You are here:

Islam/invitation to islam - part 2


Dear Sir,

Thank you for your response. It was nice to see your reply. We will continue our discussion by summarizing the topics into four major questions due to lack of space:

A)   Meaning of Ruhullah?

B)   Error/sin occurred by Adam (pbuh) in heaven?

C)   Is death an enemy to be conquered?

D)   Visit to heaven by Jesus Christ and his second coming to Earth?  

A)   Meaning of RUHULLAH:-
RUH means soul / spirit

[1] Spirit OF Allah or Soul OF Allah
(this is so weird God doesn't have a Spirit or Soul)

Actual Translation:
[2] Spirit FROM Allah or Soul FROM Allah

Praise be to Allah.

The spirit or soul is not one of the attributes of Allah, rather it is one of the things that have been created by Allah. It is mentioned in conjunction with Allah in some texts by way of honoring, for Allah is its Creator and Sovereign, He takes it (in death) whenever He wills and He sends it whenever He wills.

What we say about the spirit is the same as what we say about the “House of Allah”, the “she-camel of Allah”, the “slaves of Allah” and the “Messenger of Allah”. All of these created things are mentioned in conjunction with Allah by way of honouring.

Different titles are given to different prophets (pbut). Whenever a title is given to a prophet (pbuh), it does not necessarily mean that the other prophets do not have the same characteristic or quality. For eg: Prophet Abraham (pbuh) is referred to in the Qur’an as Khaleelullah, a friend of Allah. This does not indicate that all the other Prophets (pbuh) were not the friends of Allah. Prophet Moses (pbuh) is referred to in the Qur’an as Kaleemullah, indicating that God spoke to him. This does not mean that God did not speak to others. Similarly when Jesus (pbuh) is referred to in the Qur’an as Kalimatullah, "a word from Allah", it does not mean that the other Prophets were not "the word," of Allah.
The Qur’an mentions in Surah Ali ‘Imran Chapter 3 verse 45
"Behold! The angels said: O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus. The son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those Nearest to Allah.
[Al-Qur’an 3:45]
"A word" of Allah means a message of Allah. If a person is referred to as "a word" from Allah, it means that he is a Messenger or a Prophet of Allah.
Yahya (pbuh) i.e. John the Baptist (pbuh) is also referred to in the Qur’an as Kalimatullah i.e. a word of Allah in Surah Ali ‘Imran, Chapter 3, verses 38-39
"There did Zakariya pray to his Lord, saying: "O my Lord! Grant unto me from Thee a progeny that is pure: for Thou art He that heareth prayer!
While he was standing in prayer in the chamber, the angels called unto him: "Allah doth give thee glad tidings of Yahya, witnessing the truth of a Word from Allah, and (be besides) noble, chaste, and a Prophet – of the (goodly) company of the righteous."
[Al-Qur’an 3:39]
It is further addressed in Quran says:
"O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Jesus Christ the son of Mary was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah, And His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not ‘Trinity’: desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One God: glory be to Him: (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs."
[Al-Qur’an 4:171]
A spirit from Allah does not indicate that Jesus (pbuh) is God. The Qur’an mentions in several places that Allah breathed into the human beings "His Spirit" in Surah Al-Hijr, chapter 15 verse 29 in Surah Sajdah, chapter 32 verse 9
"When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him."
[Al-Qur’an 15:29]
"But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding): little thanks do ye give!"
[Al-Qur’an 32:9]
Among the texts in which the spirit is mentioned in conjunction with Allah is the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

“Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him the soul [lit. “His soul”] (created by Allah for that person)”
[al-Sajdah 32:9]

Allah also says concerning Adam:
“So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him [lit. “My soul”], then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him”
[al-Hijr 15:29]

The same term (Ruh or Rooh) is used for angel Gabriel also,  Allah says:

17. “She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then We sent to her Our Ruh [angel Jibreel (Gabriel)], and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects.

