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Human Resources/Information technology MBA


All the questions are compulsory. The first five questions shall be of 16marks each and the last questions shall be of 20 marks.

Q 1   (a) What is the one-time connect charge, if any?

  (b) What is transaction processing?

Q 2   (a) What is software? Software from A to Z; what is data?

  (b) What are copyrights? What is fair use?

Q 3   (a) What is the Internet? What do you mean by home page?

  (b) Were did the web come from? Where do web sites come from?

Q 4   (a) Find out what are the latest versions of Microsoft Word and Corel Word Perfect. Are there any    features you like that one has and the other doesn’t?

  (b) For net navigation, which browser is required? Do you have a choice?

Q 5   (a) Make a list of your day-to-day activities in two columns: those that are influenced by technology    and those that are not. Which list is longer?

  (b) Watch for the next time someone asks for your social security number. Do you think it’s a    legitimate request? What happens if you refuse to give it?

Q 6   Write short notes on :-

  (a) (i) Computers in industry (ii) computer in business

  (b) Texture Mapping

  (c) Processors

Q 1 (a) What is the one-time connect charge, if any?
One time (non-recurring) refundable or non- refundable fee paid by a consumer to a utility or communication service provider for hooking up.

-telephone  connection
-internet  connection
Etc etc
1(b) What is transaction processing?

A type of computer processing in which the computer responds immediately to user requests. Each request is considered to be a transaction. Automatic teller machines for banks are an example of transaction processing.
The opposite of transaction processing is batch processing, in which a batch of requests is stored and then executed all at one time. Transaction processing requires interaction with a user, whereas batch processing can take place without a user being present.
A transaction process system (TPS) is an information processing system for business transactions involving the collection, modification and retrieval of all transaction data. Characteristics of a TPS include performance, reliability and consistency.
TPS is also known as transaction processing or real-time processing.
A transaction process system and transaction processing are often contrasted with a batch process system and batch processing, where many requests are executed all at one time. The former requires the interaction of a user, whereas batch processing does not require a user to be present. Also, in batch processing the results of each transaction are not immediately available. Additionally, there is a delay while the many requests are being organized, stored and eventually executed. In transaction processing there is no delay and the results of each transaction are immediately available. During the delay time for batch processing, errors can occur. Although errors can occur in transaction processing, they are infrequent and tolerated, but do not warrant shutting down the entire system.
To achieve performance, reliability and consistency, data must be readily accessible in a data warehouse, backup procedures must be in place and the recovery process must be in place to deal with system failure, human failure, computer viruses, software applications or natural disasters.
Q 2 (a) What is software? Software from A to Z; what is data?
Computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software. The storage devices and display devices are hardware.
The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also say: "It's a software problem."
The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk (hardware) on which the software is recorded.
Software is often divided into two categories:
•  systems software : Includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function.
•  applications software : Includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software.

