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Interspecies Conflict/island adaptability 3


QUESTION: hey BK its been a while. wanted to wait till there was a day that was less likely for your 2 question maximum to be met. anyway like my other previous questions how would these select prehistoric creatures survive and adapt with each other or go extinct due to competition on an island around 1 million square miles.this time going from the late cretaceous to the Oligocene. as always i look forward to your answer.  

Mosasaurus hoffmani
Archelon ischyros
Ginsu Shark
Protosphyraena perniclosa
Tyrannosaurus rex
Shantungosaurus giganteus
Huaxiaosaurus aigahtens
Parapuzosia seppenradensis
Bananogmius evolutus
Icadyptes salasi

ANSWER: Hello Daren.

Quetzalcoatlus was the largest flying animal of all time.  Its wingspan was close to 40ft, and its weight may have been over 500lb.  This creature was a predator and a scavenger, and usually patrolled the surface of the sea for shellfish & fish and would come inland to hunt land mammals.

Protostega was a large marine turtle that lived exclusively in the sea.  Protostega reached lengths of almost 10ft, and weighed over 500lb.  It ate fish, squid, & jellyfish.

Tusoteuthis was a large squid that was as long as 2 car lengths.  It lived in the ocean and ate fish and small marine animals.  A sub-adult might would fall prey to Quetzalcoatlus if it came to the surface, and to Prostega on occasion.  A full-grown Tusoteuthis and Protostega might have ignored one another.

Mosasaurus hoffmani was a crocodile-like sea reptiles that used four flippers & a long, rudder-like tail for agile locomotion in the ocean.  Mosasaurus was as long as a school bus as weighed as much as 2 elephants.  Its huge, powerful jaws were fearsome assets, and it was a true terror of the seas.  Protostega & Tusoteuthis would have been prey items.

Thalassomedon was a plesiosaur, with a body reaching 40ft in length and weighing almost 2 tons.  It had a long neck, and a mouth full of 2" long teeth used to capture fish.  Thalassomedon would have needed to avoid Mosasaurus at all costs.

Archelon ischyros was a huge turtle that lived in rivers.  It was about 11ft long and weighed about 1,000lb.  It ate plants.

Elasmosaurus was a long-necked plesiosaur, with a body exceeding 45ft in length and weighing 2 tons (or more).  It ate fish & similar animals, and would snatch them in their jaws with a snake-like strike.  It would likely coexist well with Thalassomedon, and would also need to avoid the ferocious Mosasaurus.

Hesperornis was a bird that swam along the seashore hunting for fish & other water animals.  It was about 6ft long, and weighed about 20lb.  Its neck was long & strong, and it would grab fish securely with its small, sharp teeth.  It would probably fall prey to Quetzalcoatlus if it lingered near the surface, and any large predatory marine animal would be a threat.

Beelzebufo was a huge frog, reaching almost 1.5 ft in length and a weight of almost 10lb.  It lived in woodland areas, and ate insects & any other small animal it could fit in its wide mouth.

Platyceramus was a mollusk (like a clam), ranging in side from the diameter of a softball to the diameter of a tractor tire.  It was likely a filter feeder, and would settle on the seabed.  It would not have been a likely target for predation from most animals (the Phychodus being one exception).

Ptychodus was a huge, bottom-feeding shark that patroled the ocean's shallower waters.  It was about 30ft in length, and weighed almost as much as a modern great white shark.  It preyed on mollusks (and had flat teeth designed to grind up their shells), and the Platyceramus would have been a prey item.  Mosasaurus would have posed a great threat to it.

The Ginsu shark was an ocean-dwelling shark that rivaled the great white shark in size & weight.  It preyed on a variety of marine animals, and the Protostega, Tusoteuthis, Thalassomedon, Elasmosaurus, Hesperornis, Ptychodus, & sub-adult mosasaurs would have been potential targets, and a full-grown Mosasaurus hoffmani would have been a major threat to it.

Ichthyodectes was a predatory fish that roamed the seas and predated on smaller fish.  It was about 10ft in length and probably weighed over 200lb.  It would probably attack Hesperornis if it got the chance.  Dangers for this fish would be Mosasaurus, the Ginsu shark, & possibly Tusoteuthis (if their paths crossed).

