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Human Resources/i am doin my mba hrm 2nd year in dde and in need of answer for following questions...pls send me asap...


1.Is wage for same job same in all types of organisation?discuss your answer in the context of wage structure of a same job of state government and central government organisations.
2."Hard workers get poor wage where as the workers hardly work get high wage."do you agree to this statement?justify your stand with valid evidence.

   1.Is wage for same job same in all types of organisation?discuss your answer in the context of wage structure of a same job of state government and central government organisations.
2."Hard workers get poor wage where as the workers hardly work get high wage."do you agree to this statement?justify your stand with valid evidence.


1.Is wage for same job same in all types of organisation?discuss your answer in the context of wage structure of a same job of state government and central government organisations.
Is wage for same job same in all types of organization
4 Factors That Can Result in Different Pay Levels for Employees Doing the Same Job

Completing the same job as a colleague and not receiving the same wages can seem unfair. While it is normal to expect what you think is a fair share for your talents and skills, there may be good reasons why you earn less. Legally, there should not be a large wage gap between you and a coworker doing the same job, and it is a good idea to discuss such issues with the human resources department or your supervisor
Education and Experience
It is common for companies to pay employees according to a scale. For example, a classified listing may state a job pays between $10 and $15 per hour. A qualified candidate who has a greater amount of education and/or experience than one who meets the basic job requirements is likely to earn more money. If your coworker does the same job as you but earns more money, it is possible she had more work experience or a higher academic degree than you when she started with the company. Some companies offer bonuses to employees who earn a degree, an issue worth looking into if you are willing to do the work for a higher salary.
Those who possess desired skills may receive higher pay even if they do the same work as you. Some law enforcement agencies, for example, pay police officers who speak more than one language fluently more than their mono-lingual counterparts. In the computer science industry, professionals who hold certain certifications may also earn more than coworkers doing the same job. Additionally, a coworker who does the same basic work as you may have some additional responsibilities of which you are not aware.

Length of Time with Employer
Some companies offer yearly bonuses to encourage employee retention. If a coworker has the same position as you but has worked at the company for more years, her annual bonuses may be the reason you earn less for doing the same job.
While it is illegal, discrimination is a factor that can result in different pay levels for employees doing the same job. Jacqueline A. Berrien, chairwoman of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, stated in 2010 that women generally earned 23 cents less than men for every dollar earned when performing similar jobs. Women in minority ethnic groups and those with disabilities earn even less than their male counterparts. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 makes it illegal for employers to pay you less wages on the basis of your religion, gender, disability, race, marital status, national origin, age, pregnancy status or genetic information for doing the same or similar work as other employees. If you experience wage discrimination and have proof of such, you can report your company to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

2."hard workers get poor wage whereas the workers hardly work get high wage".do you agree to this statement?justify your stand with valid evidences.

this  is  not  totally  true.
There  may be  a few  exceptional  cases,
Where  the bosses  have  biased  approach.


