to note that combining more than one instrument or method can greatly improve the predictive validity of your hiring process.  For example, combining GMA tests with structured interviews will be much more effective than using either of them alone.   Also, using any of these three methods would be better than evaluating applicant resumes and giving unstructured interviews or non-validated off-the-shelf tests.
There are countless tools, methods, and approaches to making good selection decisions.  However, according to decades of applied organizational research the ones described above are the most successful, accessible methods for finding those diamonds in the rough.  It is important to note that other valid methods were intentionally left out:  Assessment Centers were not described because they are not a realistic approach for many jobs and organizations.

Q1) Distinguish between one way versus two way communication.
Communication can travel in two directions:
•   One-way communication is linear and limited because it occurs in a straight line from sender to receiver and serves to inform, persuade or command.

•   Two-way communication always includes feedback from the receiver to the sender and lets the sender know the message has been received accurately.


In two-way communication, communication is negotiated. Both sender and receiver listen to each other, gather information and are willing to make changes to work together in harmony. Their intent is to negotiate a mutually satisfactory situation

Q2) Define the tem formal and informal organizational communication?
Formal communication can be considered as communication efforts that are “dressed up” to fit customary rules and ceremony For example, in a written letter, the formal communication style will demand that the layout of the piece of written communication follow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation, body of the letter, close, signature
Formal communication can be considered as communication efforts that are “dressed up” to fit customary rules and ceremony For example, in a written letter, the formal communication style will demand that the layout of the piece of written communication follow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation, body of the letter, close, signature lines and any indicators of enclosures all placed neatly upon company letterhead or personal stationery. By contrast, an informal piece of written communication can be as simple as a jotted note to a friend on a torn slip of paper
Formal communications are mostly written, although they may now also include formal presentations that are on computer disk, video tape or DVDs, MP3 presentations and other similar electronic reproductions of written communications. Other forms of formal communications include newsletters, legal advisories, invitations, awards, and letters of congratulations. Non-written formal communication devices are in-person communications in the forms of departmental meetings, telephone calls, conferences and special interviews. Some publications that are devoted to a special purpose, such as a company’s annual report, are formal communications.
There is a non-verbal component to formal communication as well. The style and manners of the presenter dictate the formalness of a meeting, and this can be immediately seen at the time of introduction of a speaker. Some elements of non-verbal formal communication include maintaining a certain distance from others, standing above the crowd, speaking in formal tones and using formal means of address to others, such as “Mister” or “Doctor” when calling upon others.
Colloquialisms, which are freely used in informal communication, are not present in formal communications. Proper English or another language is spoken. Formal communications will follow a chain of command in the flow of the communication, either upwards to or down from managers.
The use of formal communication is more prevalent in highly technical areas where a message must be exact and specific, leaving no room for misinterpretation. The written communication is carefully thought out, and planned for a certain effect or result. It often is written in a third person non-personal voice of “he, she, it, and they” rather than “I” or “you” voices. Grammar, spelling and layout are important for written communications, and for spoken communications there is an emphasis placed on the quality of the speech voice and pronunciation.
Some formal communications are congratulatory, others can be advisory or informational. Legal papers follow a tightly formatted layout that is customary within the professional and widely used by others. Likewise, scientific research papers have a customary format to follow. Any written communication that is expected to adhere to particular rules can be considered to be formal communication, and the actual tone of the piece may range from friendly to threatening. It can be more demanding and imply expectations to the receiver that should create desired results.
If formal communication is viewed like dressing for a black tie affair, informal communication is like dressing casually and wearing slippers around the house. Much informal communication occurs on a person-to-person basis, in a face-to-face manner, without ceremony or fanfare. Other ways to communicate in an informal manner may include texting, post-it notes, an informal…
If formal communication is viewed like dressing for a black tie affair, informal communication is like dressing casually and wearing slippers around the house. Much informal communication occurs on a person-to-person basis, in a face-to-face manner, without ceremony or fanfare. Other ways to communicate in an informal manner may include texting, post-it notes, an informal drop in visit to another person, or a quick and spontaneous meeting.
Informal communication includes all the various methods of relaying information or messages between people. It often is called “the grapevine” as messages weave back and forth and around people. There are none of the trappings of formal messages, such as company letterhead, planned meetings or specific introductions of guests. Everyone is relaxed and casual, eager to chat about many things, as there is no specific agenda to follow.
This type of communication frequently is oral, and works easily for small groups. The scope of the conversation may be broader than a formal presentation, and include topics that are diverse in nature, free flowing and loose rather than scripted carefully. Unfortunately, informal communication is subject to creating rumors and misinformation due to its loose nature and lack of substantiating evidence.
This is the type of interaction that occurs in the workplace as banter between employees, or idle chatting. It is seen as blog entries on the Internet. At colleges, students are encouraged to drop by their professors’ offices as needed, informally. Other informal web communication is seen in diaries, personal email letters, instant messaging, emoticons, online chat rooms and cyberspace bulletin boards.
Informal communication also may take a non-verbal form as facial expressions, sign language, or manner of dress. In spoken language, the informal communicative style incorporates the use of the second and first voices. This is in contrast to the use of the third person voice in formal communications.
One of the visible signs of informal communication is its natural and easy style, as opposed to being formally regimented. There may be the use of colloquialisms and local slang in the course of speech. It is unconventional and without rules, which is just the opposite of formal.
Informal communication is used to help put people at ease. This can be seen in an interview situation where an interviewer such as a paralegal needs to make a little small talk to help get clients to relax, feel welcome and open up verbally. The use of informal language is far more prevalent in society than the use of formal language.

