Italian Language/grammar terms

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Question
Dear Maria,

Can you please tell me if the grammar term -  “pronomi personali” (personal pronouns) , is only used to refer to the “pronomi personali tonici”  (stressed pronouns)?

Or,  is the grammar term  “pronomi personali” (personal pronouns) also used to  refer to the “pronomi personali atoni”  (unstressed pronouns) ?

Can you also please tell me if the grammar term “particelle pronominali”  (pronominal particles) is only used to refer to the “pronomi personali atoni” (unstressed personal pronouns)?

Or, is the grammar term “particelle pronominali" (pronominal particles) also used to refer to the “pronomi personali tonici”  (stressed pronouns) ?

Thank you very much.


Very Sincerely,

Rich

Answer
Dear Rich,

the grammar term  “pronomi personali” (personal pronouns)  is used to refer to the “pronomi personali tonici”  (stressed pronouns) as well as to the “pronomi personali atoni”  (unstressed pronouns).

As for  the grammar term “particelle pronominali”  (pronominal particles), it  is only used to refer to the “pronomi personali atoni” (unstressed personal pronouns) such as " mi, ti, si, ci, vi, lo, la, li, gli, le, ne” that usually precede the verb as in “Ti ho visto ieri”, "Gli parlo subito”, “Vi dirò tutto”,"Ci ha aiutato molto", "L'ho visto ieri", "Ne ha parlato con me", "Li hai incontrati di recente?", "Le vedrò domani", etc.

But, if the verb is an infinitive, an imperative or a gerund, the “particelle pronominali” follow the verb as enclitic particles.
See for example: “Datemi il libro”; “ Diteglielo!”; “Sono venuto per vederti”;”Ascoltami, senza offenderti”; “Vedendolo, lo salutai”; “Andandosene, mi salutò”, etc.

Note that the “particelle pronominali”  “mi, ti, ci, vi, si” become “ me, te, ce, ve, se”,  if they are before “lo, la, li, le,ne “ .
See e.g.: “Me lo disse”, “Te lo porto”, “Se ne ride di tutto”, "Ve l'ho già detto", "Ce la presentò, quando la incontrammo", etc.

Lastly, I have to tell you that the “particella pronominale” “gli” becomes “glie”  before “lo, la, li, le, ne” to them it is attached, as in “Glielo dico (= lo dico a lui/a lei)”, “Gliene parlarono (= parlarono a lui/a lei di ciò)”;”Diglielo tu (= di' ciò a lui/a lei)”, "Diglielo!"(=Dillo a lui/a lei), "Ho letto i libri e glieli ho restituiti"; etc.

Hope this is clear enough.

Best,

Maria

Italian Language

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Maria

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Italian is my mother tongue and I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning Italian Language.

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D.in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

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