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Italian Language/D'inverno vs In inverno


Hi Maria

Could you help me understand the difference between "in" inverno/autunno/primavera/estate and d'inverno/d'estate etc?  What difference does using "in" vs "di" make?  Do they both mean "in summer" etc?  Should the different prepositions be used in particular circumstances?

Is it correct that "in estate" = during the summer and "nell'estate" = in summer?

I looked to see if the question has already been answered but couldn't see it.

Grazie mille.  



in Italian we can say “d’estate”/ “d’inverno” as well as “in estate” /”in inverno” without any difference,  but we  say  “in primavera” and “in autunno” instead of “di primavera” and “d’autunno” that however  are used in poetry, as you can read e.g. in  the  poem “Soldati”(Soldiers) by Giuseppe Ungaretti where the poet emphasizes precariousness of life  during the WW I in 1918 and then says:“Si sta come d'autunno sugli alberi le foglie” ("We're like leaves on branches in Autumn") .

As for the translation of “d’estate”/ “d’inverno” / “in estate” /”in inverno” /“in primavera” and “in autunno”, here they are:

“in summer”/  ”in winter”/” in  the spring/”in autumn” as well as “during the summer”/”during the winter”/”during the spring”/”during the autumn”.

With regard to “nell’estate”, “nell’inverno”, “nella primavera”  and  “nell’autunno”, we use the articulated preposition “nello” (masculine) and “nella” (feminine)  when we say for example :“Nell’estate/Nella primavera  dell’anno scorso sono stata in Francia”, ”Nell’inverno scorso/Nell’autunno scorso ho soggiornato per diversi mesi a Firenze”, etc., i.e. when we want to indicate a specific  span of time during which we were in France or stayed in Firenze, for example.

To sum up, please note that:

-"d’estate” or  “in estate” , ”d’inverno” or ”in inverno”,  “in primavera”  and  “in autunno” mean respectively:” in summer”,  ”in winter”,” in  the spring, ”in autumn”.

-between "in inverno”/ “in estate” and “d'inverno”/”d'estate “ there is no difference, whereas  “in autunno”/”in primavera” are better than “di primavera”(obsolete) and “d’autunno” sometimes used in poetry.

-the articulated prepositions “nello/nella” as in “nella primavera” , “nell’inverno”, “nell’estate”, nell’autunno” are  used in particular circumstances, i.e. when we want to indicate a specific  span of time.

See other examples as:

-“D’estate/In estate  fa caldo”
-“In inverno /D’inverno nevica spesso”
-“In primavera il clima è mite”
-“In autunno cadono le foglie”
-“Verrò in estate”
-“Ci vedremo nell’estate prossima/nell’autunno prossimo/ nella prossima primavera/ nel prossimo inverno” or “Ci vedremo l’estate prossima/l’autunno prossimo/ la prossima primavera/ il prossimo inverno”

Hope this is clear enough. Feel free however to ask me again.

Best regards,

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