Q3) Explain the most common channels available for downward communication in an organization?
Downward Flow of Communication: Communication that flows from a higher level in an organization to a lower level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from superiors to subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This communication flow is used by the managers to transmit work-related information to the employees at lower levels. Employees require this information for performing their jobs and for meeting the expectations of their managers. Downward communication is used by the managers for the following purposes -
   Providing feedback on employees performance   
   Giving job instructions   
   Providing a complete understanding of the employees job as well as to communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization.   
   Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees.   
   Highlighting the areas of attention.   
Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group meetings etc are all examples of downward communication. In order to have effective and error-free downward communication, managers must:
•   Specify communication objective
•   Ensure that the message is accurate, specific and unambiguous.
•   Utilize the best communication technique to convey the message to the receiver in right form   
In downward communication, internal communication is central to success. Managers need to create a vision for employees with which they can identify. Employees also need to know that leadership is serious about this vision and will have follow through.

For managers, communicating downwards means they must rely on their subordinates to help support the strategy and mission of the company. Many managers make a strategic mistake in that they do not enlist subordinates' help during the strategy-making process. Managers should realize that working with subordinates early on, and managing the communication process, is vital to the long-term success of the company.
In a workplace environment, orders given from superiors to subordinates is the most basic form of downward communication. These are usually done via manuals and handbooks, oral communication, and/or written orders. Two other instances of downward communication are when a customer gives orders to a supplier, and when shareholders instruct management to take specific action.

In a study conducted by John Anderson and Dale Level, the following were cited as benefits of effective downward communication:
•Better coordination
•Improved individual performance through the development of intelligent participation
•Improved morale
•Improved consumer relations
•Improved industrial relations

In order for downward communication to be effective, the superior should remain respectful and concise when giving orders; make sure the subordinate clearly understands instructions; and give recognition for admirable performance.

The downward communication approach is also referred to as the top-down approach. This approach is used by top level management to communicate to lower levels. In this type of organizational communication, distortion of the message may occur.
The most common channels available for downward communication is an organization are briefly outlined
Memos and directives. Memos and directives are the most commonly used channels in almost all organizations. They consist of a typewritten or handwritten note that goes to another employees in the organization. The contents way vary. They may consist of plan, a policy decision, or a day-to-day message. All memos relating to personnel practices like promotions, discipline-related notes, etc., fall in this category.

Posters and notice boards. When the number of intended receivers are large or when the contents concern most of the employees, most organizations usually resort to placing memos and directives on notice boards. These notice boards are prominently placed in strategic areas to catch the attention of everyone. Posers also provide the same effect. For example, the celebration of safety week and ways and means to ensure safety on the shop floor can be better communicated through visually appealing posters than through typed messages.
Annual reports . These reports, published once a year, give a total account of the company activities, new experiments, balance sheet, profit an loss accounts of he preceding year, etc. Several companies also started giving the names salaries of top executives earning above Rs. 30,000/ - a year or more. Researchers find annual reports useful for various kinds of studies.
Employee handbook. This is a small hand book that gives company policies, rules and regulations concerning leave, gratuity, provident fund, etc. it presents a code of conduct and the expectations a company has form its employees. It is usually given to a new employee at the time of joining and thus becomes a necessary part of induction training.
Letters in pay packet. Some organizations, to ensure that their messages reach employees, insert letters in the monthly pay packets. This channel ensures definite transmission and awareness of the message by all employees.