Enchodus was a predatory ocean fish that exceeded 4ft in length and sported fang-like teeth on the upper & lower jaws.  It ate other fish, and would have likely been targeted by predators such as Quetzalcoatlus, Protostega, Tusoteuthis, Mosasaurus, Thalassomedon, Elasmosaurus, the Ginsu shark, & Ichthyodectes.

Inoceramus was a mollusk (clam-like) similar in size to Platyceramus.  It would have been a target for Ptychodus as well.

Bawitius was a river-dwelling fish that may have exceeded 10ft in length.  It likely preyed upon small animals in its habitat, and may have been on the menu for Tusoteuthis, Mosasaurus, & the Ginsu shark.  

Gillicus was a sea-dwelling fish that reached over 6ft in length and ate smaller fish & plankton.  It would be targeted as a food item by Quetzalcoatlus, Tusoteuthis, Mosasaurus, Thalassomedon, Elasmosaurus, the Ginsu shark, & possibly Ichthyodectes.

Protosphyraena perniciosa was a sea-dwelling swordfish that attained a greater length than a modern-day sailfish (but weighed twice as much).  Not only did it have a sharp bill to stab with, but had a mouth full of fearsome teeth.  It would have posed a threat to Hesperornis, Enchodus, Gillicus, & possibly Ichthyodectes & Bawitius.  Mosasaurs, Plesiosaurs, & the Ginsu shark would be its chief dangers, but it had the means to defend itself against many attackers.

Tyrannosaurus-rex was a large theropod that was one of the most feared predators of all time.  It weighed more than an African elephant, and could easily peer into a 2-story window.  T-rex had huge jaws armed with sharp teeth, and had a tremendous bite force.  Most terrestrial animals were on the menu, even though some had decent means of defense against this beast.  It typically patrolled forests & swamps.

Ankylosaurus was a squat, woodland-dwelling dinosaur with thick skin studded with bony plates protecting its back & much of it sides.  It tail was armed with a heavy club of bone that could be swung with great force to cripple an enemy.  It weighed about 4 tons (and perhaps more), and could exceed 20ft in length.  It had a decent chance to repel an attacking Tyrannosaurus-rex by swinging its tail club at the approaching theropod, but a determined T-rex probably had the ability to succeed on occasion.

Titanoceratops was a woodland-dwelling ceratopsian that had a huge skull with a large frill and long, sharp brow horns to defend itself with.  It weighed about as much as an Asian elephant.  It would have mingled peacefully with Ankylosaurus, but would have been targeted by the carnivorous Tyrannosaurus-rex.  Titanoceratops would have used its horns (by charging) to defend itself from the T-rex, but the large theropod would have been successful in its attack some of the time.

Shantungosaurus giganteus was a huge hadrosaur that weighed as much as 2 elephants.  It preferred the woodlands & ate plants.  It would have peacefully coexisted with Ankylosaurus & Titanoceratops, but would have been a prime prey item for a hungry Tyrannosaurus-rex.

Gallimimus was believed to be omnivorous (and ate eggs often), and lived on the plains.  It stood 13ft tall when standing upright, weighed almost as much as a zebra, and was a fast runner.  It would have been a target for Tyrannosaurus-rex if they crossed paths, but an alert Gallimimus would have been swift enough to escape.

Huaxiaosaurus aigahtens was a huge hadrosaur that was similar in size as the Shantungosaurus giganteus (and some believe them to be the same).  It would have carved out the same niche as the other Hadrosaur.

Parapuzosia seppenradensis was a huge sea-dwelling ammonite that was larger than a tractor tire and weighed over a ton.  They primarily would eat small crustaceans, and would likely need to be wary of Ptychodus.

Caproberyx was a small bony fish that lived in the ocean, and would have been a prey item for many other creatures (Quetzalcoatlus, Protostega, Tusoteuthis, Mosasaurus, Thalassomedon, Elasmosaurus, Hesperornis, the Ginsu shark, Ichthyodectes, Enchodus, & Protosphyraena perniciosa).

Bananogmius evolutus was a fish that reached 6ft in length.  It ate smaller fish (probably like Caproberyx), and would have been a prey item for many aquatic predators (Mosasaurus, the Plesiosaurs, the Ginsu shark, etc.).

