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What factors contributed to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism?

Answer
Assalam-O-Alaikum,
BISMILLAHER RAHMAN-O-RAHIM,
The word “fundamentalism” was actually first used in reference to an American Protestant movement that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism. If we accept this term at face value however, Islamic fundamentalism was to a great extent a reaction to the modernization policies in many Muslim-populated countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries that viewed Islam as backwards, outdated, and a barrier to progress. In the name of modernity, governments in places like Turkey, Iran, and Egypt outlawed or discouraged Islamic schooling, dress, and traditions. In Turkey, the Arabic alphabet was replaced with the Latin alphabet with the belief that the only way to modernize was to adopt Western culture and tradition. Traditional values and practices were replaced with Western modes of dress, culture, economics, and even language, often without the accompanying benefits of such Western values as democracy and justice.

In response to these trends, some 20th century Muslim groups espoused a return to the original practices of Islam as they understood them to have been practiced during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors. The movement generally ignored the traditions and ideological developments, including that of the four schools of Islamic thought, over the previous thirteen centuries. As a result, they promoted an often narrow, unrealistic and sometimes puritanical vision of Islam. This movement has often taken on political overtones or calls for an “Islamic state” (see question above), and sometimes, but not always, involves a strict or literal interpretation of Islam, or extreme positions, which is often the case with reactionary or nascent movements.
Wassalams,
Md.Zia-ul-Haque

Islam

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Mufti Md.Zia-ul-Haque,Alim & Advocate

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By the Grace of Almighty Allah,being the only person in the world who is qualified Moulvi(Passed the Alim Examination Conducted By Madrasa Education Board) with Degrees in Science and Law I am,MASHALLAH,able to answer any question on Islamic Religion.That apart,I was in charge of Legal,Calcutta Office of Custodian of Enemy,Govt of India and Export Inspection Agency,Calcuuta, Ministry of Commerce,Govt of India from where I have retired on 31.3.2010,It is also therefore possible for me to answer questions on Indian Civil Law and Service Matters. Md.Zia-ul-Haque,B.Sc,LLB,Alim(Cal) Alim & Advocate Md,Zia-ul-Haque,B.Sc, LLB,Alim(Cal) Alim & Advocate

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Stated in the above field.

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Stated above

Publications
1. Quran-o-Hadis-er Aloke Pita-o-Matar Martoba (Bengali) 2. Milad Sharif (Transliterated to Bengali) 3. Shaheed-e-Karbala(Bengali) 4. Hazarat Maula Ali Muishkil Kusha -o- Papi Mabiya -o- Duschoroitro Taslima Nasrin(Bengali) 5. Ahl-e-Bayt Pak (AS) -o- Jahannami Mua'wiyah-o-Yazid (Bengali)

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B.Sc, LLB, Alim(Cal)

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