Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de senectute).
(1)I was not able to find the following two words in the dictionary:  “quendam” (64), “idque”(65) Is "idque" just means "et id"?
(2)“quod ni ita accideret, melius et prudentius viveretur. Mens enim et ratio et consilium in senibus est; qui si nulli fuissent,” (67)
(a)What is the subj. of “viveretur”? What does the passive of the intrans. verb “vivo” mean?
(b)Is “nulli” an adj. , modifying and agreeing with “qui”?
(c)Does “in senibus est” have the same meaning as “est senilis”?
(3)“At est eo meliore condicione quam adulescens,” (68)
What do you call this kind of abl. “eo meliore condicione”? abl. of place?
(4)“quod cuique temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse contentus” (69)
Is my literal translation of this sentence correct? “one should be content with that [eo], which [quod] is given to each period of life [cuique temporis] for living [ad vivendum]”. Why gen. “temporis”?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1)In Cicero, De Senectute, 64,  the word “quendam” is  the accusative masculine singular of the indefinite pronoun “quidam, quaedam, quoddam” meaning “a certain, a certain one, somebody, something”, while “idque”(65) stands just for "et id" meaning “and this “/”and this fact”.
Please note that “quendam” can also be written as “quemdam” composed of the relative accusative masculine singular “quem” and the indeclinable suffix  “–dam”.


(2)In “quod ni ita accideret, melius et prudentius viveretur. Mens enim et ratio et consilium in senibus est; qui si nulli fuissent,nullae omnino civitates fuissent” (67)note that:

(a)the imperf subj pass, 3rd.person singular “viveretur” is an impersonal form whose literal meaning would be:”it would be lived”, i.e. “we would live”/"one would live".
Latin uses,in fact,the 3rd.person singular, passive form of the transitive verbs such as “pugno” (see "pugnatur" = it is fought /it is fighting)as well as of the  intrans. verbs such as  “vivo” (see "vivitur"= it is lived"/"one lives"/"we live"), as having no personal subject.
With impersonal verbs the word "it" is used in English. (See “itur”= "it is gone", i.e."somebody goes"/"we  go" ) and “vivitur“="it is lived", i.e. "one lives"/"we live").


(b)“nulli” is  an adj. modifying and agreeing with the relative pronoun “qui” (nominative masculine plural).
[See below for  the literal translation].

(c)“in senibus est” does not have the same meaning as “est senilis”, but it means “in old men”.In fact, "est senilis" would be "it is senile" with a bad connotation.

So,here’s the literal translation of  “quod ni ita accideret, melius et prudentius viveretur. Mens enim et ratio et consilium in senibus est; qui si nulli fuissent,nullae omnino civitates fuissent” :
”What (QUOD.neuter relative referring to a substantive, pronoun or phrase as antecedent) if  weren’t (NI ACCIDERET) so (ITA), it would be lived (VIVERETUR) better (MELIUS) and more wisely(PRUDENTIUS).In fact (ENIM) mind (MENS) and reason (RATIO) and good judgment (CONSILIUM) are (EST agreeing with only one subject)in old men(IN SENIBUS); if they (QUI. Note that this relative masculine plural pronoun is used here to connect the old men with the rest of the phrase) had been (FUISSENT) any/no (NULLI, predicative adjective of the verb FUISSENT), no (NULLAE) states (CIVITATES) would have existed (FUISSENT) at all (OMNINO)”, i.e.” if it weren’t so, we would live  in better and wiser fashion. In fact, it is in old men that there are   mind, reason and good judgement, and if  no old men had  existed, no state would have existed at all.”

Note that both “ni ita accideret, melius et prudentius viveretur” and “si nulli fuissent,nullae omnino civitates fuissent” are conditional clauses (CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT. See AG 514)


(3)In “At est eo meliore condicione quam adulescens,quoniam...” (68) the abl. “meliore condicione” is a kind of abl. of Place Where without the preposition “in”.

As for “eo”, it is an adverbial ablative wich is referring to the following  clause with “quoniam”(since), giving a cause or reason, and thus it means:”But (AT) he (old man) is(EST)  in better (MELIORE) case (CONDICIONE) than (QUAM) the young man (ADULESCENS), since (QUONIAM)....”.



(4)Here's the literal translation of “quod cuique temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse contentus” (69):
“what (QUOD) of time (TEMPORIS.Partitive) is given (DATUR) to everybody (CUIQUE.Dative of QUISQUE) for living (AD VIVENDUM.Gerund), with that (EO)  one must (DEBET) be (ESSE) content (CONTENTUS)”, i.e.: “whatever time is given us to live, we  must  be content with that”.

Note that the genitive “temporis” depending on the relative pronoun “quod” is a partitive genitive we can find with Neuter Adjectives and Pronouns, used as nouns, as in e.g. “aliquid nummorum” literally meaning “something of coins”, i.e. “a few pence” .
See also:”quid novi?” literally meaning “what of new?”, i.e. “what new? “.

Hope all is clear enough.

Best regards,

Maria
_________________________________________________________________________
P.S. I'll be on vacation 10 days from Thursday.
So, should you have other questions,do not hesitate to ask me again before next Thursday.

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