Computer software or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware.In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched".[1] Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.[2]
Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, execunguage consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler
Software includes all the various forms and roles that digitally stored data may have and play in a computer (or similar system), regardless of whether the data is used as code for a CPU, or other interpreter, or whether it represents other kinds of information. Software thus encompasses a wide array of products that may be developed using different techniques such as ordinary programming languages, scripting languages, microcode, or an FPGA configuration.
The types of software include web pages developed in languages and frameworks like HTML, PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, and desktop applications like, Microsoft Word developed in languages like C, C++, Objective-C, Java, C#, or Smalltalk. Application software usually runs on an underlying software operating systems such as Linux or Microsoft Windows. Software (or firmware) is also used in video games and for the configurable parts of the logic systems of automobiles, televisions, and other consumer electronics.
Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes[ system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.
System software
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware to provide basic functionality and to provide a platform for running application software.[6][7] System software includes device drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities, and window systems.
System software is responsible for managing a variety of independent hardware components, so that they can work together harmoniously. Its purpose is to unburden the application software programmer from the often complex details of the particular computer being used, including such accessories as communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.
Programming software
Programming software include tools in the form of programs or applications that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs such as compilers, debuggers, interpreters, linkers, and text editors, that can be combined together to accomplish a task, much as one might use multiple hand tools to fix a physical object. Programming tools are intended to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and they may be combined in an integrated development environment (IDE) to more easily manage all of these functions.
] Application software
Application software is developed to perform in any task that benefits from computation. It is a set of programs that allows the computer to perform a specific data processing job for the user. It is a broad category, and encompasses software of many kinds, including the internet browser being used to display this page. This category includes:
•   Business software
•   Computer-aided design
•   Databases
•   Decision-making software
•   Educational software
•   Image editing
•   Industrial automation
•   Mathematical software
•   Medical software
•   Molecular modeling software
•   Quantum chemistry and solid state physics software
•   Simulation software
•   Spreadsheets
•   Telecommunications (i.e., the Internet and everything that flows on it)
•   Video editing software
•   Video games
•   Word processing
2(b) What are copyrights? What is fair use?
Demonstrating ownership of a car or a house may involve producing a title or deed orBILL OF  SALES  , something tangible which establishes the exclusive rights of the owner. But how does one demonstrate these same ownership rights of poems or photographs or other creative works? The answer is called copyright.
Copyright laws establish exclusive ownership of non-tangible concepts once they are put into tangible form. Once a poem is printed on paper, a photograph developed or a performance filmed, it becomes the property of the creator. In the United States, copyright protection exists from the instant a creative work is recorded in a tangible form. There is no need for an official copyright to be registered in order for the creator to claim his or her rights.
The history of copyright law goes back to the rise of the middle class and the invention of the PRINTING  PRESS.
Once it became possible for commoners to purchase copies of newsletters or literary works, publishers sought ways to establish ownership of the works themselves. Authors were routinely expected to surrender their own copyright to publishers, who would in theory  pay royalties  or a profit of the sales. Copyright registration offices were established to handle the legal paperwork, but their jurisdictions were often limited to certain countries or regions. Other publishers were still free to publish manuscripts in other countries and sell them without regard for copyright.
Copyright laws were first established in the United States in 1790, as part of the Constitutional protection for artists and writers. It wasn't until the late 1880s, however, that an international effort was made to unify the copyright laws of participating countries. This was the famous Berne Convention, which was only partially successful at first. The United States, a major contributor of copyrighted works, did not officially sign the Berne Convention agreements until the late 1980s, for example.
Many people are confused about the protections offered by copyright. The current laws do not prevent others from using similar words, images or thoughts in their own works. Individual words and common images cannot be copyrighted. Rather, copyright establishes exclusive rights to the exact form of the creative work, along with any other derivative forms of that work.
The copyright holder is the only person who can legally produce a motion picture from his or her novel, for instance. In order for another person to use a copyrighted work, ownership rights must be transferred, in the same way a car buyer must obtain a legal title. Usually, there is a financial consideration whenever a commercial interest seeks permission to use a work protected by copyright.
Copyright laws have been changing for decades, mostly in favor of the author and his or her estate. Critics of current copyright laws say that the extended lifespan of copyrighted material is designed to prohibit fair use by the public.
Copyright laws now protect most creative works for the lifetime of the creator plus 70 years or more. Works created before 1 January 1978 are covered by different laws, and may be protected for 75 years or longer. While copyright protection may have saved the author from exploitation in life, it may offer too much protection for estates and companies eager to maintain their incomes from licensing fees and motion picture rights.
Copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of “original works” and
includes such things as literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual
creations, both published and unpublished. Copyright does not protect ideas. It only
protects the specific and original expression of the idea. A good example of this is that
there are many films and books based on the classic boy meets girl theme in which the
girl’s parents disapprove of boy and after many tears, true love finally triumphs. This
theme cannot be monopolised, but original works to it can be. The same can be said of
all other works.
So what does Copyright afford the owner? Copyright is an exclusive right and
gives its creator, or owner if the rights are sold, the sole right to reproduce the copyrighted
work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute and sell any copies of the copyrighted
work, to perform or display the copyrighted work publicly. In many countries it
will also give the creator of the work special privileges to determine how the work is to
be displayed.
Copyright is Automatic – but still needs to be asserted.
Copyright protection is automatic. The act of creating the work also creates the Copyright. There is no requirement to Register for Copyright, although in the US and most other countries it is important to show (assert) that copyright is claimed in a particular work. This is easily enough done by clearly marking  
the symbol © followed by the date from which copyright is claimed and the owner of  the copyright.

Q 3 (a) What is the Internet? What do you mean by home page?

The Internet is a massive public spiderweb of computer connections. The Internet connects personal computers, mainframes, cell phones, GPS units, music players, soda pop machines, car alarms, and even dog collars. All of these computer connections exist for the sake of free information sharing.

The Internet is a broadcast medium for the everyperson. Built with the same freedom-of-messaging motivation as HAM radio of the 1970's, the modern Internet is a daily tool for millions of people to trade signals with each other.

The Internet (or 'Net') is built on a chaotic mishmash of hardware, governed by minimal standards and even fewer rules. Thousands of different software packages broadcast on the Net, connecting millions of users each day. During the Clinton administration, the Internet was nicknamed "The Information Superhighway", a term which has now become grossly inadequate to describe the sheer magnitude of the Internet's reach today.

The Internet's hardware is vast: it is a chaotic combination of high-speed optic fiber cables, regular network cables, wireless transmitters, and satellite connections. No single organization owns the Internet's hardware, no single organization governs its use. The Internet truly is a marvel of free broadcasting and amateur publishing.

Anyone can use the Internet. As long as you have a computer, cell phone, or other internet-enabled device, you simply find a free or paid place to connect to the Internet. Once you are connected (sometimes called 'logged on'), you can broadcast and receive all kinds of signals.