Titanoboa was a huge constricting snake that was double the length of a modern-day anaconda and close to 8 times as heavy.  It patrolled the waterways and woodlands.  It would have been a menace to many other animals in its habitat including Archelon ischyros, Beelzebufo, Bawitius, & any animal under a ton that ventured into the water.  It would probably encounter Tyrannosaurus-rex in this ecosystem, and would be better off avoiding the theropod.

Megacerops was a rhinoceros-sized mammal with a Y-shaped horn.  It lived on the plains, and was a herbivore.  It would have likely gotten along peacefully with most other herbivores (like Gallimimus), but conflicts for territory or grazing space may have occurred from time-to-time.  An encounter with Tyrannosaurus-rex would be trouble, but it might be able to fend the theropod off on a few occasions.

Uintatherium resembled a rhinoceros in build, but was slightly smaller.  It had 3 sets of bony head knobs and short tusks protruding from its upper jaw.  It ate plants, and hung out on the plains.  It likely coexisted peacefully with Megacerops, but disputes may have arisen on occasion.  A Tyrannosaurus-rex would be a real danger to Uintatherium (in this ecosystem), but it may have been able to defend itself well against one in its weight range.

Icadyptes salasi was a giant penguin that was about a foot taller than the Emperor penguins of today.  It also had a longer beak, and preferred warmer climates on the seashore.  Icadyptes ate fish, and Caproberyx may have been a target.  Dangers would include Quetzalcoatlus, Mosasaurus, Thalassomedon, Elasmosaurus, the Ginsu shark, possibly Ichthyodectes & Protosphyraena perniciosa.

Megalodon was the largest shark to ever roam the seas.  This giant shark was believed to be 2.5 times longer than the modern great white shark, and to have been almost 20 times as heavy.  It would have posed a serious threat to any other animal in the ocean, including the Mosasaurus hoffmani.  An adult Megalodon would have no predators, but a sub-adult would have the Mosasaurus to worry about.

Janjucetus was a large prehistoric whale that matched a large dolphin in weight & appearance.  It had large jaws & teeth for eating large fish.  Janjucetus prefered the coastal waters.  It would have likely preyed upon Ichthyodectes, Enchodus, Bawitius, Gillicus, Caproberyx, & Bananogmius evolutus.  It may have had battles with Tusoteuthis & Protosphyraena perniciosa from time-to-time.  Dangers would include Mosasaurus, the Ginsu shark, & Megalodon.

Best regards.

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: thanks as always. hope you had a nice vacation. now for the next part its creatures from the Miocene to the Pleistocene. also how would mosaosaurus and megalodon fair against pliosaurus macromerus from my previous island adaptability questions? same with utahraptor, fasolasuchus and rhedondasaurus with titanoboa and T.Rex.

Colossochelys atlas
Stupendemys geographicus
Dinocrocuta gigantea
Smilodon populator

ANSWER: Hello again Daren.

Mosasaurus vs Pliosaurus macromerus: These animals would have likely crossed paths in the ocean, and would have probably attacked one another.  The pliosaur was over twice as heavy, but probably wasn't quite as agile.  Both had huge bites, but the larger Pliosaurus macromerus (heavier than 4 elephants) would have gotten the better of this exchange.   

Megalodon vs Pliosaurus macromerus: These apex predators would have likely attacked one another in their ocean habitat, but a huge Megalodon (possibly as heavy as 6-8 elephants) may have intimidated the fearsome pliosaur on occasion.  Pliosaurus macromerus was more agile than Megalodon, but the quick turns by the great shark would have put the smaller creature at risk if it got too close to the front end.  Megalodon would be favored against any pliosaur as long as it enjoyed at least a 25% weight advantage (which would have been the case most of the time).

Utahraptor vs Titanoboa: Utahraptor weighed over half-a-ton, and was a dangerous predator armed with large jaws & deadly claws (to kick & slash with).  It hunted in groups, and would have been a danger to almost every other terrestrial animal in this ecosystem.  Titanoboa was a huge constrictor, twice as long as an anaconda and close to 8 times as heavy.  Titanoboa would have weighed over twice as much as Utahraptor.  Titanoboa resided in the woodlands & the waterways in the area.  An encounter on land would have been dangerous for the sluggish Titanoboa, as the Utahraptor would have been able to wound it with kicks until it fatigued.  However, if Titanoboa latched onto Utahraptor with its jaws, it would have been strong enough to overpower the theropod & constrict it.  The mobility of Utahraptor would keep this from occurring most of the time, but any encounter would be dangerous for both.  In shallow water, Titanoboa would have the mobility to seize Utahraptor quickly and finish it off.  

