Interspecies Conflict/Battles for supremacy
Can you think of a good adversary for paraceratherium?
Whybdo you favor an equal sized therapod over an equal sized bear? I ask this because I think a bear would be able to hold off the dinosaur's head with its paws, as well as possibly being more heavily built.
Pleistocene polar bear vs south american short faced bear
Smilodon populator vs utahraptor
Bison vs two male lions
Irish elk vs tiger
Cape buffalo vs javan rhino
Bison vs javan rhino
Two american lions vs polar bear
Radeo bull vs enteolodon at parity
Minotaur vs wolf man
Q: What would be a good adversary for a Paraceratherium?:
A: Paraceratheriums were huge; generally believed to be the largest mammal to ever walk the earth. Upper-limit estimates for its shoulder height are nearly 5.5 meters (and its head towered almost 8 meters off the ground). Weights of over 20 tons have been assigned to this animal as well. It may not have gotten quite this big, but it was still quite massive. Determining a good adversary for it is somewhat problematic, as its behavior in combat hasn't been pinpointed. A full-grown Paraceratherium had no enemies (except perhaps another Paraceratherium). It didn't need to have any real fighting ability due to its size advantage over any would-be predators of its time. What Paraceratherium was capable of is largely suppositional, but it's plausible to assume it could cause injury to another animal by trampling or charging (to create a jarring impact). It probably could deliver a nasty bite (similar to what an Indian rhinoceros might do). Paraceratherium had a heavy skull with a domed forehead, and may have used this as a battering ram (similar to modern-day bison). Without any formidable enemies, the adults probably weren't practiced at battling other species of animals. To give it a good adversary in its weight range I would look to the sauropods (Camarasaurus, Diplodocus, Apatasaurus, etc.). Against a capable combatant, Paraceratherium would need a decent weight advantage. Mammoths in the 12-15 ton range would be close, and and ceratopsians approaching 10 tons (Eotriceratops) would have the weaponry to keep it close. Predators like Tyrannosaurus-rex, Spinosaurus, Giganotosaurus, & Carcharodontosaurus weighed less than half of Paraceratherium's weight, but had the killing expertise (and huge jaws) to present a serious challenge to the huge herbivore. Elasmotherium & the Woolly rhinoceros were much smaller, but had long, sharp horns that could have made for an interesting showdown. It's just hard to say for sure without knowing how Paraceratherium interacted with others.
Q: Why do you favor an equal-sized therapod over an equal-sized bear?
A: I consider them to be very close at parity, but one of the upper-echelon theropods like Tyrannosaurus-rex would probably be more than a match for one at equal weights. Against a Tyrannosaurus of equal weight, a typical bear on all fours would have a shoulder height about 55% of the theropod's total height (assuming the T-rex adopted the now-outdated "kangaroo stance"). A Tyrannosaurus' jaws would be a great asset against the bear, and could land a bite on the head or neck area of the ursid almost immediately. The bear's paw swipes might deter the dinosaur if they land solidly, but most of the time the jaws will find their mark at the onset of the battle. The bear can certainly clinch the T-rex and wrestle it to the ground, but tying up its paws for this action will leave itself vulnerable to another bite. The bear can win against some theropods at parity, but would probably be slightly outmatched by others.
Pleistocene polar bear vs South American short-faced bear: Using the top estimates generally considered reasonable for each bear, the polar bear will weigh about 75% the weight of the short-faced bear. The South American short-faced bear was closest in kin to the spectacled bear (but I'm not saying it was exactly like a scaled-up spectacled bear). I don't consider spectacled bears to be on par with polar bears pound-for-pound due to how each bear uses it muscles & what each bear hunts, but the South American short-faced bear has too much of a weight advantage here. I would likely favor the Pleistocene polar bear once it exceeded about 80% of the short-faced bear's weight, and I would heavily favor it at parity. Decent fight, but the South American short-faced bear wins.