A detailed explanation of the Internet follows here:

1: The Internet is a Big Collection of Computers and Cables.

The Internet is named for "interconnection of computer networks". It is a massive hardware combination of millions of personal, business, and governmental computers, all connected like roads and highways. The Internet started in the 1960's under the original name "ARPAnet". ARPAnet was originally an experiment in how the US military could maintain communications in case of a possible nuclear strike. With time, ARPAnet became a civilian experiment, connecting university mainframe computers for academic purposes. As personal computers became more mainstream in the 1980's and 1990's, the Internet grew exponentially as more users plugged their computers into the massive network. Today, the Internet has grown into a public spiderweb of millions of personal, government, and commercial computers, all connected by cables and by wireless signals.

No single person owns the Internet. No single government has authority over its operations. Some technical rules and hardware/software standards enforce how people plug into the Internet, but for the most part, the Internet is a free and open broadcast medium of hardware networking.

Here is a conceptual diagram of the Internet and how it contains many forms of online communications

2: The Web Is a Big Collection of HTML Pages on the Internet.

The World Wide Web, or "Web" for short, is that large software subset of the Internet dedicated to broadcasting HTML pages. The Web is viewed by using free software called web browsers. Born in 1989, the Web is based on hypertext transfer protocol, the language which allows you and me to "jump" (hyperlink) to any other public web page. There are over 40 billion public web pages on the Web today.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all protocols use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email.
Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.
The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2011, more than 2.2 billion people — nearly a third of Earth's population — use the services of the Internet.[1]
The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.

It seems like everyone's talking about the Internet these days. But what is it really? How does it work? How do you access it? And most important, what can it do for you at work or at home?
Fortunately, accessing and using the Internet is fairly simple. Let this tutorial be your guide to the Internet as you connect for the first time and explore the network's vast and useful resources.
How Does the Internet Work?

The Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks, cooperating with each other to exchange data using a common software standard. Through telephone wires and satellite links, Internet users can share information in a variety of forms. The size, scope and design of the Internet allows users to:
•   connect easily through ordinary personal computers and local phone numbers;
•   exchange electronic mail (E-mail) with friends and colleagues with accounts on the Internet;
•   post information for others to access, and update it frequently;
•   access multimedia information that includes sound, photographic images and even video; and
•   access diverse perspectives from around the world.
An additional attribute of the Internet is that it lacks a central authority—in other words, there is no "Internet, Inc." that controls the Internet. Beyond the various governing boards that work to establish policies and standards, the Internet is bound by few rules and answers to no single organization.
In February 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Communications Decency Act, which provides criminal penalties for those who post or transmit "indecent" material via the Internet. This law, however, has been challenged in U.S. courts by those who feel it would unfairly prohibit many legitimate uses of the Internet, and was ruled unconstitutional in July 1996. The federal government, however, is preparing an appeal
The History of the Internet

Many people think that the Internet is a recent innovation, when in fact the essence of it has been around for over a quarter century. The Internet began as ARPAnet, a U.S. Department of Defense project to create a nationwide computer network that would continue to function even if a large portion of it were destroyed in a nuclear war or natural disaster.
During the next two decades, the network that evolved was used primarily by academic institutions, scientists and the government for research and communications. The appeal of the Internet to these bodies was obvious, as it allowed disparate institutions to connect to each others' computing systems and databases, as well as share data via E-mail.
The nature of the Internet changed abruptly in 1992, when the U.S. government began pulling out of network management, and commercial entities offered Internet access to the general public for the first time. This change in focus marked the beginning of the Internet's astonishing expansion.
According to a survey conducted by CommerceNet and Nielsen Media Research in early 1997, nearly one out of every four Americans over the age of 16 is an Internet user. And the number of users worldwide is believed to be well into the tens of millions. Other statistics are equally startling:
•   A CNN report stated that Internet traffic in 1996 was 25 times what it was just two years earlier.
•   The market research group IntelliQuest pegged the number of Internet users in the U.S. in late 1996 at 47 million - a 34 percent increase over the first quarter of that year.
•   According to IBM, 146 countries currently have at least some level of Internet access.
•   The technology research firm IDG estimates that by century's end, one billion people worldwide will have access to personal computers—more than doubling the computer-savvy population of 1996.
The Internet explosion coincides with the advent of increasingly powerful yet reasonably priced personal computers with easy-to-use graphical operating systems. The result has been an attraction of recent computer "converts" to the network, and new possibilities for exploiting a wealth of multimedia  capabilities.
What Kinds of Information are Available?

In addition to text documents, the Internet makes available graphics files  (digitized photographs and artwork), and even files that contain digitized sound and video. Through the Internet, you can download software, participate in interactive forums where users post and respond to public messages, and even join "chats," in which you and other users type (and, in some cases, speak) messages that are received by the chat participants instantly.
How Do People Use the Internet?