Utahraptor vs Tyrannosaurus-rex: The Tyrannosaurus-rex weighed as much as 14 Utahraptors, and the 2 species would have likely encountered one another in this ecosystem based on similar types of prey.  One T-rex would easily dispatch a Utahraptor, but a group of them (at least 7 or 8) might be able to turn the tables.

Fasolasuchus vs Titanoboa: Fasolasuchus resembled a slender, long-legged crocodile.  It reached 30ft in length and weighed more than an average hippopotamus.  Titanoboa was a huge constrictor, twice as long as an anaconda and close to 8 times as heavy.  These animals would have likely crossed paths from time-to-time.  Fasolasuchus would have weighed about 60% more than Titanoboa, and would have likely gotten the better of most confrontations on land or in shallow water.  In deep water, Titanoboa's higher level of agility would have given it a decent chance to get into a good enough position to wrap around Fasolasuchus without having to fear a counter-attack.  Whether or not a constriction attempt would lead to a kill is another matter, but Titanoboa probably had the ability to do so if it latched onto the right spot.

Fasolasuchus vs Tyrannosaurus-rex: Fasolasuchus would have encountered Tyrannosaurus-rex at times, and the T-rex would be almost 4 times as heavy.  The Tyrannosaurus would have been able to intimidate the smaller Fasolasuchus into retreat, and would have likely dominated an actual battle with its huge, gaping jaws.

Rhedondasaurus vs Titanoboa: Rhedondasaurus was similar to a crocodile, but it was huge.  Almost 40ft long and as heavy as 2 elephants, the Rendondasaurus patrolled lakes & rivers.  Anything that ventured into the water would be fair game.  Titanoboa would have encountered Rhedondasaurus on occasion, but the phytosaur was likely 10 times as heavy.  Rhedondasaurus would be too large to be threatened by Titanoboa.     

Rhedondasaurus vs Tyrannosaurus-rex: These 2 beasts were huge, but Rhedondasaurus was over 60% heavier.  Mutual avoidance may have been the protocol here, but a T-rex wandering near the water's edge would need to be wary of the phytosaur.  Rhedondasaurus had slender jaws (compared to Deinosuchus), but it still could have grabbed onto the Tyrannosaurus at the water's edge and pulled it into the river to drown.  However, without the element of surprise, Rhedondasaurus would have been at risk of getting chomped on by the huge jaws of the theropod.  Rhedondasaurus would have been more sluggish on land than T-rex, and wouldn't have fared well in some encounters with it.  The size advantage of Rhedondasaurus would give it a decent chance even on land, but the water would provide it with enough advantages to be relatively safe.

Aulophyseter: Aulophyseter was a smaller version of the sperm whale (around 1/3rd of the length).  It weighed well over a ton.  It would have likely gotten along with the marine turtles and the plesiosaurs, and would have tangled with Tusoteuthis (and wouldn't have been able to dominate it like today's sperm whales dominate giant squids).  Dangers would include Mosasaurus, the Ginsu shark, & Megalodon.

Nanosiren: This aquatic animal mammal was kin to the manatee, but was somewhat smaller (about the size of a harbor seal).  This herbivore would not have presented any problem to any other animal, but would have been a prey target for Titanoboa.

Colossochelys atlas: This huge turtle weighed over a ton, and was about 9ft long.  It was a herbivore, and wouldn't stray far from the water's edge (much like today's turtles).  It shell protected it from most attacks, but Mosasaurus, the Ginsu shark, & Megalodon had the means to dispatch it despite this defense.

Allodesmus: Allodesmus was a seal-like mammal that patrolled the ocean's coasts for fish & squid (which it swallowed whole).  It was almost as large as the present-day leopard seal.  It would have been a threat to Hesperornis, and may have battled Janjucetus, Tusoteuthis & Protosphyraena perniciosa at times.  Would have been a target for Mosasaurus, the Ginsu shark, & Megalodon.

Stupendemys geographicus: Stupendemys geographicus was a huge turtle that lived in rivers & streams.  It was over 10ft long, and weighed over 2 tons.  This herbivore would have been large & well-protected enough to be safe from other creatures (Titanoboa may have been able to constrict it, but consumption would be difficult).

