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CASE STUDY : 1
International Case : Carrefour — Which Way to Go?
Wal-Mart's biggest global competitor is the big French retailer Carretour, a firm that has hypermarkets, big
stores offering a variety of goods. It has made large investments around the globe in Latin America and China.
But not all is well as competitors taking market share its home market, for instance. There has been even
speculation of a takeover by Wal-Mart or Tesco, an English chain. Mr. Barnard has been ousted after heading
the company for 12 years; he was replaced by Jose Luis Durant who is of German-Spanish descent. Although
the global expansion is cited by some as success, it may be even a big mistake. It withdrew from Japan and
sold 29 hypermarkets in Mexico. Carrefour also had problems competing with Tesco in Slovakia and the
Czech Republic. In Germany, the company faced tough competition from Aldi and Lidle, two successful
discounters. On the other hand, it bought stores in Poland, Italy, Turkey, and opened new stores in China,
South Korea, and Columbia. Carrefour has become more careful in selecting markets. But. the company is
eager to enter the Indian market, but found out in late 2006 that Wal-Mart will do so as well.
In France, where Carrefour is well established, the company made the big mistake in its pricing policy. It
probably started with the 1999 merger with Promodes, the French discount chain. Carrefour confused the
French clientele by losing its low-cost image; whether the image can be changed remains to be seen. Mr.
Durant, the new CEO since 2005, embarked on the new strategy by offering 15 percent new products in its
hypermarkets and 10 percent in its supermarkets. Moreover, he wants to employ more staff, extend the
operating hours in certain hypermarkets, cutting prices, trying small stores, and pushing down decision
making. Mr. Durant aims to stay only in countries where Carrefour is among the top retailers.
Questions:
1. How should Mr. Durant assess the opportunities in various countries around the world?
2. Should Carrefour adopt Wal-Mart's strategy of "low prices everyday"? What would be the advantage or
disadvantage of such a strategy?
3. How could Carrefour differentiate itself from Wal-Mart?
4. Identify cultures in selected countries that need to be considered in order to be successful?
CASE STUDY : 2
International Case : Reengineering the Business Process at Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble (P&G), a multinational corporation known for products such as diapers, shampoo, soap, and
toothpaste, was committed to improving value to the customer. Its products were sold through various
channels, such as grocery retailers, wholesalers, mass merchandisers, and club stores. The flow of goods in the
retail grocery channel was from the factory's warehouse to the distributors' warehouses before going to the
grocery stores where customers selected the merchandise from the shelves.
The improvement-driven company was not satisfied with its performance and developed a variety of programs
to improve its service and the efficiency of its operation. One such program was electronic data interchange,
3 | P a g e
which provided daily information from the retail stores to P&G. The installation of the system resulted in
better service, reduced inventory levels, and labor-cost savings. Another approach, the continuous
replenishment program, provided additional benefits for P&G as well as for its retailer customers. Eventually,
the entire ordering system was redesigned, with the result of dramatic performance improvements. The
reengineering efforts also required restructuring of the organization. P&G had been known for its brand
management for more than 50 years. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the brand management approach
pioneered by the company in the 1930s required rethinking and restructuring. In a drive to improve efficiency
and coordination, several brands were combined with authority and responsibility given to category managers.
Such a manager would determine overall pricing and product policies. Moreover, the category managers had
the authority to withdraw weak brands, thus avoiding conflict between similar brands. They were also held
responsible for the profit of the product category they were managing. The switch to category management
required not only new skills but also a new attitude.
Questions:
1) The reengineering efforts of P&G focused on the business process system. Do you think other processes,
such as the human system, or other managerial policies need to be considered in a process redesign?
2) What do you think was the reaction of the brand managers, who may have worked under the old system for
many years, when the category management structure was installed?
3) As a consultant, would you have recommended a top-down or a bottom-up approach, or both, to process
redesign and organizational change?
4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
CASE STUDY : 3
International Case : The Restructuring of Daimler-Benz
In a 1996 address to stockholders and friends of Daimler-Benz, CEO Jurgen Schrempp reviewed the position
of the diversified company. He started by saying "1995 was a dramatic year in the history of Daimler-Benz." It
was also a year that the board of management made a major break with the past.
Daimler-Benz, with more than 300,000 employees worldwide, consisted of four major groups: The first, by far
the biggest and most successful group, was Mercedes-Benz with about 200,000 employees. It is best known
for its passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The second was the AEG Daimler-Benz industries in the
business of rail systems, microelectronics, heavy diesel engines, energy systems technology, and automation.
The third was the Aerospace Group in the business of aircraft (the company has a more than one-third interest
in the Airbus consortium), space systems, defense and civil systems, and propulsion systems. Finally, there
was the Inter Services Group consisting of systemshaus, financial services, insurance brokerage, trading,
marketing services, mobile communications services, and real
estate management.