Q4) what do you mean by communication filters?
Communication is a continual process that involves the sending and receiving of messages via different channels. Just like a channel on a television, sometimes static or interference gets in the way of information being relayed. This static is referred to as a barrier or filter. There are a variety of barriers and filters involved in the communication process.
1.   Environment
o   The environment in which a message is sent or received greatly impacts its effectiveness. Sometimes, different components of the environments serve as barriers to effective message sharing. A simple example might be the volume of the environment you're operating in. If someone is trying to tell you something in a loud room, you may not be able to hear them. Some more implicit environmental barriers might be whether the other individuals in proximity to you will impact the way you understand or react to a message.
o   Everybody views the world through the lens of her own experiences. Thus, your experiences can sometimes shape the way you understand different forms of communication and act as a barrier to effective communication. For example, if you have been lied to repeatedly in your life, you may not be as trusting as others. This could cause you to doubt a message extensively, regardless of the trustworthiness of the sender, limiting your ability to benefit from or understand the importance or content of the message.
o   Sometimes, the relationship you have with an individual can serve as a barrier to effective communication with them. Whether it has to do with authority or intimacy, you may find yourself limiting what is said to one another because of they dynamic of your relationship. For example, a teacher may want to express dismay over a political candidate, but because of their position of authority over a student, they might have to self-censor, limiting their ability to communicate.
Proximity to Delivery
o   With the world becoming more and more digital, a lot of our communication is taking place online and with cellphones, whether it be via email, texting, message boards or video conferencing. While technology has presented a great deal of convenience, your proximity to the source of delivery can immensely impact the effectiveness of communication. If someone is sending you a text message that is critical to a presentation you're about to make, but your cell phone is in the car, the ability of that communication to be effective is hindered by your proximity to the site of delivery.
o   While no one wants to admit to it, all of us stereotype individuals from time to time. A stereotype is the application of the characteristics of one individual to an entire grouping of individuals, either based on information gathered or first-hand experiencee. Stereotypes are usually negative, and as such, can serve as a barrier to communication. If you assume blondes are less intelligent than other people, you may dumb down the message you are trying to communicate. This serves as a barrier to communication in two ways. First, the recipient is not getting the entirety of the message because of your self-censorship. Second, the recipient may pick up on the stereotyping take place, making them less willing to receive the message.