Argentavis: Argentavis was the largest flying bird ever to exist.  It was 11ft long, had a wingspan of 26ft, and weighed as much as an adult human.  It was likely a scavenger, and would drive other predators away from kills.  Its bill was hooked (like an eagle's) to enable it to easily rip open carcasses.

Parabalaenoptera: Parabalaenoptera was a large whale that exceeded 50ft in length and weighed close to 40 tons.  It was a filter feeder.  Megalodon would have been its chief threat, and sub-adults would be vulnerable to attack from the Ginsu shark & Mosasaurus.

Odobenocetops: Odobenocetops was a small whale that weighed over half a ton.  It had 2 slender tusks that pointed backwards underneath it body.  It likely ate mollusks, and would have been targeted by the Ginsu shark, Mosasaurus, & Megalodon.

Dinocrocuta gigantea: Dinocrocuta gigantea was a large mammal that resembled a hyena, but weighed about 5 times as much.  It, like modern-day hyenas, had bone-crushing jaws.  Megacerops & Uintatherium may have been threatened by a large clan of Dinocrocutas, but had the means to defend themselves against a small group.  Any smaller animals venturing into the plains would have been targeted.  Dinocrocuta would have had plenty of conflict with Argentavis at a kill, and may have eaten this bird on occasion.

Gigantopithecus: Gigantopithecus was a huge prehistoric ape that weighed about 1190lb.  It was likely built like a gorilla, but its closest living relative was the orangutan.  It stood almost 10ft tall, and was over 4ft at the shoulder when on all fours.  It likely ate a diet consisting mostly of bamboo.  It would have trouble with 2 or more Dinocrocutas, and encounters with Titanoboa & Tyrannosaurus-rex wouldn't have gone well for the ape.

Smilodon populator: Smilodon populator was a heavily-built feline with long, upper canines used to drive into soft tissue areas of prey.  It was a powerful carnivore, and weighed almost twice as much as a modern-day lion.  It patrolled the plains for large herbivores, and used its muscular forelimbs to wrestle prey items to the ground.  May have ambushed Megacerops & Uintatherium, but would need a numbers advantage to take them head-on.  Dinocrocuta gigantea would have been a prime competitor, and fights may have been common (much like today's lions & hyenas).  Smilodon populator would have attacked & eaten Gigantopithecus whenever their paths crossed.

Meganthropus: Meganthropus is a name commonly given to several large jaw and skull fragments discovered within the last century that likely belonged to a gorilla-like animal.  This animal is believed by some to be the Paranthropus robustus, which had larger jaws than a gorilla (and probably ate seeds, vegetables, insects, etc.) and a brain slightly smaller than a chimpanzee's.  How it ate & lived is subject to speculation.  It would have needed to avoid any of the medium-to-large sized terrestrial predators.

Pelorovis: Pelorovis antiquus looked like a Cape buffalo with longer horns, and was over twice as heavy.  It was a herbivore that lived on the plains.  It main enemies would include Smilodon populator & Dinocrocuta gigantea.  May have had some wars for territory & feeding spots with Megacerops & Uintatherium, but would have co-existed peacefully with them for the most part.

Best regards.

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: thank you as always BK
now we finally get to the animals of the present. i realize that your not good with insects but i think its safe to assume that without them most if not all ecosystems would collapse but if your having a hard time with the insects perhaps you could point me to someone on here that's good with them?

Ocean sunfish
Giant moray
Atlantic tarpon
Nile perch
Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel
Nurse shark
Atlantic torpedo
Giant barrel sponge
Coconut crab
Bighead carp
Flathead mullet
South American pilchard
Speckled pavon
Giant tiger prawn
Whiteleg shrimp
Blue striped grunt
Greater amberjack
Pacific jack mackerel
Spotted eagle ray
King mackerel
Red swamp crayfish
Black mud crab
Atlantic blue crab
American gizzard shad
Bluestreak cleaner wrasse
Giant trevally
Rainbow runner
Mackerel scad
Pacific bonito
Two spot red snapper
Common galaxias
Indian threadfish
Crevalle jack
Torpedo scad
Dana octopus squid
Giant hawker dragonfly
Giant helicopter damselfly
Giant water bug
Empress cicada
Colossus earwig
Rhinoceros cockroach
Gargantuan cockroach
War-like termite
Eastern lubber grasshopper
Goliath beetle
Actaeon beetle
Hercules beetle
Giant sawyer beetle
Titan longhorn beetle
Giant mydas fly
Goliath birdeater
Giant tarantula hawk wasp
White Witch moth
Hercules moth
Central American Giant Cockroach
Emperor scorpion
Giant African millipede
Giant east African land snail
Giant water bugs
Amazonian giant centipede
Giant Asian mantis
Giant stick mantis
Chanís megastick
African driver ants
African honey bees  
Giant jungle nymph
Imperial bush-cricket
Giant leaf bush cricket
Giant vinegaroon