Obviously, the Internet can bring you a whole host of capabilities. But how can they be put to practical use?
Among the ways that users like yourself are taking advantage of the Internet are:
•   Sharing research and business data among colleagues and like-minded individuals.
•   Communicating with others and transmitting files via E-mail.
•   Requesting and providing assistance with problems and questions.
•   Marketing and publicizing products and services.
•   Gathering valuable feedback and suggestions from customers and business partners.
The Internet's potential is limited only by users' vision and creativity. And as the Internet grows, new and innovative uses will surely follow.
The Sum of Many Parts

Unlike many computer networks, the Internet consists of not one but multiple data systems that were developed independently. The most popular and important systems are:
•   E-mail, for exchange of electronic mail messages.
•   USENET newsgroups, for posting and responding to public "bulletin board" messages.  
•   File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a system for storing and retrieving data files on large computer systems.  
•   Gopher, a method of searching for various text-based Internet resources (largely obsolete).  
•   TELNET, a way of connecting directly to computer systems on the Internet.  
•   Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a system for sending public and private messages to other users in "real time"—that is, your message appears on the recipient's screen as soon as you type it.  
•   CU-SeeMe, a videoconferencing system that allows users to send and receive sound and pictures simultaneously over the Internet.  
•   The World Wide Web.
What do you mean by home page?

1) For a Web user, the home page is the first Web page that is displayed after starting a Web browserlike Netscape's Navigator or Microsoft's Internet Explorer. The browser is usually preset so that the home page is the first page of the browser manufacturer. However, you can set it to open to anyWeb site. For example, you can specify that "" or "" be your home page. You can also specify that there be no home page (a blank space will be displayed) in which case you choose the first page from your bookmark list or enter a Web address.
2) For a Web site developer, a home page is the first page presented when a user selects a site or presence on the World Wide Web. The usual address for a Web site is the home page address, although you can enter the address (Uniform Resource Locator) of any page and have that page sent to you.

3(b) Were did the web come from? Where do web sites come from?

The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields.
J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962. As more computers were added, multiple independent networks were created and that was the beginning of the internet. Constant research and technical improvements made the internet grow and develop into the world wide web as we know it today.
The world web as used in common language (see, for instance, Merriam-Webster's definition) seems a good choice to describe this tool that is becoming more and more popular all over the planet. Just try and imagine for a few seconds the thousands of computers and the millions of wires inside and outside them there must be in the entire planet. Can you get the picture? Must be similar to a really huge spiderweb. And then it is all so fine when your 'puter is running smoothly... and so frustrating when it freezes or breaks down that most of us feel lost or kinda caught in a trap of somekind. So again the word web seems a very good pick.

informal history capture and retrieval mechanism for collaborative, early-stage information design. This history system is implemented in the context of the Designers'' Outpost, a wall-scale, tangible interface for collaborative web site design. The interface elements in this history system are designed to be fluid and comfortable for early phase design. As demonstrated by an informal lab study with six professional web site designers, this history system enhances the design process itself, and provides new opportunities for reasoning about the design of complex artifacts.


Q 4 (a) Find out what are the latest versions of Microsoft Word and Corel Word Perfect. Are there any features you like that one has and the other doesn’t?

what are the THE FEATURES OF  THE  latest versions of Microsoft Word
What's new in Word
SkyDrive is now OneDrive, and SkyDrive Pro is now OneDrive for Business..
Do more with your docs: Pop in an online video, open a PDF and edit the content, align pictures and diagrams with minimal fuss. The new Read Mode is clean and distraction-free—and it works great on tablets. Teaming-up is better too, with direct connections to your online spaces and streamlined review features like Simple Markup and comments.
Enjoy the read
Get absorbed in Word documents right from your screen with a new clean, comfortable reading view.
New Read Mode
Enjoy reading with a view that displays your documents in easy-to-read columns on the screen.

Editing tools are removed to minimize distractions, but you still have access to the tools that are always handy for reading such as Define, Translate, and Search on Web.
Object zoom
Double-tap with your finger or double-click with your mouse to zoom in and make tables, charts and images in your document fill the screen. Focus on and take in the information, then tap or click again outside the object to zoom out and continue reading.
Resume reading
Reopen a document and keep reading right where you left off. Word remembers where you were—even when you reopen an online document from a different computer!

Online video
Insert online videos you can watch right in Word, without having to leave the document, so you can stay focused on the content.

Expand and collapse
Collapse or expand parts of a document with just a tap or click. Put summaries in headings and leave it to readers to open the section and read the details if they want.

Work together
Work with others with streamlined collaboration tools.
Save and share files in the cloud
The cloud is like file storage in the sky. You can get to it anytime you’re online. Now it’s easy to share a document using SharePoint or OneDrive. From there you can access and share your Word docs, Excel spreadsheets, and other Office files. You can even work together with your colleagues on the same file at the same time.
Simple markup
A new revision view, Simple Markup, provides a clean, uncomplicated view of your document, but you still see indicators where tracked changes have been made.