Performance Appraisal
The COMPANIES carries out its mission through the individual and collective contributions of its employees. To do their best, staff members need to know that those contributions will be recognized and acknowledged. Overseeing performance and providing feedback is not an isolated event, but rather an ongoing process that takes place throughout the year. The performance appraisal is part of that process, and provides an excellent opportunity for you to communicate with the employee about past performance, evaluate the employee's job satisfaction, and make plans for the employee's future performance.
Remember that the performance appraisal summarizes the employee's contributions over the entire appraisal period (usually one year). It is not a step in the disciplinary process. It may occur as often as you believe is necessary to acknowledge the employee for accomplishments and to plan together for improved performance.
Guiding Principles
The goal of the performance appraisal process is to help the employee feel:
•   Positive about the job
•   Motivated to do well and to develop
•   Benefited by specific, constructive feedback
•   Appreciated for specific contributions
•   Informed about current and future performance objectives
•   Involved as a participant in the process
Preparing for the Appraisal
Both you and the employee play an important role in creating a productive performance appraisal process. Here are some suggestions to get the employee involved:
•   Schedule a mutually convenient time and place for the performance appraisal discussion. Allow enough time and ensure privacy.
•   Explain that you would like the discussion to be a dialog, with input from both of you included in the final written document.
•   Give the employee some options about how to prepare for the discussion. For example:
o   Ask the employee to prepare a self-evaluation using the same form you will use for your draft. The employee can address accomplishments and things that could be done better. Explain that you will be doing the same and that you may exchange these documents a few hours before your meeting
•   Give the employee a list of questions to consider to evaluate his own performance. Sample questions might be:
o   What have been your major accomplishments?
o   What could you have done better?
o   What could I do as your supervisor to help you do your job better?
o   Would you like to see your responsibilities change? If so, how?
•   Prepare a draft appraisal, making sure you have as much information as possible, including:
o   job description
o   performance standards
o   previous appraisals
o   letters of commendation and/or criticism
o   samples of work
o   records of disciplinary action
•   Consider the question, What can I do to help the employee do the job better and achieve developmental goals?
Conducting the Appraisal Discussion
Continue the momentum you have established throughout the year with your ongoing dialog about performance. You want to set the tone for an open and productive discussion. Here are some steps you can take to make it as successful as possible:
•   Create a supportive environment by stating clearly the purpose of the discussion. Be as non-threatening and open as possible since the employee may be tense or uncomfortable.
•   Discuss key areas of responsibility and give examples of specific results. Have the employee go first, based on the self-appraisal or the questions you provided in advance. Ask lots of questions and get clarification to make sure you understand the employee's point of view.
•   Discuss what could have been done better. Identify your concerns and listen to the employee's explanations.
•   Ask your employee for help in resolving problems. Focus on future performance and be sure the employee takes responsibility for improvement.
•   Make sure you and the employee have an understanding the same understanding of future expectations regarding performance.
•   Give positive recognition for performance that reinforces the goals of the work unit.
•   Discuss the employee's interests and potential new responsibilities. Discuss both of your roles in achieving new objectives while maintaining ongoing responsibilities.
•   Conclude on a positive note, emphasizing the benefits of your dialog.
The Final Appraisal Document
Record the results of your discussion on the performance appraisal form. Ask the employee to sign the form, and explain that this signature acknowledges discussion of the contents, not necessarily agreement with them. Route to your manager for final signatures and placement in the employee's departmental personnel file. Give a copy of the signed appraisal to the employee.
Performance Standards
Performance expectations are the basis for appraising employee performance. Written performance standards let you compare the employee's performance with mutually understood expectations and minimize ambiguity in providing feedback.
Having performance standards is not a new concept; standards exist whether or not they are discussed or put in writing. When you observe an employee's performance, you usually make a judgment about whether that performance is acceptable. How do you decide what's acceptable and what's unacceptable performance? The answer to this question is the first step in establishing written standards.
Standards identify a baseline for measuring performance. From performance standards, supervisors can provide specific feedback describing the gap between expected and actual performance.
Guiding Principles
Effective performance standards:
•   Serve as an objective basis for communicating about performance
•   Enable the employee to differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable results
•   Increase job satisfaction because employees know when tasks are performed well
•   Inform new employees of your expectations about job performance
•   Encourage an open and trusting relationship with employees
Key Areas of Responsibility
Write performance standards for each key area of responsibility on the employee's job description. The employee should participate actively in their development. Standards are usually established when an assignment is made, and they should be reviewed if the employee's job description is updated. The discussion of standards should include the criteria for achieving satisfactory performance and the proof of performance (methods you will use to gather information about work performance).
Characteristics of Performance Standards
Standards describe the conditions that must exist before the performance can be rated satisfactory. A performance standard should:
•   Be realistic, in other words, attainable by any qualified, competent, and fully trained person who has the authority and resources to achieve the desired result
•   Describe the conditions that exist when performance meets expectations
•   Be expressed in terms of quantity, quality, time, cost, effect, manner of performance, or method of doing
•   Be measurable, with specified method(s) of gathering performance data and measuring performance against standards
Expressing Standards
The terms for expressing performance standards are outlined below:
•   Quantity: specifies how much work must be completed within a certain period of time, e.g., enters 30 enrollments per day.
•   Quality: describes how well the work must be accomplished. Specifies accuracy, precision, appearance, or effectiveness, e.g., 95% of documents submitted are accepted without revision.
•   Timeliness: answers the questions, By when? , How soon? , or Within what period? , e.g., all work orders completed within five working days of receipt.
•   Effective Use of Resources: used when performance can be assessed in terms of utilization of resources: money saved, waste reduced, etc., e.g., the computer handbook project will be completed with only internal resources.
•   Effects of Effort: addresses the ultimate effect to be obtained; expands statements of effectiveness by using phrases such as: so that, in order to, or as shown by, e.g., establish inventory levels for storeroom so that supplies are maintained 100% of the time.
•   Manner of Performance: describes conditions in which an individual's personal behavior has an effect on performance, e.g., assists other employees in the work unit in accomplishing assignments.
•   Method of Performing Assignments: describes requirements; used when only the officially-prescribed policy, procedure, or rule for accomplishing the work is acceptable, e.g., 100A Forms are completed in accordance with established office procedures.
Performance Measurements
Since one of the characteristics of a performance standard is that it can be measured, you should identify how and where evidence about the employee's performance will be gathered. Specifying the performance measurements when the responsibility is assigned will help the employee keep track of his progress, as well as helping you in the future performance discussions.
There are many effective ways to monitor and verify performance, the most common of which are:
•   Direct observation
•   Specific work results (tangible evidence that can be reviewed without the employee being present)
•   Reports and records, such as attendance, safety, inventory, financial records, etc.
•   Commendations or constructive or critical comments received about the employee's work