also what would be the ending result in the following scenarios on the island?

its the dry season and a large diplodocus hallorum has died the carcass stinks the entire area and scavengers begin to descend. what would be the pecking order if the following animals descended upon the carcass before the bigger opportunists arrived on scene? this is just a guess of how big the groups of these animals can get.
10 argentavis
15 smilodon populator
20 dinocruta gigantea
4 to 5 quetzalcoatlus

Hello Daren.

Ocean sunfish: 13ft long, over 2 tons, primarily eats jellyfish.

Giant moray: Over 10ft long, over 60lb, shallow ocean waters, eats fish, crustaceans, invertebrates (by ambush).

Atlantic tarpon: over 8ft long, 350lb, eat fishes that form schools (sardines, anchovies, mullets).  Will chase prey over ambush.

Milkfish: 6ft long, 31lb, filter feeder.  Primarily fresh water; some salty.

Swordfish: 15ft long, 1,300lb, eats small fish & squid.

Nile perch: 6ft long, over 400lb, lives in primarily freshwater rivers, eats other fish, crustaceans, & insects.

Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel: Over 6ft long, 150lb, shallow ocean waters.  Eats fish, shrimp, etc.

Nurse shark: 10ft long, 330lb, from seabed to shallow waters, eats invertebrates.  Has very tough skin.  Will bite & hang on like a bulldog when provoked.

Atlantic torpedo: 6ft long, 200lb, ocean-dweller.  Primarily eats bony fishes, can generate electric shocks.  Well-defended from predators.

Giant barrel sponge: Large sponge, can weigh as much as an adult human, found on seabed & rocky surfaces.  Very effective filter feeder.  

Coconut crab: Measures almost 3ft across, can exceed 10lb, lives on the coast (on land).  Eats fruit, nuts, etc.

Bighead carp: Over 3ft long, 40lbs, freshwater filter feeder.

Flathead mullet: 2.5ft long, 4-8lb, coastal waters & rivers.  Eats organic & algal material.

South American pilchard: Almost 1.5ft in length, over 1lb, sardine family.  Coastal waters. Feed on planktonic crustaceans.

Speckled pavon: Over 3ft long, 30lb, lives primarily in river basins.  Eats smaller fish.

Giant tiger prawn: 1ft long, 1/2lb, ocean-dweller.  Eats zooplankton.

Whiteleg shrimp: 9" long, 1/4lb, ocean dweller.  Eats zooplankton.

Blue striped grunt: Over 1ft long, 1.5lb. ocean dweller.  Primarily eats shrimp.

Greater amberjack: 6.5ft long, 150lb, coastal waters.  Eats fish & invertebrates.

Pacific jack mackerel: 2ft long, 10lbs, ocean dweller.  Eats smaller fish & squid.

Spotted eagle ray: 500lb, 16ft long, shallow ocean waters, eats small fish, crabs, shrimp, etc.

King mackerel: Over 4ft long, 30lb, ocean dweller. Eats fish & squid.

Red swamp crayfish: Almost 5" in length, can weigh almost 2oz (slightly more than a golf ball).  Lives in inland freshwater.  They are omnivores.

Black mud crab: Can weigh over 7lb, 6" wide. Live in inland waters and will often prey on smaller crabs.

Atlantic blue crab: Can weigh 2lb, 9" wide, lives in coastal waters.  Omnivorous.

American gizzard shad: Almost 2" long, over 4lb, lives in open & inland waters. Filter feeders.

Bluestreak cleaner wrasse: Almost 5" long, slender body.  Ocean dweller.  Eats parasites & organic matter from larger fish.

