Hi Bk nice to meet you by the way!This is a question ive been wondering about for quite some time and here it is.If these animals did battle with a whale which ever the species and enviornment would they be able to over come it? Here are the animals.
There are many types of whales, and they come in various sizes. Some weigh less than 1/2 ton, while others weigh 175 tons or more. For any battle to be fair for the whale, it would need to occur in water deep enough to allow it to move about. For many of the land animals you have listed, operating in water deep enough for a whale to move about would be problematic. I'll give a summary of each animal's chances to overcome a whale.
Hippo: Hippos aren't swimmers (they walk or bounce along the bottom of the river when it gets deep), but they can still be formidable adversaries because of their huge jaws & long canines. Against a smaller whale the hippo's jaws might have some effect, but the agility of the whale would make it difficult for the hippo to land a meaningful bite. A larger whale would be in water too deep for a hippo to maneuver effectively in, and its bite would have minimal effect even if it landed.
Rhino: Rhinos can swim, but they won't have the mobility or quickness to catch a smaller whale. A larger whale would be relatively safe as well, because the rhino can't wield its horn effectively if it can't touch bottom.
Crocodile: Crocodiles have armor-like hide & vice-like jaws that make them dangerous for many aquatic adversaries in their weight range. A smaller whale can be overcome if the crocodile can catch it, but most types will be too mobile in the water for this to happen. A large whale will have nothing to worry about from a crocodile.
Shark: A shark is mobile & fast enough to catch a smaller whale & overcome it by using its fearsome jaws (lined with razor-sharp teeth). Larger whales can be injured by a shark's bite, but are typically too big to worry about attack from this predator. Many large whales use their tail flukes to strike with (and heads to butt with), and would likely repel any persistent shark. Sperm whales have teeth (the size of bananas) in their lower jaws, and have the ability to dispatch any shark that chooses to attack.
Lion/Tiger: Big cats have fantastic combat ability on land (agility, quickness, finishing know-how, jaws & claws), but aren't able to bring their assets to bear once they enter water over their heads. Even the smallest whales will be as heavy as they are, and will need more water depth to move about in than the cats will be effective in. No big cat would have any impact against the larger whales.
Giraffe: Giraffes are typically docile, but can employ powerful kicks when under attack. In water, however, a giraffe won't be able to deliver a kick with the same amount of force. A smaller whale might be stunned if a kick made contact, but a giraffe won't have the speed or accuracy in decent water depth to make much of an impression. The giraffe would have no way to injure a larger whale.
Leopard/Jaguar: As with the lion & tiger, the leopard & jaguar would not be effective attacking a whale in water over their heads. The jaws & claws of a big cat could injure a beached whale, but wouldn't have a real chance of making an impact against a swimming one.
Komodo dragon: Komodo dragons have deadly, bacteria-filled bites (consisting of a produced toxin that induces shock & prevents blood from clotting) that they use to overcome large prey (like water buffalo). Komodo dragons can swim, but they aren't known to attack in the water. A bite from a Komodo dragon might eventually overcome a smaller-sized whale (assuming the giant lizard could catch it), but a larger whale would likely have little to worry about.
Alligator: Same as with the crocodile, the alligator won't be able to catch the smaller whales easily & won't have the means to overcome the larger ones.
Squid: Many epic battles between sperm whales & giant squids have been depicted over the years, but this is actually a predator/prey relationship. A giant squid (or a colossal squid) has the size & ability to overcome a whale in its weight range (and above) by seizing it & eventually drowning it, but it doesn't have a good chance to succeed against medium-sized & large-sized whales.
Walrus: Walruses are rotund mammals with tough hide & long tusks. This pinniped can reach 2 tons in weight, and has the ability to injure a similar-sized whale with a well-placed stab. A larger whale would have little to worry about from a walrus.
Gorilla: Gorillas can't swim, and avoid the water. A gorilla has great strength & a decent bite, but it has no way to enter a body of water to attack a whale of any size.
If there is a specific matchup you need more detail on (or if you want me to use a specific type of whale), let me know. Interesting question!