Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. Sed ea non pariter omnes egemus (II. 30)
Can “egemus” take “omnes” as subj.?

2. Summa igitur et perfecta gloria constat ex tribus his: si diligit multitudo, si fidem habet, si cum admiratione quadam honore dignos putat. (II. 31)
Is “multitudo” the subject of the three verbs: “diligit”, “habet” and “putat”? Also in the clause after “putet” it seems some word (maybe the subj. of “dignos”?) is understood.

3. Haec autem, … , quibus rebus pariuntur a singulis, eisdem fere a multitudine (II. 31)
Is “haec” the subj. of “pariuntur”? What is the function of “quibus rebus”? Maybe a literal translation would help

4. Popularibus enim verbis est agendum (II. 35)
Can you explain why dat “Popularibus verbis” is used in this 2nd periphrastic conjugation. I am a bit confused about when to use nominative and when to use dative in 2nd periphrastic conjugation. I wonder whether you could give two simple examples, one uses nominative and one uses dative.

Thank you,
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “Sed ea non pariter omnes egemus” (Cicero, De Officiis, II. 30) the subject of  the present indicative  “egemus” (we need) is just “omnes”, so that “Sed ea non pariter omnes egemus”  literally means: ”But (sed ) we do not all need (non…omnes egemus)  this [i.e."affection"] (eā, ablative feminine depending on “egemus” and  related to “caritatem” meaning “affection” mentioned at the end of the previous section 29) in an equal degree(pariter)”, i.e. "But we do not all feel the need of this affection in an equal degree".


2. In “Summa igitur et perfecta gloria constat ex tribus his: si diligit multitudo, si fidem habet, si cum admiratione quadam honore dignos putat” (II. 31) the nominative “multitudo” is  just the subject of the three verbs “diligit”, “habet” and “putat”.  
As for “…si …. honore dignos putat”, the verb  “putat” implies a personal pronoun used as a  direct object and related to “dignos”, so that “…si …. honore dignos putat”  literally means:”if (si)  [the multitude] (multitudo) …considers (putat)[us]  [nos, which is understood] worthy (dignos) of honour (honore, ablative depending on “dignos”).

In short, “ Summa igitur et perfecta gloria constat ex tribus his: si diligit multitudo, si fidem habet, si cum admiratione quadam honore dignos putat” means:” So, the highest and perfect glory is composed of these three things: if people love us, if people have trust in us, if people consider us worthy of honour and admiration (literally, “together with a certain admiration”/cum admiratione quadam) .


3. In “Haec autem, …  quibus rebus pariuntur a singulis, eisdem fere a multitudine.” (II. 31) the neuter plural “haec”  (these things, i.e. these sentiments) is  the subj. of “pariuntur”.

As for  the function of “quibus rebus”, it is an abl. of means with the relative pronoun as an antecedent of the other ablative plural “eisdem”.

In short, “Haec autem …  quibus rebus pariuntur a singulis, eisdem fere a multitudine” literally means:
”So (autem) such /these things/sentiments (haec)… with which (quibus, abl.of instrument. Antecedent of "eisdem") things/means (rebus) are produced (pariuntur) by the individuals (a singulis, Abl.of Agent), almost (fere) with the same (eisdem) [things/means]( rebus) [are produced] by the multitude (a multitudine)”, i.e.:”We can inspire such sentiments in the multitude with almost the same  means that we use to inspire them in the individuals”.


4. In “Popularibus enim verbis est agendum….” (II. 35) “Popularibus verbis” is not a dative, but an ablative of instrument meaning “with popular words” so that “Popularibus enim verbis est agendum…” literally means :” It must be acted/ spoken(agendum est) in fact (enim) with popular words (popularibus verbis)…”, i.e. “We must employ, in fact, familiar words…” .

This passive periphrastic "est agendum" is used impersonally, i.e. without a subject, as you can see.


As for the 2nd periphrastic conjugation, here are some simple examples:

1. “Id faciendum est” literally meaning :”It is to be done”, i.e “It must be done”.

Note that in this passive periphrastic “id” is the subject in the nominative case, while there is not the person who must do it.

2. “Tibi id faciendum est” literally meaning:” It is to be done by you”, i.e “You must be done it”.

In this passive periphrastic “id” is the subject in the nominative case and “tibi” in the dative of Agent indicates the  person who must do it.


3.”Pugnandum erat”, literally meaning:”It was to be fought”, i.e. “We had to fight”/”One had to fight”.
In this passive periphrastic there is neither the  subject nor  the dative of agent, as it is an impersonal form.

See also:

-”Puella [subj.] omnibus [dat. of agent] laudanda est [pass. periphrastic]”, lit.  “The girl[subj.]  must be praised [pass. periphrastic] by everyone [dat. of agent]”, i.e. “Everyone must praise the girl”;

-“Haec vobis provincia est defendenda ” literally meaning:” This province is to be defended by you”, i.e. “You must defend this province”;

-“Mihi pugnandum est”, lit.”It is to be fought by me”, i.e. “I have to fight”/”I must fight”.


To sum up, the second periphratic, aka passive periphrastic,  consists of the gerundive plus a form of the verb "sum".
The gerundive, which carries a sense of necessity, agrees with the subject which indicates what one must do, while the  person on whom the necessity rests goes in the Dative of the Agent.
The passive periphrastic can also be impersonal, i.e. without subject and dative of Agent.


Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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