Giant trevally: 3' long, over 100lb.  Inhabits oceans & inland waters.  Eats smaller fish.

Rainbow runner: 3.5ft long, 50lb or more, ocean dweller. Eats smaller fish & invertebrates.

Mackerel scad: Ocean dweller, over 1' in length.

Pacific bonito: Can exceed 3', can weigh up to 25lb.  Ocean dweller.  Eats fish & squid.

Two-spot red snapper: Ocean dweller, almost 3' in length.  Eat smaller fish & crustaceans.

Common galaxias: 4" long & slender, lives in rivers & lakes.  Eats insects & other small organisms.

Indian threadfish: Over 5' long & over 50lbs.  Ocean dweller.  Eats smaller fish, squid, crustaceans, & jellyfish.

Crevalle jack: 4' long, 70lb, ocean dweller. Primarily eats other fish.

Torpedo scad: 1.5' long, over 2.5lb, ocean dweller.  Eats of fish and cephalopods, but is also a filter feeder.

Dana octopus squid: Length of over 7ft, weigh up to 350lb.  Lives in deeper ocean waters (but will come to surface).  Mantle makes up 3/4th the length.  Can produce flashes of light from the end of its arms to aid in predation (and perhaps defense).  Eats fish, crustaceans, & smaller squid.  Favorite prey of sperm whales.

Giant hawker dragonfly: Wingspan of 5", can fly backwards.  Eats small insects & fish.

Giant helicopter damselfly: 5" in length, very slender. Primarily feeds on spiders.

Giant water bug: 4" long, live in standing water or slow-moving streams, front legs act as pincers to seize prey.  Can eat frogs & fishes.

Empress cicada: Almost 3" long, hang out near trees & shrubs. Eat plant sap, and are often eaten by birds.

Colossus earwig: 3" long, lives mainly near wooded areas, eats plants, fruit, & small invertebrates.  Have pincers on the rear of their bodies.

Rhinoceros cockroach: 3" long, over an oz in weight.  Lives in the soil, and eats dead leaves.

Gargantuan cockroach: Omnivore & scavenger.

War-like termite: 1.5" long, lives in forested areas, eats plant litter.

Eastern lubber grasshopper: 3" long, wooded areas & fields, primarily eats vegetation.

Goliath beetle: 4" long, almost 1/4lb in weight (more than 2 golf balls), feed on tree sap & fruit.  

Actaeon beetle: Over 5" long, type of Rhinoceros beetle. Live primarily in wooded areas.  Have 2 horns at the front of their bodies to fight with.  Will eat vegetation & tree matter.

Hercules beetle: Almost 7" long, 1oz in weight.  Lives in rainforests, eats fruit & tree sap.

Giant sawyer beetle: Over 5" long, rainforest dweller.  

Titan longhorn beetle: 6.5" long (longer than a dollar bill), lives in rainforests.  Strong mandibles in front.

Giant mydas fly: Large fly (almost 1.5" long), lives primarily in dry regions.

Goliath birdeater: Belongs to the tarantula family, and can have a leg span wider than a dinner plate.  Can weigh over 1/3lb, and lives in swamps & marshes.  Eats insect & small animals.  Has long fangs that can deliver venom.

Giant tarantula hawk wasp: 3.25" long, dark blue or black body with dark yellow wings, painful sting.  Preys upon spiders, and lives wherever spider hosts are found.  Its powerful venom makes it a danger to any spider.

White Witch moth: Large moth with wingspan close to 1'.

Hercules moth: Wingspan over 10.5", eats plants.

Central American Giant Cockroach: 3" long, lives in moist, dark places (including caves).  Omnivore & scavenger.

Emperor scorpion: 8.5" long, weighs up to 2oz.  Lives in rainforests & savannahs, has strong body with hard exoskeleton.  Has pincers & a venomous tail stinger.  Eats spiders, lizards, & small mammals.  Usually not as venomous as smaller scorpions.

Giant African millipede: over 1' long with hard exoskeleton.  Lives in forests.  Will curl up in a ball for defense.

Giant east African land snail: As long as a pencil, this snail can be found in areas with vegetation.  Will eats plants (and crops).

Amazonian giant centipede: 1' long, lives in rainforests & forests.  Can inject venom into prey, which includes lizards, spiders, frogs, & small mammals.