Smilodon populator vs Utahraptor: Smilodon populator will weigh about 80% of Utahraptor's weight. Smilodon populators had robust, muscular bodies (built almost bear-like), and were adept at tackling large prey items to the ground and finishing them by delivering a bite into a soft-tissue area with their deadly upper canines. Utahraptor was a dangerous foe that used slashing kicks as its primary weapon. It also had a decent bite (not on par with large theropods, but still decent). The Smilodon's quickness & ability to leap upon its prey would be its meal ticket in this battle. The cat would leap onto the Utahraptor and likely bowl it over or drag it down without too much trouble most of the time. There's always the chance the Smildon could get kicked as it rushed in, and shift things quickly into Utahraptor's favor. On most occasions I see the Smilodon closing the distance & latching onto Utahraptor, and the theropod will have trouble landing kicks & bites as it gets pulled down. Smilodon's bulk means it wasn't as agile or maneuverable as, let's say, today's big cats, but it had a high enough level of these traits to utilize effectively against Utahraptor on most occasions. Close fight, but Smilodon populator wins.
Bison vs two male lions: A bison can weigh 4 times as much as a lion. Bison are brutally strong bovids with muscular shoulder & neck areas. They use their heads for ramming & their horns for hooking into the body of an adversary. Lions are great fighters & cooperate well, but it typically takes several lions to bring down a single Cape buffalo. The male lions aren't quite the skillful hunters the lioness are, but they are capable predators. The lions can win, but everything would have to fall into place perfectly. Big cats don't have the greatest stamina, and a fatigued lion would be more easily gored or trampled. Bison don't have to deal with any big cats (cougars are too small), and probably don't have the same skill defending themselves against one as Cape buffalo does. Close to 50/50, slight edge to bison.
Irish elk vs tiger: The Irish elk weighed about the same as the present-day moose, but had a sleeker body designed for fast running. Its huge antlers were larger than the ones of today's moose, and spanned almost 3.5 meters across. Although the Irish elk would weigh almost 3 times as much as a large tiger (Siberian or Bengal), tigers are equipped to tackle herbivores this size. The Irish elk would be able to fend off the tiger initially as long as it kept its antlers facing the cat, but eventually the agile tiger would find an opening to attack from the side. Once the tiger cleared the antlers, it could hang on with its claws & secure a killing bite to the throat. Not an easy task, but the tiger should be favored most of the time. Tiger wins.
Cape buffalo vs Javan rhino: A Javan rhino can weigh almost twice as much as a Cape buffalo. Its thicker legs & tank-like build would enable it to bully the smaller bovid into retreat, and could use its horn to plow into a persistent buffalo. The Cape buffalo is an aggressive & combative animal, but it will be overpowered by the larger rhino. Javan rhinoceros wins.
Bison vs Javan rhino: A Javan rhino will weigh almost 50% more than the bison. The bison is a bit heavier than the Cape buffalo, but it will not be favored against the Javan rhino for the same reasons. Javan rhinoceros wins.
2 American lions vs Polar bear: The polar bear will weigh over 50% more than each lion, but it will have a battle on its hands. The bear will have more endurance & strength, but the teamwork of the lion tandem will be their greatest asset. If the lions can avoid the paw swipes of the powerful bear, one of them should be able to get into position to deliver a throat bite to the bear. As long as the lions cooperate, they should have the edge. American lions win.
Rodeo bull vs Enteolodon (at parity): Entelodonts had strong jaws & dangerous tusks, and would be able to bite & slash efficiently. The rodeo bull has a body packed with muscle & can make powerful turns & lunges to gore with its horns. The Entelodont would likely have a slight mobility advantage, and it would likely be able to employ its weapons more rapidly. Edge to Entelodont.
Minotaur vs Wolfman: The Minotaur was a mythological creature with the body of a man and the head of a bull. I'm not very familiar with a wolfman, but I'm assuming it is the same as a werewolf (human that turns into a wolf or a wolf-like creature). If the Minotaur did not use any weapons, I don't think its horns would be user-friendly enough to repel the more agile wolfman and its teeth & claws. The human part of the Minotaur would prove to be its undoing, as the skin would be readily injured by the wolfman's attack. Horns seem more combat-ready when on a bull's head & body, but not so much on a human's body (would he have to bend over & run forward to use them?). I'm guessing these 2 would be close in weight. The Minotaur would probably need a spear, club, or dagger to make a fight of it (perhaps only a silver bullet would do?). Not sure about this one, but I'm going with the wolfman.