Reply to comments and mark them as done
Comments now have a reply button. You can debate and easily track comments right next to the relevant text. And when a comment is addressed and no longer requires attention, you can mark it as done. It will be greyed out to keep out of your way, but the conversation will still be there if you need to revisit it later.

Add polish and style
With Word 2013 you can create more beautiful and engaging documents, and you can work with more media types—like online videos and pictures. You can even open PDFs.
Start with a template
When you open Word 2013, you’re offered a choice of great new templates to help get you started along with a list your recently viewed documents so you can get back to where you left off in no time.

Open and edit PDFs
Open PDFs and edit the content in Word. Edit paragraphs, lists, and tables just like familiar Word documents. Take the content and make it look great.
Insert online pictures and video
Add online videos directly to your documents that readers can watch right in Word. Add your pictures from online photo services without having to save them first to your computer.
Live layout and alignment guides
Get a live preview as you resize and move photos and shapes in your document. The new alignment guides make it easy to line up charts, photos, and diagrams with your text.
what are the FEATURES  OF THE  latest versions of  Corel Word Perfect

•   Specifications
•   Images
•   Side By Side Comparison
•   Learning Center
the new version as offering the following features: interactive PDF features; encryption and password protection; EPUB format support; mass mailing features; macro management; support for 60 file types; HTML5 compatibility; iPad app.

Corel WordPerfect X6 is so feature-filled that it competes with any powerhouse word processor such as Microsoft Word. WordPerfect has the ability to make professional looking fax cover sheets, resumes, brochures, labels and more. It also has a built-in program to help with eBook publishing. While there are a few features missing, like a file translator, WordPerfect is hard to ignore in the word processing world, and that is why this software earns our TopTenREVIEWS Silver Award.
WordPerfect X6 is fully customizable. Toolbars and menus can all be adjusted and placed where you like them. If you are a beginner looking for information on any features of X6, the help feature includes an easy button-style menu that is clean, organized and very easy to use.
If you are an experienced user of word processors and prefer previous interface of WordPerfect, the software has a simulation mode you can access through Workspace Manager. When the software is in this mode, the tabs or buttons will be in the same place they would be on past versions of WordPerfect.
Basic Features
WordPerfect X6 word processing software has the wide range of basic features that you would expect from high-functioning word processing software. It also includes two unique features that other word processors just don't have: the X6's Application Launcher and the PerfectExpert menu.
The Application Launcher button in the tool bar allows you to quickly jump to online applications with the click of a button. This feature is particularly clever if you have several projects you are doing at once.
The templates feature contains a long list of pre-made documents. All you have to do is simply fill in the text fields to create a professional-looking document. This saves time and frustration, especially if you are new to creating various documents like brochures, labels and business cards.
The complete web integration of the software allows you to access information without leaving the software window. This is an essential feature when you want to add up-to-date facts to reports and documents. WordPerfect's iFilter also lets you search your WordPerfect documents that are stored in a Microsoft SharePoint server.
The Make-It-Fit feature will automatically size a block of text to fit an area in your document so you won't have to fiddle with font size.
Editing Tools
WordPerfect word processing software is jam-packed with editing tools that rival Microsoft Word's tools. The library of reference books included in your word processing software, give you tools you need to polish your wordsmith skills. It includes the Oxford University Press Dictionary, a thesaurus, a Grammatik grammar checker and a spell checker.
The Prompt-as-You-Go feature allows you to see suggested spelling options while you type. If you see the word that you want, you can click on it and the software will type the word for you with perfect spelling. This feature is one-of-a-kind and incredibly useful.
Unfortunately, X6 doesn't have a file translator, which can be a real drawback if you regularly produce documents in a number of languages. However, for most people this tool won't be needed or missed.
Publishing/Print Options
WordPerfect X6 gives you a nice variety of publishing options for your document. You can fax it, email it or post it to the web. You can also create a PDF version, which is a handy option for creating eBooks or sharing large amounts of information on the internet without making a multipage website.
Insert Tools
If you have used word processing software before, you are probably used to the idea of inserting clip art, graphs, tables and photos into your documents. WordPerfect X6 puts a twist on this idea and allows you to draw your own graphics and insert them on the screen. This option is perfect for the artistically inclined person who can't seem to find the perfect image. The drawing feature is also a great way to let children add their own personal touch to letters and emails to grandparents and friends. The drawing feature includes premade shapes, a freehand drawing tool, frames and more. You may find other software with this type of tool, but most won't have the more advanced drawing tools that WordPerfect has.
You can also insert scrapbook templates into documents. This feature lets you spiff up plain documents or create printable scrapbook pages on your computer.
One unusual feature that can't be found anywhere else is WordPerfect's Redaction feature. You can conceal sensitive information in your documents by placing a black bar over the information. Other parties won't be able to see the information or remove the bars. Only you will know what's there.
File Formats
Microsoft Word


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4(b) For net navigation, which browser is required? Do you have a choice?