Giant Asian mantis: 4" long, lives near trees & shrubs.  Forelegs used to grab prey & stab at attackers.  Will eat insects & other mantids.

Giant stick mantis: 5" long, very slender.  Will eat insects.

Chanís megastick: 1' in length with long, thin extremities.  Eats leaves.  Looks like a twig to fool predators.

African driver ants: Length is over 1/3", can be in colonies numbering 20 million (greater than the human population of the state of New York).  These carnivores have powerful pincers that can cut & shear, and will consume insects, worms, & other small animals they come across.  

African honey bees: Also known as "killer bees" and look like regular honey bees.  Will readily attack enmasse when disturbed; venom no more potent than a regular honey bee.  Live in well-vegetated areas rich in flowers.  Bees make honey (which they will consume themselves).

Giant jungle nymph: Females can be 6" in length and weigh as much as a golf ball, while males reach about 3.5" in length & weigh much less.  Bodies covered with spines.  Will eat shrubs.  Can use their back legs as weapons by squeezing them together.

Imperial bush-cricket: 3" long.  Live in trees, bushes, & grasslands.

Giant leaf bush cricket: Will eat leaves & crops.

Giant vinegaroon: Arachnid reaching 3" in length, typically living in underground burrows or under leaf litter, stones, & rotten wood.  Can "pinch" with a set of modified appendages near their mouths, and squirt acid a distance of 2".  Eats insects & other invertebrates.

* Because of the great length of this question (and the inclusion of insects/fish), I am not able to provide a lot of detail regarding each interaction in this ecosystem.  For greater detail on this subject, I would suggest the AllExperts categories of "Wildlife" or "Zoology" as this is not entirely within my scope.  Animal vs Animal questions are more up my alley!  If you want me to focus on a particular interaction listed here, let me know what it is, and I will do my best to answer it more thoroughly.

Carcass question: Argentavis was a huge bird with a wingspan of 26ft and a weight of over 175lb.  Smilodon populator was a stocky, muscular feline that weighed 880lb (and possibly more) and had long upper canines used to dispatch prey items.  Dinocrocuta gigantea was a large mammal that resembled a hyena, but weighed about 5 times as much.  It, like modern-day hyenas, had bone-crushing jaws.  Quetzalcoatlus was a monstrous pterosaur that was the largest flying animal of all time.  Its wingspan was as great as the length of a school bus, and its weight was about 500lb.  The 10 Argentavis birds will yield as soon as the others arrive.  The 4-5 Quetzalcoatlus' will have the size to initial intimidate the mammals (and can potentially injure them with its beak), but the combined numbers of the Smilodons and the Dinocrutas would eventually drive them away.  The Smilodons & the Dinocutas would probably have a huge battle for the Diplodocus hallorum carcass, and it would be a close battle.  A lot of this would depend on how well each mammal group worked as a team.  However, the better-armed Smilodons would have the powerful paw swipes to keep the Dinocrutas at bay, and would likely settle in and stake claim to the prize.  The Dinocrutas would remain on the scene, and may be able to eventually unseat the Smilodons after some time had passed.  The Quetzalcoatluses would probably hang around to wait for the numbers to diminish, and may make ongoing attempts to scare the mammals from the kill.  The Quetzalcoatluses would need to be wary, as they could be considered a more viable target for the mammals than the carcass due to the competition for it.  The Smilodons would have the best chance to overtake the carcass, the Dinocrutas would be second, followed by the Quetzalcoatluses.  Argentavis wasn't heavy enough (or formidable enough) to claim a share in this scenario.

Best regards.  

Interspecies Conflict

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Questions regarding animal conflicts within realistic or unrealistic settings are welcome; my strength lies in medium-to-large species. Small animals (including birds of prey), prehistoric animals, sea creatures, and domestic dog breeds are usually within my scope, but to a lesser degree. I can't confidently answer hypothetical questions about human vs animal, arachnids, insects, or amphibians, but I am willing to field them nonetheless.


From a young age, I have been interested in animals. Starting with the original Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom and World Book Encyclopedias, I have seen many animal shows and documentaries and have read multiple books on the subject. I have a solid understanding of the physiology of many animals and interspecies conflict in general.

Associate degree in unrelated field; biology classes in college.

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