Managing Employee Performance – 5 Steps Success
I’ve worked with hundreds of managers, business owners, team leaders and supervisors, and many of those managers were, by their own admission, reluctant to really commit themselves to bringing a focused and structured approach to manage their employee’s performance.
Many of these managers know (in theory) that they should be managing employee performance. They know that they should be doing things like
   Identifying, writing and agreeing performance objectives
   Discussing how the objectives contribute to the business goals
   Monitoring and measuring performance so that they can provide ongoing, regular and specific feedback on performance
   Identifying and acknowledging outstanding performance, and taking action to deal with areas for improvement
   Discussing the employee’s development aspirations and objectives
   Discussing the employee’s job satisfaction
The challenge for many managers is moving from knowing that they should be doing something to actually doing it! In my experience, the business owners and managers who have the most success with managing employee performance are those who have followed the five steps I’ve outlined below. So, if you are struggling to commit yourself to a more focused and structured approach to managing your employee’s performance, why not give them a try?
1. Understand why managing employee performance is important to your business
There’s a whole lot of research to demonstrate that employees who are ‘well managed’ perform better. For example research says that having clear objectives with effective measures can improve performance by over 30%. This means that effective performance management is a critical commercial issue because effective performance management impacts business success.
So far so good? OK but here’s the challenge. As business owners and managers I know you have many demands on your time and I know that managing your employee’s performance can sometimes get pushed aside in favor of more urgent work. So here’s a question that might illustrate the point I’m making; What difference would 10, 20 or even 30% improvement in performance make to your results, your team, and your business?
It’s all about seeing the value to your business of bringing a structured approach to managing employee performance – so that you can reap the rewards you will get in improved performance and business results
2. Understand why managing employee performance is important to your employees
Do you know that research shows that what employee’s want and want quite badly, is to be ‘well managed’? That they want clarity on what is expected of them and feedback which is motivational? That much of what ‘well managed’ means is you managing their performance?
Many business owners and managers I work with seem to think that their employees don’t actually want to be managed yet research tells us again and again that they do. You have a huge impact on your employee’s job satisfaction and on their engagement with the business. You can make that impact a totally positive experience by effectively managing your employee’s performance
3. Embrace your right to manage performance
Frequently the managers I work with seem to feel the need to gain permission to undertake probably the most important part of their role – managing their employee’s performance. They clearly know there are expectations of them as managers but they don’t feel they have somehow earned the ‘right’ to manage. Here are a couple of simple principles; a) in the same way your employees have rights at work, so do you b) you have the right to manage your employee’s performance and c) you have the right to expect your employees to meet the objectives you agree with them. Of course you have the responsibility to manage employee performance effectively. But you do not have to gain anyone’s permission!
4. Have a system for managing employee performance
The most successful managers I have worked with take a structured, focused approach to managing their employee’s performance. In short, they use a system to ensure that their employee’s are ‘well managed’. The system doesn’t need to be wildly sophisticated and it doesn’t need to be complex. It simply needs to guide you (and your employees), step by step, through the process I described in the bullet points at the beginning of this article. And then you need to consistently apply the system
5. Get the tools and techniques you need to manage employee performance
Do you have access to a range of tools and techniques which can make what seems so complex much, much simpler? How can you be expected to know, for example, that there are a whole range of processes you can use such as;
   Four ways to describe exactly what you want from your staff using powerful performance objectives
   A three step process for gaining your employee’s involvement in defining performance objectives and their commitment to achieving those objectives
   Three ways to monitor employee performance (so you can give them the feedback they want and need)
   A three step process for preparing to give positive criticism?
It’s these sorts of tools that make managing employee performance both much easier and much more effective. The reality is you just do not have the time to work these processes out for yourself or on ‘trial and error’. These tools are available so why not use them?
In summary
Success in managing employee performance is partly about mindset – about understanding the benefits to your business and your employees of applying a focused and structured approach. It’s also about getting the systems, tools and techniques you need.

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Leo Lingham


human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.


18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd



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