18. She said: ‘Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious (Allah) from you, if you do fear Allah.’

19. (The angel) said: ‘I am only a messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son.’”
[Maryam 19:17-19]

Here the word “Rooh” (spirit) refers to the slave and Messenger of Allah angel Gabriel (Jibreel), whom He sent to Maryam. Allah mentions him here in conjunction with Himself in the phrase Roohuna (Our rooh or spirit) by way of honouring him. Here He is mentioning a created being in conjunction with his Creator.

Simply mentioning something in conjunction with Allah does not mean that that thing is a Divine attribute, rather specific created things may be mentioned in conjunction with Allah and their attributes are not divine attributes, according to scholarly consensus – as in the phrases, “the House of Allah”, the “she-camel of Allah”, the “slaves of Allah”. The same also applies to the phrase “the spirit (Rooh) of Allah”. But if something that is one of His attributes and is not an attribute shared by anyone else is mentioned in conjunction with Him, such as the speech of Allah, the knowledge of Allah, the hand of Allah, and so on, then this is one of His attributes.

1 – Entities which exist separately. These are mentioned in conjunction with Allah by way of honouring, such as the House of Allah and the she-camel of Allah, and also the spirit (Rooh) of Allah, which is not a divine attribute, rather it is something that exists separately.

2 – Attributes that do not exist separately, rather they need an entity to belong to, such as knowledge, will and power. If it is said, “the knowledge of Allah”, the “will of Allah” and so on, this is mentioning the attribute in conjunction with the One to Whom it belongs.

There is no dispute among the Muslims concerning the fact that the souls (Arwaah) that are in Adam and his sons and ‘Eesa and other sons of Adam are all created by Allah, who created them and fashioned them and made them, then He mentioned them in conjunction with Himself as He mentioned all His creation in conjunction with himself, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“The Messiah ‘Esa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, (“Be!” — and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Rooh) created by Him [lit. from Him]”
[al-Nisa’ 4:171]

In fact the word min here implies that this Spirit comes from Allah, its starting point and origin is with Allah, because He is its Creator and Controller.

“From Him” means that it is created by Him and comes from Him, not from Him in the sense of being part of Him. Rather it is referring to the starting point of that soul, as in the first verse quoted. The phrase “And a Spirit from Him” means a Messenger from Him.  He is a created being from a created soul, and the soul is mentioned in conjunction with Allah by way of honouring, just as the she-camel and the House are mentioned in conjunction with Allah in other verses (interpretation of the meaning):

“This she camel of Allah is a sign unto you”
[al-A’raaf 7:73]

“and sanctify My House for those who circumambulate it”
[al-Hajj 22:26]

B)   Error/sin occurred by Adam (pbuh) in heaven?
In Islam, the Christian concept of original sin and the notion that all humans are born sinners due to the actions of Adam, doesn’t exist:
“And no bearer of burdens shall bear another’s burden.” (Fatir 35; 18)
Every human being is responsible for his or her actions and is born pure and free from sin. Adam and Eve committed a mistake, they repented sincerely and God in His infinite wisdom forgave them.
“Then they both ate of that tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness and gave him guidance.”
(Ta-Ha 20; 121-122)
Mankind has a long history of committing mistakes and forgetting. Even so, how was it possible for Adam to have committed such a mistake?
The reality was that Adam did not have any experience with the whisperings and ploys of Satan. Adam had seen the arrogance of Satan when he refused to follow the commands of God; he knew that Satan was his enemy but had no familiarity with how to resist Satan’s tricks and schemes: “So he (Satan) misled them with deception.” (Al-A‘raf 7:22)
God tested Adam so that he could learn and gain experience. In this way God prepared Adam for his role on earth as a caretaker and a prophet of God. From this experience, Adam learned the great lesson that Satan is cunning, ungrateful and the avowed enemy of mankind. Adam, Eve and their descendants learned that Satan caused their expulsion from heaven. Obedience to God and enmity towards Satan is the only path back to Heaven:
“Get you down (upon the earth), all of you together, from Paradise, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then, if there comes to you guidance from Me, whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery.” (Ta-Ha 20; 123)
The Quran tells us that Adam subsequently received from his Lord some words; a supplication to pray, which invoked God’s forgiveness. This supplication is very beautiful and can be used when asking for God’s pardon of your sins.
“Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If you forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (Al-A‘raf 7; 23)
Mankind continues to commit mistakes and wrong doing, and through them we only harm ourselves; our sins and mistakes have not harmed, nor will they harm God. If God does not forgive us and have mercy on us, it is we who will surely be among the losers. It is we who need God:
“On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.’ He said: ‘Therein you shall live and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).’” (Al-‘Araf 7; 24–25)
Thus, the experience was an essential lesson and demonstrated free will; if Adam and Eve were to live on earth, they needed to be aware of the tricks and schemes of Satan; they also needed to understand the dire consequences of sin, and the infinite mercy and forgiveness of God. God knew that Adam and Eve would eat from the tree. He knew that Satan would strip away their innocence.
This denotes that although God knows the outcome of events before they happen and allows them, He does not force things to happen. Adam had free will and bore the consequences of his deeds. Mankind has free will and thus is free to disobey God; but there are consequences.