Q1) What do you understand by the concept of QWL?
Quality of work life refers to the level of happiness or dissatisfaction with one's career. Those who enjoy their careers are said to have a high quality of work life, while those who are unhappy or whose needs are otherwise unfilled are said to have a low quality of work life.
o   Quality of life is defined as the level of enjoyment in a person's life. In general, it is based on many factors. At a minimum, a person's basic needs must be met for them to have a high quality of life---they must be generally healthy, have enough to eat and have a place to live. Once a person's basic needs are met, that person's quality of life is largely determined by their own personality, their desires and their level of personal fulfillment. A person with a high quality of life tends to feel as though all of their important needs and wants are fulfilled. They are generally happy and overall feel as though their life is good. A person without quality of life is lacking in one or several basic areas of his life. For example, the very ill or those who are no longer able to care for themselves or do activities they enjoy because of physical, mental or financial restrictions are often said to have a low quality of life.
Application to the Workplace
o   Quality of work life is specifically related to the level of happiness a person derives for his career. Each person has different needs when it comes to their careers; the quality level of their work life is determined by whether those needs are being met. While some people might be content with a simple minimum wage job as long as it helps pay the bills, others would find such a job to be too tedious or involve too much physical labor and would find such a position to be highly unsatisfactory. Thus, requirements for having a high "quality of work life" vary from person to person. Regardless of their standards, those with a high quality of work life generally make enough to live comfortably, find their work to be interesting or engaging and achieve a level of personal satisfaction or fulfillment from the jobs that they do. In other words, employees who are generally happy with their work are said to have a high quality of work life, and those who are unhappy or unfulfilled by their work are said to have a low quality of work life.
o   Requirements
o   While requirements for a high quality of work life vary from person to person, certain factors are generally required for anyone to have a high quality of work life. These minimum factors are the equivalent of heath, food and shelter for standard quality of life; however, they are more specific to careers or jobs. For example, to have a high quality of work life, generally a person must be respected at work. Coworkers and senior level employees must treat them fairly and politely. The work must not cause the employee any physical discomfort or mental anguish. The employee must feel as though he is doing something enjoyable or at least not unpleasant. The worker must feel the salary he is paid is sufficient for the work he is doing. Finally, the employee must feel valued or appreciated, as though he is doing something of importance for the company.
Achieving a High Quality of Work Life
o   To achieve a high quality of work life, it is essential to choose a job that fulfills your needs. First, you must determine what those needs are. If you want a job that engages your mind and challenges you, it is important to understand that in advance so you can earn the qualifications that will allow you to obtain such a job. It is helpful if you choose a job you are interested in; you need to consider what your interests are and research jobs within those areas. Make a list of things you are looking for in a job and speak with a career counselor or attend career fairs to determine which jobs are most likely to fulfill those needs. Finally, pay attention to your interaction with existing employees when you go for interviews---the way you are treated by your boss and coworkers will have a tremendous impact on your quality of work life. You will want to ensure the culture of the business matches your own comfort level.
Dealing with a Low Quality Work Life
o   Unfortunately, despite their best efforts, some people find themselves with a low quality of work life. They may be forced to take a job they don't enjoy because of personal or financial circumstances such as a lack of options or eduction or qualifications. For those with a low quality of work life who are unable or unwilling to change jobs, it is important to cope effectively with the situation. Unhappy employees can attempt to improve their quality of work life by choosing to focus on the positive components of their jobs. A shift in mindset to focus on the benefits, even if those benefits are minimal, can improve the quality of work life. Unhappy employees can also explore opportunities to speak to coworkers and management to remove factors that reduce the quality of their work life, if possible depending on the job situation.
Q2) Identify its major activities and concerns?

QWL services address the key areas of Work-Life Balance, Health Promotion and Wellness, and Staff Appreciation and Recognition.

WORK LIFE  BALANCE — Manage the competing demands of home and work.

FLEXIBLE  WORK OPTIONS offer creative solutions to help you balance work and family demands.

DAY  CHILD CARE  is available when  public schools close due to inclement weather (pre-enrollment required).

WORK AND FAMILY SERVICE provide support for dependent care issues, including school strikes, elder care challenges, and more.

EDUCATIONAL  WORKSHOPS cover a variety of topics, from finance to family relationships.

HEALTH  PROMOTIONS AND  WELLNESS— Improve your physical and emotional health and wellbeing.

EMPLOYEE  ASSISTANCE  PROGRAM provides free, 24/7 resources for you and your family, including counseling, referrals and information about personal or professional concerns.

ANNUAL  HEALTH  FAIRS held each year in April feature free health screenings and a wealth of information.

FLU  SHOTS  are available to faculty and staff every fall.

DISCOUNT  FITNESS  CLUB  PROGRAM  offers discounted memberships to local health clubs.

WELLNESS  WORKSHOPS explore nutrition, lifestyle, exercise and other health-related topics.

RECREATING  PROGRAM  provides group exercise classes, personal training, gym membership and more at attractive rates.

WALKING  PROGRAM makes walking, jogging or running a part of your routine by tracking your progress and keeping you motivated.

WEIGHT  REDUCTION  PROGRAMS helps members shed excess pounds with on-campus meetings.

WEIGHT  MAINTENANCE  gives you the support you need to avoid gaining weight during the holiday season.

SMOKING  CESSATION   PROGRAM can help you kick the habit.

STAFF RECOGNITION/ REWARDS Enjoy  recognition and appreciation of your contributions to Penn's mission.

 LENGTH  OF  SERVICE  REWARDS  reward long-standing commitment to Penn.

EXCELLENCE  AWARDS honor achievements by individuals or teams who go above and beyond the call of duty.

FAMILY   DAY  is an annual celebration of the Penn community, featuring food, fun and football.

Quality of Worklife programs are constantly evolving.  