Daimler-Benz went through various development phases. From 1985 to 1990, it diversified into aerospace and
electrical engineering. The aim was to become an integrated high-tech group. This diversification was further
consolidated in the next phase that extended from 1990 to 1995. Under the leadership of Schrempp, the core
business was redefined and the strategy refocused.
A 1995-96 portfolio review showed the need for refocusing on what the company could do best. Top
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management reevaluated its strategies and its core businesses based on economic criteria and the strategic fit
of the various activities. It became clear that the company's strengths were in car manufacturing, the truck
business, and the railroad sector. Mercedes Benz, for example, had a strong competitive position with its cars
and trucks in Europe, North America, and Latin America. Vans were also relatively strong in Europe, and
buses had a good competitive position in Latin America. Based on this analysis, the strategies for potential
growth were through globalization and the development of new product segments.
In 1996, top management reassessed the company's position and its 1995 unsatisfactory results from its
operations. It was discovered that the company was exposed to currency fluctuations that affected profitability.
The company's image was also blurred because of the ventures into many different kinds of industries. The
management board decided to cut its losses and chart a new direction for the company, with greater emphasis
on profitability. The organization structure was tightened and certain businesses were divested. In fact, policy
decision from an earlier period were reversed. The unprofitable AEG Group and the Dutch aircraft
manufacturer Fokker did not receive financial support. Since both the Dutch government and Daimler-Benz
withdrew support, Fokker filed for bankruptcy. Although these and other drastic decisions helped reduce the
1995 financial losses, the company's goal was not to emphasize maximizing short-term profitability but to
work toward medium- and long-term profitability.
A number of other managerial decisions were made to achieve the ambitious goals of reducing costs and
improving profitability. Employees close to the operations were empowered to make decisions necessary to
carry out their tasks. The organization structure was simplified and decentralized so that organizational units
could respond faster to environmental changes. Moreover, the new organization structure was designed to
promote an entrepreneurial spirit. Control was exercised through a goal-driven, performance-based reward
system. At the same time, the new structure was designed to promote cooperation. In 1997, the board of
management restructured and integrated the Mercedes-Benz Group into Daimler-Benz. Consequently,
Mercedes-Benz's chief, Helmut Werner, who had been given credit for a successful model policy, resigned
from the company.
Questions:
1) What is your assessment of Daimler-Benz's operations in many different fields?
2) Should the various groups operate autonomously? What kinds of activities should be centralized?
3) Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz cars. Why do you think Daimler bought AEG in the first
place and why did it venture into the Aerospace and Inter Services businesses?
4) Given the apparent mistakes in acquiring non-automotive businesses, what should Jurgen Schrempp do
now?
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CASE STUDY : 4
International Case : Global Car Industry
How the Lexus Was Born-and Continued Its Success in the United States, but will Lexus Succeed in Japan?
One of the best examples of global competition is in the car industry. As the Japanese gained market share in
America, U.S. car makers required the Japanese to self-impose quotas on cars exported to the United States.
This encouraged Japanese firms not only to establish their plants in the United States but also to build bigger
and more luxurious cars to compete against the higher-priced U.S. cars- and the expensive European cars such
as the Mercedes and the BMW.
One such Japanese car is the Lexus, by Toyota. This car is aimed at customers who would like to buy a
Mercedes or BMW but cannot afford either. With a sticker price of $35,000, the Lexus is substantially less
expensive than comparable European imports. In 1983, Toyota set out to develop the best car in the worldmeasured
against the Mercedes and the BMW. The aim was to produce a quiet, comfortable, and safe car that
could travel at 150 miles per hour and still avoid the gas guzzler tax imposed on cars getting less than 22.5
miles per gallon. This seemed to be an idea of conflicting goals: cars being fast seemed irreconcilable with
cars being at the same time fuel-efficient. To meet these conflicting goals, each subsystem of the car had to be
carefully scrutinized, improved whenever possible, and integrated with the total design. The first version of the
32-valve V-8 engine did not meet the fuel economy requirement. The engineers applied a problem-solving
technique called "thoroughgoing countermeasures at the source." This means an attempt to improve every
component until the design objectives are achieved. Not only the engine but also the transmission and other
parts underwent close scrutiny to make the car meet U.S. fuel requirements.
Toyota's approach to achieving quality is different from that of German car manufacturers. The latter use
relatively labor-intensive production processes. In contrast, Toyota's advanced manufacturing technology aims
at high quality through automation requiring only a fraction of the work force used by German car makers.
Indeed, this strategy, if successful, may be the secret weapon to gain market share in the luxury car market.
Questions:
1) Prepare a profile of the potential buyer of the Lexus.
2) What should Mercedes and BMW do to counteract the Japanese threat in the United States and Europe?
3) Why has the Lexus model been very successful in the U.S. but has not been marketed in Japan?
(Suggestion: Review the frequency of repair records of luxury cars. Also talk to Lexus dealers or Lexus
owners).
4) Do you think Lexus will succeed in Japan? Why or why not?