C)   Is death an enemy to be conquered?
Death is not viewed as enemy in Islam whereas Satan is viewed as an open enemy and has to be resisted by following the commands of Allah.

003:185 Every Soul shall taste Death;
The following verse states cleary:
When Allah said: O Jesus, I shall cause thee to die and exalt thee in My Presence and clear thee of those who disbelieve and make those who follow thee above those who disbelieve, to the day of Resurrection. Then to Me is your return, so I shall decide between you concerning that wherein you differ (3:54).

The Law of Allah is everybody shall taste death sooner or later. In his second coming the same law will be applied:
Abdullah bin Amr narrated that Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said that the Messiah (Jesus Christ) will die after completing the duration he was destined to pass in the World and that Muslims will offer his funeral prayers and bury him next to the grave of the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh).
(Mishkat, p. 480)
To Muslims, according to the Holy Quran, Jesus was a messenger of Allah like all messengers before him — Mortal.
The likeness of Jesus with Allah is truly as the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust (3:58).
When the Najran (Christian) deputation visited our Holy Prophet (pbuh), he told them: "Do you not know that Jesus was conceived by a woman in the manner in which all women conceive? Then she was delivered of him as women are delivered of their children? Then he was fed as other children are fed? Then he ate food and drank and answered the call of nature as mortals do?" When the delegation answered in the affirmative to all these questions, the Holy Prophet queried: "Then how can your claim that he was God or son of God, be true?" (Imam al-Tabari)
D) Visit to heaven by Jesus Christ and his second coming to Earth?  
Definitely Jesus went to heaven with his physical form and will come back to Earth. There is not even an iota of doubt. But you will be surprised to know that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has also gone to heaven in his physical form and came back to earth in a single night. This night is observed by Muslims all over the Globe. Isra and Mi'raj, also known as Night of Ascension is observed on the 27th day of the month of Rajab, the seventh month in the Islamic calendar. This event marks the night that Allah took Mohammad on a journey from Mecca to Jerusalem and then to heaven.

In this legend, the Prophet is prepared for his meeting with God by the archangels Jibril and Mikail one evening while he is asleep in the Ka'bah, the sacred shrine of Mecca. They open up his body and purify his heart fills  it with wisdom and belief. An animal by the name of Buraq, apparently horse-like and white, and with a human face, was provided for a ride from the mosque in Mecca to the al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, from where he ascended, supposedly on a ladder of light to the seven heavens. In the first heaven Muhammad meets Adam; in the second, John the Baptist and Jesus; in the third, Joseph; in the fourth, Enoch; in the fifth, Aaron; in the sixth, Moses; and in the seventh, Abraham (who welcomed him as "Good son and good prophet"). Fifty prayers were ordained by Allah to be said by all believers daily. On the journey back, Moses, in the sixth heaven, encouraged Muhammad to go back to the seventh heaven and request a smaller quota, since this large number would be rather impractical to execute. Ten daily prayers were deducted. Again Moses encouraged Muhammad to go back and ask for still fewer prayers, which was repeated three times, until five daily were set for observance.  

Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa, whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing.
—Quran, Chapter 17 (Al-Isra) verse 1

Finally as Muslims it is our duty to convey the truth without any ill will towards anybody.

Kind Regards,

Peace to you!

Dear Shakeel,

Thank you for your detailed response. Here are some thoughts aobut it:

A) Meaning of Ruhullah?

Why is there a distinction between 'Allah' and 'The spirit of Allah'in the light of God being one?

It is sometimes said of Adam that God breathed something of his spirit into him but this must be carefully distinguished from the title Spirit of God which is given to Jesus alone. Jesus is his Spirit. This title is also not explained in the Qur'an but frankly supports the Christian belief that Jesus was not a creature made out of dust but an eternal spirit who took on human form.

We do find some evidence in the Qur'an that helps us to identify the meaning of this title. Elsewhere in the Qur'an we read of the "Holy Spirit" (Ruhul-Quds - cf. Surahs 2:87, 2:253, 16:102) and it is presumed that the Holy Spirit is the angel Gabriel. Whoever it is, it is generally agreed that the Holy Spirit is greater than man and comes from heaven and is purely a spirit.

Jesus, however, is now called "a Spirit from him" (ruhun-minhu) from which he has received the title in Islamic traditions "Spirit of God" (Ruhullah). The expression in Surah 4:171, ruhun-minhu ("a spirit from him") is used in exactly the same form in Surah 58:22 where it is said that God strengthens true believers with "a spirit from him". Very significantly Yusuf Ali, commenting on this latter verse in his translation of the Qur'an disagrees with you and states that here the "phrase used is stronger" than that for the Holy Spirit (Ruhul Quds). He implies that the Spirit from God is greater than the Holy Spirit and says that it is "the divine spirit, which we can no more define adequately than we can define in human language the nature and attributes of God" (note 5365).

This is a remarkable comment which is clearly a veiled implication that the ruhun-minhu is the very Spirit of the living God, uncreated and eternal in essence. Yusuf Ali says it is "the divine spirit" and that it is as incomprehensible as God himself. This language is unambiguous - the Spirit from God is clearly believed by him to be from the realm of deity and not from the created order. He is, according to this interpretation, practically synonymous with the Holy Spirit in the Christian Bible.

Now this is the very title that the Qur'an gives to Jesus in Surah 4:171. The exact same words are used - he is the ruhun-minhu, "a Spirit from God". If we merely apply Yusuf Ali's interpretation of the expression in Surah 58:22 to the very same expression given as a title to Jesus in Surah 4:171, we can only conclude that Jesus is the "divine spirit, which we can no more define adequately than we can define in human language the nature and attributes of God". He is, therefore, God in essence and nature. Because of the simultaneous denial in 4:171 that Jesus is the Son of God, Yusuf Ali is constrained to deny that the title ruhun-minhu when applied to Jesus implies deity, but he is hardly consistent in his exposition of the Qur'an when he teaches in another place that ruhun-minhu is indeed a divine spirit possessing the nature and attributes of God and is as incomprehensible as God as well.

For our part we believe that, as with the titles Messiah and Word of God, this title Spirit of God also strongly supports the Christian belief that Jesus is indeed the Son of God and that, not in any metaphorical sense, but in an eternal one which is based on the fact that he is very deity himself. The only way Yusuf Ali could avoid this admission when commenting on Surah 4:171 was to frankly contradict what he said in his commentary on Surah 58:22.

B) Error/sin occurred by Adam (pbuh) in heaven?