Q3) Discuss the relevance of QSL in the Indian context?

In india, the  government  and the  employers
have done  very  little  for   qwl.



Q4) ‘Flexible working time arrangement can be an answer to the multifarious roles of the Indian worker’, Evaluate.
Flexible work options offer creative approaches for completing work while promoting balance between work and personal commitments. These approaches involve use of non-traditional work hours, locations, and/or job structures, flexible work arrangements, time worked does not equate to achieved outcomes. Outcomes are based on the staff member's achievement of results and use of competencies critical to achieving those results. Except in the case of conversion from full-time to a less-than-full time schedule, such as for a part-time assignment or job share, the total numbers of hours worked and expected productivity remain the same.
Typical flexible work options are:
FLEXTIME :The most requested, easiest to manage and the most affordable FWO, flextime offers flexibility in arrival, departure and/or lunch times, typically with a designated core-time mid-day during which all staff are present.

FLEXPLACE :This arrangement allows for a portion of the job to be performed off-site, on a regular, recurring basis. The majority of work time is spent at the office and the off-site work typically is done at home. It may be the most complicated flexible work option to arrange since it generally requires electronic equipment and technological support.

COMPRESSED  WORK  SCHEDULE :A traditional 35-40 hour work week is condensed into fewer than five days of work. This option is more easily applied to non-exempt (weekly paid) staff for whom maximum work hours are identified, but it is not ruled out for monthly paid staff who may work more than 40 hours during the work week. The Fair Labor Standards Act requires weekly paid staff to be paid overtime if they work over 40 hours in a work week.

PART-TIME  WORK ---is a regular arrangement for between 17.5 and 28 hours a week. This is different from a temporary work assignment where an employee is expected to have a temporary, non-recurring relationship to the workplace and does not receive paid time off.

JOB-SHARING : allows two staff members to share the responsibilities of one full-time position, typically with a prorated salary and paid time off. This is not the same as a part-time job. Each staff member shares a specific proportion of a full-time position. Creative and innovative schedules can be designed to meet the needs of the job sharers and the office. Note: If one position is scheduled for less than 17.5 hours a week, it becomes temporary and cannot retain regular part-time status.

Creating an Employee Supportive
Workplace . Achieving Work-Life  Quality and Balance

Work-Life quality and balance have become the most pressing
issues experienced by workers today. This program is based
upon the premise that we cannot manage time but we can
manage our most important workplace activities, when they are
clearly identitified and prioritized.

Achieving work-life quality and balance requires the
complementary efforts of:
• An Organizational Support System
and implementation of:
• Manager/Supervisor/Employee-Designed Work-Life Process

The Organizational Support System consists of:
. Program support
. Leadership support
. Cultural Transformation

The Manager/Supervisor/Employee Designed Work-Life
Process consists of:
• Personal Work-Life Plan
• Implementation Process

Creating an Employee Supportive Workplace
Achieving Work-Life Quality and Balance
An Organizational Support System

Program Support: This component involves the various unique
programs offered by an organization to their employees. These
programs include, but are not limited to:
1. Family-Friendly Initiatives
2. Child Care
3. Elder Care
4. Adoption
5. Family Leave
6. New Mothers
7. Family Education Expenses
8. Employee Assistance Programs
9. Personal Problems
10. Financial, Mental, Health, and Chemical Dependency
11. Work-friendly Programs
12. Flexibility in Work Hours
13. Telecommuting or working at home
14. Zero Tolerance Harassment (including race, color, sex, etc.)
15. Disability and Religious Accommodation
16. Anti-harassment Training, Prevention, and Procedures
17. Pay Equity Evaluations and Adjustments
18. Employee Satisfaction Survey
19. Disability Strategy
20. Retirement Planning Program
Creating an Employee Supportive Workplace
Achieving Work-Life Quality and Balance
26. On-site summer camp
27. Workshops or seminars for quality, balance, and work-life issues
28. Diversity training
29. Manager/supervisor work-life appraisals
30. Career counseling programs
31. Wellness programs for employees and their families
32. 401(k) or 403(b) individual retirement plan
21. Reduced schedules
22. Family leave for childbirth or adoption
23. Job sharing
24. Leave for school/childcare functions
25. Childcare near or at worksite


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Leo Lingham


human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.


18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd



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