Answer
CASE   1
1. How should Mr. Durant assess the opportunities in various countries around the world?
[IN EVERY  COUNTRY,
-THE  COMPANY  SHOULD  ASSESS  THE  MARKET .
-DEFINE  THE  SOCIO-ECONOMIC  PROFILE.
-IDENTIFY THE  PRODUCTS  DEMAND
WHICH MATCHES  THE  MARKET.
-THEN   POSITION  THE  CARREFOUR
RETAIL  OUTLETS.
=======================


2. Should Carrefour adopt Wal-Mart's strategy of "low prices everyday"? What would be the advantage or disadvantage of such a strategy?
[NO  CARREFOUR  SHOULD  NOT  FOLLOW  BLINDLY  THE  WAL-MART.
ADVANTAGES
-it  will  gain  some  limited gain  in  the  market  entry.
DISADVANTAGES
-it  will not  be  able  to  match   the  supply  chain  strength  of  wal-mart.
======================
3. How could Carrefour differentiate itself from Wal-Mart?

CARREFOUR   SHOULD  POSITION  ITSELF  AS  ‘’ MID  UPMARKET’’ RETAILER  AND  OFFER  PRODUCTS  ACCORDINGLY.
======================
4. Identify cultures in selected countries that need to be considered in order to be successful?
JAPAN
It is widely known for its traditional arts as well as its contemporary pop culture.
-one  must  understand  the  buying  behaviors  and  decision  making  of  the  individuals.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@


CASE   2

Answer
1) The reengineering efforts of P&G focused on the business process system. Do you think other processes, such as the human system, or other managerial policies need to be considered in a process redesign?

CATEGORY  MANAGEMENT  SYSTEM NEEDS  TO  BE  SET  UP
-policies
-procedured
-practices
Etc
======================
2) What do you think was the reaction of the brand managers, who may have worked under the old system for many years, when the category management structure was installed?

-NEGATIVE  REACTION  FROM  THE  BRAND  MANAGERS  ARE  EXPECTED.
BRAND  MANAGEMENT  IS A  STAFF  FUNCTION , WHILE   THE  CATEGORY  MANAGEMENT  IS  A  LINE  MANAGEMENT  FUNCTION.

SUCH  CHANGE  NEEDS
-change  management  drive
-orientation  programme.
=======================

3) As a consultant, would you have recommended a top-down or a bottom-up approach, or both, to process redesign and organizational change?
TOP  DOWN   APPROACH  IS  THE  RIGHT  APPROACH , AS  IT  RELECTS
-the  management  mission
-the  management  objectives
-the  management  strategies.
====================
4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
TOP DOWN
ADVANTAGES
-it clearly  shows  the  management  intentions  and drive.
DISADVANTAGES
-low  participation  from  the  bottom  line  staff
--------------------------
BOTTOM UP
ADVANTAGES
-it clearly  shows  EMOTIONAL  PARTICIPATION  OF  THE  STAFF.
DISADVANTAGES
-LACKS   THE  LEADERSHIP
--------------------------
========================
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
CASE   3


Questions:
1)  What is your assessment of Daimler-Benz's operations in many different fields?


