Can you help me with the following grammar questions (the first two from Allen and Greenough):
(1) Milites postquam victoriam adept sunt, nihil reliqui victis fecere. (543)
Question: I don’t understand the grammar of the second half of the sentence: “nihil reliqui victis fecere”, especially the function of the verb “fecere”.
(2) Non humana ulla neque divina obstant quin socios amicos trahant exscindant (558)
Question: I am puzzled by the two accusative nouns “socios” and “amicos” side by side and two verbs “trahant” and “exscindant” side by side. Is it possible that I can understand them as “socios trahant et amicos exscindant”?
(3) I am trying to look for some Latin phrase which means something like “if you cannot beat them, join them”, “If you cannot get rid of them, live with them as friends/in peace.” I couldn't find any, so I made up the following: eos si non vincas, eis amicus es. Is it correct? Do you know of any Latin phrase with a similar meaning.
(1)In “Milites postquam victoriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui victis fecēre” (Sall. Cat. 11), the second half of the sentence: “nihil reliqui victis fecēre” literally means :“[the soldiers] made (FECERE) nothing (NIHIL) remaining(RELIQUI) to the vanquished (VICTIS)”, i.e. “ [the soldiers] left nothing to the vanquished”.
Please note that the verb “fecēre” (3rd person plural, perfect indicative active, contracted form of FECERUNT) governs “nihil reliqui” where NIHIL means “nothing” and RELIQUI is the genitive of the adjective RELIQUUS meaning “remaining”.
In fact “nihil reliqui facere” is a popular expression which stands for “nihil relinquere” (to leave nothing).
(2)In “Non humana ulla neque divina obstant quin socios amicos trahant exscindant” (AG 558) the accusative noun “socios” means “the allies”, while “amicos” (=friendly) is used as an adjective agreed with “socios” so that the two accusatives “socios amicos” literally mean ”the friendly allies”.
As for the two verbs “trahant” and “exscindant”, they are present subjunctives depending on the subordinate conjunction “quin” and are used without the coordinate conjunction ET.
So,“Non humana ulla neque divina obstant quin socios amicos trahant exscindant” literally translates as “No human or divine things prevent [them] from (QUIN) taking prisoner (TRAHANT) and destroying ( EXSCINDANT) the friendly (AMICOS) allies (SOCIOS)”, i.e. “No human or divine laws prevent them from taking prisoner and exterminating [even] their friendly allies”.
(3)“If you cannot beat them, join them” translates as :“Nisi eos vincere possis, amicus esto”, while “If you cannot get rid of them, live with them as friends/in peace” corresponds to : “Nisi ab iis liberari possis, cum iis amice vive“.
As for your translation “Eos si non vincas, eis amicus es”, it is better to use the imperative future, 2nd.person singular “esto” instead of the obsolete present imperative “es”.
-If you cannot =NISI POSSIS
-join =AMICUS ESTO
-them=IIS / EIS that however is omitted.
-If you cannot =NISI POSSIS
-get rid =LIBERARI (passive infinitive of LIBERO which takes AB + the ablative)
-of them=AB EIS/IIS
-with them =CUM IIS/EIS
-as friends/in peace =AMICE (adverb).