The major web browsers are
-Google Chrome,
-Internet Explorer,
-Opera, and

have these user interface elements in common:
•   Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous resource and forward respectively.
•   A refresh or reload button to reload the current resource.
•   A stop button to cancel loading the resource. In some browsers, the stop button is merged with the reload button.
•   A home button to return to the user's home page.
•   An address bar to input the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) of the desired resource and display it.
•   A search bar to input terms into a search engine. In some browsers, the search bar is merged with the address bar.
•   A status bar to display progress in loading the resource and also the URI of links when the cursor hovers over them, and page zooming capability.
also possess incremental find features to search within a web page.


Q 5 (a) Make a list of your day-to-day activities in two columns: those that are influenced by technology and those that are not. Which list is longer?


-reading  newspaper
-writing  email  letters
-sending  documents.
-making telephone  calls
-airlining   seat   booking
-watching  TV
-designing   training  programmes


-breakfast  eating

(b) Watch for the next time someone asks for your social security number. Do you think it’s a legitimate request? What happens if you refuse to give it?

Social Security is providing each member with individual Social Security Number. The rationale behind the issuing of Social Security Number is to facilitate the processing of claims and benefits. Each Social Security member is provided with a unique number different from everyone else this means no two members would have the same number account. The Social Security Number identifies the Social Security Account of each of the member.

Social Security makes use of these accounts in maintaining all the records of each of their members. And also the earnings as well as the benefits are verified by accounts contained under the Social Security records.

The Social Security number is also very useful when applying for a job. Employers make use of the social security numbers of their employees to pay for their contributions. Moreover, Social Security numbers are also used by most financial institutions in recording the amount of interest that Social Security members have earned from them. Even the Internal Revenue makes use of the Social Security Number in determining the amount of tax a Social Security member needs to pay. The members Social Security accounts provide basis for both government as well as private businesses when they are in search for information regarding their employees. Nevertheless, all the information contained in the Social Security Account of each member is not released without any consent from the concerned member but unless the law permits the discharge of any information then and only then can information be released. All information contained in the Social Security member's accounts is confidential.

Each member is mandated by the Social Security to get a Social Security Number. However, for those members who lost their social security card and may want to apply for another card they can call the Social Security hotline in their area or they may visit the Social Security Office for instructions. The usual requirement for lost Social Security card is an affidavit of loss duly notarized by an attorney. Also satisfactory proof of identification is required. For members who may want to have their name changed or their status changed, they may bring their birth certificate while a marriage contract or annulment or divorce court ruling is required for those who want to have their status changed. Likewise, for members who may want to add beneficiaries, they can call the Social Security Office for documents that are required for them to submit. And please be reminded that only certified copies of pertinent documents are required.

Guarding your Social Security Number is vital in terms of minimizing your risk of identity theft. With your Social Security Number, an identity thief can obtain various kinds of personal information about you. Many times they will use your Social Security Number to apply for credit in your name - and they have no intentions of paying the bill.
Identity thieves will obtain your SSN by searching through your garbage, stealing your mail, stealing wallets or purses, from business or personnel records at work, telephone fraud calls such as posing as a sweepstakes representative or bank employee, etc.
Key point to remember is that your Social Security Number is confidential, it’s important to treat it as such. Do not carry your SSN card in your wallet or purse, shred any and all documents that may show your SSN before throwing in the garbage, do not have your SSN printed on your checks and be very careful as to who you give your SSN to. If you are asked for your SSN by a business or utility company, verify that they have no other options first (ie. will they accept some other form of identification).

Q 6 Write short notes on :-

(a) (i) Computers in industry (ii) computer in business

Computers in Industry
The aim of Computers in Industry is to publish original, high-quality, application-oriented research papers that:
• Show new trends in and options for the use of Information and Communication Technology in industry;
• Link or integrate different technology fields in the broad area of computer applications for industry;
• Link or integrate different application areas of ICT in industry.
General topics covered include the following areas:
• The unique application of ICT in business processes such as design, engineering, manufacturing, purchasing, physical distribution, production management and supply chain management. This is the main thrust of the journal. It includes research in integration of business process support, such as in enterprise modelling, ERP, EDM.
• The industrial use of ICT in knowledge intensive fields such as quality control, logistics, engineering data management, and product documentation will certainly be considered.
• Demonstration of enabling capabilities of new or existing technologies such as hard real time systems, knowledge engineering, applied fuzzy logic, collaborative work systems, and intelligence agents are also welcomed.
• Papers solely focusing on ICT or manufacturing processes may be considered out of scope.
A continuous quality policy, based on strict peer reviewing shall ensure that published articles are:
- Technologically outstanding and front-end
- Application-oriented with a generalised message
- Representative for research at an international level
Benefits to authors
We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more.