Firstly, in the Quran we find an awareness that human beings will be corrupt once they are created. About Adam we read:

And when thy Lord said to the angels: 'I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth,' they said, 'Wilt Thou place therein such as will cause disorder in it, and shed blood? -and We glorify Thee with Thy praise and extol Thy holiness.' He answered, 'I know what you know not.' Secondly, the following verses confirm the fear of the angels:

Iblis said, after disobeying Allah: '...I will most surely bring his (Adam's) descendants under my sway except a few.' (Surah 17, Bani Isra'il, verse 62)

In another account of the same story Iblis is reported to have said:

'Then will I surely come upon them (Adam's descendants)...and Thou wilt not find most of them to be grateful.' (Surah Al- A'raf, 7:18)

As our terrible history shows continually these verses came true and therefore it is very difficult to explain how in Islam human beings can be basically good in the light of all the horror they cause on a world wide scale.

Thirdly, some parts of the Quranic account of Adam's sin reflect the biblical perspective. God made a covenant with him (Surah Taha 20:116) and with his descendants. (Gen 9:9) God generally relates to men through a covenant. In Surah Al'-Baqara, 2:40 we read:

'O children of Israel! remember my favours which I bestowed upon you, and fulfil your covenant with Me, I will fulfil My covenant with you, and Me alone should you fear.'

A covenant is a contract or agreement between two parties. The corresponding word in the Injil, the Gospel is, 'testament.' That is why Christians call the Injil, 'New Testament'. Throughout His revelation God has made promises and given laws to his creation. When Adam and Eve sinned they violated the three following important aspects of the covenant:

A. The covenant is personal

God Himself gave the covenantal commands in the Bible (Exo 10:1-2) and in the Quran. (Surah Al-Ma'ida, 5:8-11) Therefore sin is the breaking of a relationship and disobedience or rebellion against God who is behind the covenant. (Isa 59:1-2, Neh 9:26, Psa 10:2-6. 51:4) This is confirmed when reading in the Quran about a tribe called 'Thamud' who disobeyed God's command given through a prophet called 'Salih':

'Then they hamstrung the she-camel and rebelled against the command of their Lord, and said, 'O Salih, bring us that which thou threatenest us with, if thou art indeed one of the Messengers.'

Surah Al-A'raf, 7:78, see also 73 where people who sin are said to have: 'rejected our signs', Surah Yunus, 10:16: 'disobey', Surah Qaf, 50:28-29: 'rebel', Surah Al-Furqan,25:22: 'too proud of themselves')

B. The covenant is revealed

Both, the Quran and the Bible speak clearly about God who reveals His will to men. (Amo 4:13, Surha Al-Nahl, 16:102, etc.) Man can respond to revelation either with belief or disbelief. It follows that another definition for sin is disbelief in God. The Quran makes this clear when it says:

'Remember when thy Lord said to the angels, 'I am about to create man from clay; And so when I have fashioned him in perfection, and have breathed into him of My Spirit, fall ye down in submission to him.' So the angels submitted, all of them together. But Iblis did not. He behaved proudly, and was of those who disbelieved.' (Surah Sad, 38:75)

Not to believe in God and his commandments means refusing to allow God to be God in one's life. It means a refusal to acknowledge and trust God as God. God is selfishly and proudly replaced with self. One starts to believe in one self or somebody else. It is the purest form of idolatry, possibly the root of all sin which is equal to committing 'shirk' (associating partners with God, worshipping somebody or something else except God.

C. The covenant forms the basis of Law.

God's law is his revealed will made known through his commands. Therefore, the person that disobeys them transgresses the law.

'(Allah) taught man what he knew not. Nay! man does indeed transgress, because he thinks himself to be independent.' (Surah Al-'Alaq, 96:7)

Like the Bible (Matt 12:34, Luk 18:11-14) the Quran too recognizes that the heart attitude is more important than the external act of obeying the law. In Surah Al-Ma'Ida, 5:4 Allah forbids the eating of certain kind of meat. However the verse finishes saying that in certain circumstances the forbidden becomes allowed:

'But whosoever is forced by hunger, without being wilfully inclined to sin, then, surely Allah is Most Forgiving and Merciful.'