Daimler-Benz, with more than 300,000 employees worldwide, consisted of four major groups: The first, by far the biggest and most successful group, was Mercedes-Benz with about 200,000 employees. It is best known for its passenger cars and commercial vehicles.
[THIS  BUSINESS  UNIT  HAS  THE  CORE  COMPETENCE  AND   HENCE  VERY   SUCCESSFUL.
--------------------------------------------------------------
The second was the AEG Daimler-Benz industries in the business of rail systems, microelectronics, heavy diesel engines, energy systems technology, and automation.
[THIS  BUSINESS  UNIT  HAS  TOO MANY SUB-UNITS  AND  WIDE  DIVERSIFICATION  AND  LACKS  CORE  COMPETENCY  IN   SOME  WHICH  AFFECTS  THE  OVERALL  PERFORMANCE.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The third was the Aerospace Group in the business of aircraft (the company has a more than one-third interest in the Airbus consortium), space systems, defense and civil systems, and propulsion systems.

[THIS  BUSINESS  UNIT  HAS   MANY SUB-UNITS  AND  ARE  INTEGRATED AND  HAS  THE   CORE  COMPETENCY  /  HENCE  IS   SUCCESSFUL..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Finally, there was the Inter Services Group consisting of systemshaus, financial services, insurance brokerage, trading, marketing services, mobile communications services, and real
estate management.

[THIS  BUSINESS  UNIT  HAS  TOO MANY SUB-UNITS  AND  WIDE  DIVERSIFICATION  AND  LACKS  CORE  COMPETENCY  IN   SOME  WHICH  AFFECTS  THE  OVERALL  PERFORMANCE.
=============================================================
2) Should the various groups operate autonomously? What kinds of activities should be centralized?

[THE  BUSINESS  UNITS  SHOULD  OPERATE  AUTONOMOUSLY  . THE   KINDS   OF  ACTIVITIES  THAT  COULD CENTRALIZED   ARE
-IT  SYSTEMS
-HR  SYSTEMS

-FINANCE
============================================
3) Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz cars. Why do you think Daimler bought AEG in the first place and why did it venture into the Aerospace and Inter Services businesses?

[ BETTER  USE  OF  TECHNOLOGY  AND  COMPETENCE
PLUS  SALES   OPPORTUNITIES.
===========================================
4)  Given the apparent mistakes in acquiring non-automotive businesses, what should Jurgen Schrempp do now?

[ RE-ORGANIZE / RESTRUCTURE  THE  BUSINESS   UNIT  AND  HIRE  COMPETENT   TALENTS  TO  RUN  THE  SHOW]

##################################################################################

CASE   4

Questions:
1)  Prepare a profile of the potential buyer of the Lexus.

Target Customer Description
The target customer with Lexusʼ flagship hybrid design is seeking to present a bold image to
others. Price is therefore a secondary factor to the message their car portrays in their purchasing
decisions. Potential customers are born within ten years of the “baby boomer” generation aged
forty-five and up. As a wealthy and image-conscious person he/she can spend money freely,
taking up hobbies and living a visibly envious life. He/she purchases this car for its “green” status
to benefit his/her self-image. They choose to purchase hybrids either because they are
environmentally conscious, or they wish to appear to be. They combine extravagance and excess
with environmental care by purchasing a car that is both “green,” and also features top-of-the-line
technology, performance, and luxury.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2)  What should Mercedes and BMW do to counteract the Japanese threat in the United States and Europe?

[BOTH   MERC / BMW  HAVE  QUALITY  PRODUCT/ PRODUCT  POSITIONING. THEY  NEED TO   STUDY  THE  MARKET   AND  DEVELOP  A   SEMI-LUXURY  BRAND  TO  MATCH  ‘’LEXUS’’
------------------------------------------------------------------

3)  Why has the Lexus model been very successful in the U.S.  but has not been marketed in Japan?  (Suggestion:  Review the frequency of repair records of luxury cars.  Also talk to Lexus dealers or Lexus owners).

[ IN  THE  US  CAR MARKET , THERE  WAS A  GAP  BETWEEN   MERC/BMW   AND   THE   LOCAL  BRANDS.
THIS  IS  WHERE  THE   LEXUS  FITTED  IN  WELL   WITH  THEIR   PRICE/ PROFILE]
------------------------------------------------------------


4)  Do you think Lexus will succeed in Japan?  Why or why not?

LEXUS  CAN  SUCCEED  IN  JAPAN, PROVIDED   IT  IS  POSITIONED  PROPERLY.


###########################################  

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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