Almost every business uses computers to complete daily tasks. From making contact with clients to inputting data for reports, computers allow businesses a more efficient way to manage affairs when compared to traditional paper and manila folders. Businesses use a variety of different types of computers such as desktops, laptops, servers, smartphones and tablets, depending on their needs. With computers, employees are able to work anytime, anywhere.
Communication is key when gaining and maintaining clients and other important contacts. Computers give businesses access to email, instant messaging and custom customer contact systems. Computerized phone systems allow for automated support during off hours and a virtual operator can quickly direct callers to the correct department for faster support.
Computers allow businesses to create websites, stunning ads and complete marketing campaigns. Marketing videos can be edited and custom ads created in-house with the use of specialized software. Businesses can completely develop and manage websites with their own servers or connect remotely to a third-party business to upload their latest content such as articles, product images and blog posts.

Accounting without computers presents a high risk for human error. Accounting software allows businesses to simply input their financial data and instantly see gains and losses. All necessary tax reports are available the moment the data is entered. Using computers for invoicing, managing expenses and calculating payroll is vital for ensuring financial data is as accurate as possible.
Instead of filing cabinets, businesses are able to store millions of files using computers and servers. Data can be stored centrally for easy access from multiple computers or stored locally for individual use. Computerized storage saves space and provides a far more efficient organization strategy. With encryption, passwords and replace keys, data remains secure.
Documents and Reports
Most businesses have some sort of productivity software which typically includes a word processor and spreadsheet application. These two programs allow businesses to create reports, memos, tutorials and even colorful ads for company events. Spreadsheet applications give businesses the chance to organize, manage and calculate both numeric and alphabetic data. With charts and graphs, reporting becomes visual instead of text-based.
Businesses use computers to help educate employees on software, company policy, standard procedures and safety. Instead of hiring teachers, computers can be used to educate employees at their own pace or through an online webinar with live questions and answers. This form of education fits the busy schedules of businesses without sacrificing the quality of the education.
From learning more about the competition to discovering what customers really want, research isn't as difficult as it once was, thanks to computers. Search engines, forums, social networks and industry specific websites provide businesses with a wealth of information and research data.

computer in business

Computers have tremendously improved the way businesses operate in their respective industries. Technology has advanced so remarkably that those who are not using computers in their business are at a major disadvantage against their competitors. In particular, there are several important advantages that computers can provide to small businesses.
Computers allow the application of different types of software that can help businesses keep track of their files, documents, schedules and deadlines. Computers also allow businesses to organize all of their information in a very accessible manner. The ability to store large amounts of data on a computer is convenient and inexpensive, and saves space. A computer's ability to allow a company to organize its files efficiently leads to better time management and productivity.
Computers have made staff and companies more self-sufficient by allowing them to do tasks that previously had to be outsourced. For example, a company can now use office software to create their own training material. Desktop publishing software can be used to create marketing materials. Online tax and accounting programs allow companies to prepare their own taxes. This allows the dominant operations of a company to remain in-house and empowers the company to become more independent and less susceptible to errors committed by outside parties.

Emerging technology makes new tools and services more affordable and allows companies to save on their staff payroll and office equipment. Because computers allow work to be done faster and more efficiently, it is possible for a company to hire fewer staff. In addition, with networked and relatively inexpensive computers, companies can store data more easily, saving on the cost of outside file storage, and can avoid having to purchase as many copiers, fax machines, typewriters, and other such items that were used before computers became popular. Correspondingly, potentially profitable businesses can be started with a smaller overhead cost. Email capabilities decrease postage costs; software applications reduce the need for large accounting departments, while videoconferencing reduces the need for travel. All resources saved will trickle down to the consumers, who are then provided with much more affordable products and service.
Computers help speed up other business operations. The collecting of consumer feedback, ordering of raw materials, and inspection of products is made quicker through the use of computers, allowing companies to operate much faster and to produce better quality results.
Cheaper Research and Development
R&D, or research and development, costs will also decrease with the help of computers. Scientific research can now be done using the Internet and computer software applications designed to develop and produce new products and services. For example, instead of a company having to do in-person focus groups on a potential new product or to determine their target market, the company can conduct a widespread online survey for a far lower cost. In addition, new models of a product can be created online using virtual pictures and drawings instead of having to be hand-drawn. These interactive models created using software programs can help bring the product and its features to life for a far lower cost than creating an actual physical model of the given product.
Computers can help generate higher sales and profits for businesses via a company website. Many businesses now operate online and around the clock to allow customers from around the world to shop for their products and services.

