Israel/Middle East (News & Politics)/Indigenous people



Just one more clarification in regard to the indigenous people of the Western Hemisphere, on what issues have they engaged on ethno-political moralizations?  Besides the election of bolivia president, what have been their major successes?

Hi again Abdi,

As to your question, I believe I answered it in the previous question I sent you. There are a couple of things though, that I accidentally omitted. The US constitution, for example, is based in large part on the charter of the Iroquois Confederation in upstate New York. Among the indigenous people themselves, there were certain rules that one must follow for the honor of the tribe and also in order to not make the Great Spirit angry. These included rules on warfare where a captured warrior must be treated with kindness and compassion, even as captor is torturing the captive (by the way, there are also strict rules on torture). There are rules in the hunting of animals and of taking plant life from the ground. In response to the white man's slaughter of the buffalo, I believe it was Sitting Bull who said that when his people killed buffalo, it was for the necessities of life such as food and clothing, but when the white man did it, it was just for the purpose of killing buffalo.

I also neglected to mention that nowadays and for many years previously, there were many native Americans throughout the hemisphere that have become heads of state aside from President Morales of Bolivia: Edna Elias and Nelly Kusugak, Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner of Nunavut respectively; Kuupik Kleist, Prime Minister of Greenland; Charles Curtis, Vice President of the United States under President Herbert Hoover; Benito Juarez, Porfirio Diaz, Victoriano Huerta, Presidents of Mexico; Alejandro Toledo, President of Peru.

As a reminder, here are some of the other things I wrote in answering your previous question: In the process of their settlement in the Americas, the Indians formed many tribal nations. Therefore, unlike the Kurds who saw themselves as one nation regardless of their situation, the indigenous Americans were never loyal to one single identity nor did they claim to be. Incas were loyal to Incas, Aztecs were loyal to Aztecs, Sioux to Sioux, etc. But since European settlement, two notable attempts were made to unite all the indigenous tribes of North America and eventually throughout the Hemisphere. The first occurred in 1812-13 through a confederacy under Chief Tecumseh but it failed after a bloody battle in which Euro-American forces were victorious. The second attempt began in the late 60s with the founding of the American Indian Movement whose activities continue to this day. Their goal has been to unite all indigenous tribes into one to form a united voice in fighting for indigenous rights in the US and throughout the Americas. Some other achievements have included the following: In 1924, American Indians were granted US citizenship. Today, even though they still live on reservations, as the majority do in Canada and elsewhere, they are citizens of their own nations as well as of the countries in which they live. They also run their own domestic and foreign affairs through their elected tribal councils. In addition, the indigenous economy in the US has improved with the coming of tribal casinos. In Chile and the Brazilian Amazon, the Araucanians and others are presently rising up and demanding their rights and the return of their ancestral lands, and the Chilean and Brazilian governments are taking notice, somewhat.

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I am an expert in Middle Eastern history, and Israeli history in particular. My main focus is Biblical analysis, the origins of Islam, and medieval and modern historical events in Israel. Everything you see happening in the world today, has a history.


I am a free-lance writer who has previously lived in, and studied the history of, Israel.


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