If it is possible to disobey God's law as long as one is not wilfully inclined to sin, then it follows that it is also possible to obey God's law outwardly but still to commit sin. Let us look now at Surah Al-A'raf, 7:20 -27:

(20) 'And O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden and eat therefrom wherever you will, but approach not this tree lest you be among the wrongdoers.' (21) But Satan whispered evil suggestions to them so that he might make known to them what was hidden from them of their shame, and said, 'Your Lord has only forbidden you this tree, lest you should become angels or such beings as live for ever.' (22) And He swore to them, saying 'Surely I am a sincere counsellor unto you.'

Verse 21 makes it clear that Adam and Eve knowingly disobeyed or rebelled against God. Adam's supposed forgetfulness mentioned as reason for his disobedience in Surah 20, Taha, verse 116 is hard to reconcile with Satan's reminder of God's command. Moreover, if they had only forgotten what God said, then surely we would not read in the next verse that Satan deceived them:

(23) So he caused them to fall into disobedience by deceit. And when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them and they began to stick the leaves of the Garden together over themselves. And their Lord called them, saying, 'Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: verily Satan is to you an open foe?' (24) They said, 'Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves; and if Thou forgive us not and have not mercy on us, we shall surely be of the lost.' (25) He said, 'Go forth, some of you being enemies of others. And for you there is and abode on the earth and a provision for a time.' (26) He said, 'Therein shall you live and therein shall you die, and therefrom shall you be brought forth.'

The fact that God said 'Go forth' echoes the biblical account of separation from God because of sin. (Gen 3:3, 23-24) In Surah Taha, 20:122 we read that his life became miserable as a result.

If Adam's sin was caused by mere forgetfulness then these severe punishments would in no way fit the light 'crime'. A deeper study reveals that the reason for the severity of it lay in the fact that in both, the Biblical and Quranic accounts Adam rejected the type of creature-hood God had assigned to him. He rebelled against His maker who is absolutely Holy and can not tolerate this.

C) Is death an enemy to be conquered?

Death in a spiritual and physical sense came as a result of Adam and Eve's sin. In paradise there was no death.

Human experience proves the doctrine of original sin to be right. Throughout history tribes, communities and nations have not just been conceived as individuals but also as organic wholes under representative 'heads.' Both, leaders and followers express and influence a common identity. In opposite to animals the human race is one in some spiritual way, as well as genetically. Mistakes of leader have not just made them suffer immensely but also their supporters. (E.g. Hitler in Germany, Hussain in Irak, Bush in USA) The acts of our first parents who were appointed by God as the leaders of the human race rightfully counted as those of the entire community. Legal principle and practice demands that all members of the group should stand under the obligation to pay the legal debt. _The legal bond is added to the natural 'family' fellowship, the genetic commonality. (See Turetin, 1847:557, IX.9.11; Murray 1977:37f) Since God appointed Adam and Eve as leaders prior consent of the individuals represented for representation is not necessary. The blood relationship has indeed affected us deeply as is reflected in the so called 'honour killings' in the Muslim world. If adultery has taken place relatives often kill the culprit in order to restore the family honour.

D) Visit to heaven by Jesus Christ and his second coming to Earth?  

Firstly, it is not clear whether the night journey of your prophet took place in a vison only or in reality. Secondly, whatever the case, he only visited heaven in contrast to Jesus who came from heaven and lives there permanently. He can give us direction how to get there in the best way.

On a different note: in the Torah and Zabur people got forgiveness because they sacrificed animals. The words ‚sacrifice(s)’, offering(s) are found 1047 times in Torah, Zabur and Injeel. If the Quran came to confirm previous Scriptures why does it switch to obedience only in order to get forgiveness? What happened to the concept of sacrifice explained in the previous books?

Kind regards,

A. Abraham  


All Answers

Answers by Expert:

Ask Experts


A. Abraham




My experience is in the area of Christianity and comparative Religion.

I have got a BA in Theology.

©2017 All rights reserved.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]