(b) Texture Mapping
Texture mapping is a method for adding detail, surface texture (a bitmap or raster image), or color to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. Its application to 3D graphics
A texture map is applied (mapped) to the surface of a shape or polygon.[1] This process is akin to applying patterned paper to a plain white box. Every vertex in a polygon is assigned a texture coordinate (which in the 2d case is also known as a UV coordinate) either via explicit assignment or by procedural definition. Image sampling locations are then interpolated across the face of a polygon to produce a visual result that seems to have more richness than could otherwise be achieved with a limited number of polygons. Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon.[2] For instance, a light map texture may be used to light a surface as an alternative to recalculating that lighting every time the surface is rendered. Another multitexture technique is bump mapping, which allows a texture to directly control the facing direction of a surface for the purposes of its lighting calculations; it can give a very good appearance of a complex surface, such as tree bark or rough concrete, that takes on lighting detail in addition to the usual detailed coloring. Bump mapping has become popular in recent video games as graphics hardware has become powerful enough to accommodate it in real-time.
The way the resulting pixels on the screen are calculated from the texels (texture pixels) is governed by texture filtering. The fastest method is to use the nearest-neighbour interpolation, but bilinear interpolation or trilinear interpolation between mipmaps are two commonly used alternatives which reduce aliasing or jaggies. In the event of a texture coordinate being outside the texture, it is either clamped or wrapped.

A texture consists of a series of pixels (also called texels), each occupying a texture coordinate determined by the width and height of the texture. These texture coordinates are then mapped into values ranging from 0 to 1 along a u and v axes (u is width, v is height). This process is called UV mapping. The resulting coordinates are UV coordinates.
Whenever you render a polygon, a UV coordinate is calculated for each vertex in the triangle. These three UV coordinates dictate how a texture is applied to the polygon by the pixel shader. When the u or v values move below 0 or above 1, the polygon is applied according to the texture address mode that has been set. When TextureAddressMode.Border is in effect, any pixels where the UV mapping is outside the 0-1 range are colored with the border color. When TextureAddressMode.Clamp is in effect, the color of the nearest pixel is used. TextureAddressMode.Wrap indicates that the texture should repeat across the triangle. When you specify TextureAddressMode.Mirror, the texture wraps, but reverses itself when it crosses a UV boundary. Texture-addressing modes are specified for each axis separately, so you could wrap along the u-axis while clamping the v-axis.
If the texture is too large or too small for the polygon, the texture must be filtered to fit the space. There are two types of filtering that can be applied to textures: magnification and minification. A magnification filter enlarges a texture to fit a polygon. A minification filter reduces the texture to fit into a smaller area. Texture magnification is normally straightforward, and results in a blurrier image. Texture minification is more complicated, and improper minification can result in aliasing – that is, jagged edges.
The most popular approach to minification is to create mipmaps for each texture. A mipmap is a pre-shrunk texture, normally half the size of the original. The mipmap itself then gets mipmapped, and this process continues until a 1x1 texture is created. This is the final mipmap for the texture. You can think of mipmaps as a chain, starting with the original texture and becoming smaller and smaller until the 1 texel texture is reached. When minification is needed, first the appropriate mipmapped texture is chosen, then that mipmap is applied to the object, with real-time texture filtering if needed. The default Texture processor for the Content Pipeline has an option to generate mipmaps automatically.
XNA supports five texture filters. TextureFilter.Point uses the nearest corresponding point on the texture, with no filtering. TextureFilter.Linear uses bilinear interpolation to sample four neighboring texels and create an average value. TextureFilter.PyramidalQuad also uses four samples and favors texels nearer to the center of the resulting pixel when calculating the final result. The TextureFilter.GaussianQuad works the same way, using a different mathematical weighting - similar to a bell curve where the top of the curve is the center of the resulting pixel. TextureFilter.Anisotropic is a filtering method designed for surfaces that are not facing the camera (such as the ground near a horizon).

Texture mapping allows you to take a simple polygon and
give it the appearance of something much more complex.
Texture mapping ensures that “all the right things” happen
as a textured polygon is transformed and rendered.
Non-parametric texture mapping
With “non-parametric texture mapping”:
Texture size and orientation are fixed
They are unrelated to size and orientation of polygon
Gives cookie-cutter effect
Parametric texture mapping
With “parametric texture mapping,” texture size and
orientation are tied to the polygon.
Separate “texture space” and “screen space”
Texture the polygon as before, but in texture space
Deform (render) the textured polygon into screen space
A texture can modulate just about any parameter – diffuse
color, specular color, specular exponent, …

(c) Processors
A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.
An instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program. At the lowest level, each instruction is a sequence of 0s and 1s that describes a physical operation the computer is to perform (such as "Add") and, depending on the particular instruction type, the specification of special storage areas called registers that may contain data to be used in carrying out the instruction, or the location in computer memory of data.
In a computer's assembler language, each language statement generally corresponds to a single processor instruction. In high-level languages, a language statement generally results (after program compilation) in multiple processor instructions.
In assembler language, a macro instruction is one that, during processing by the assembler program, expands to become multiple instructions (based on a previously coded macro definition).

The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor.
CPU (central processing unit) is an older term for processor and microprocessor, the central unit in a computer containing the logic circuitry that performs the instructions of a computer's programs.


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Leo Lingham


human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.


18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
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24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
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