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Maria,

I wanted to just ask you about your responses for clarification:


“Per adversas res fortitudo” points out that it is just THROUGH adversity that we can become strong
So to say: "it is just THROUGH difficulties that we can become strong"--It could be "Per ardua res fortito


“Ex rebus adversis fortitudo” emphasizes that we DRAW our strength FROM adversity.
So to say: "We DRAW our strength FROM difficulties."--It could be: "Ex ardua fortitudo"?


Does capitalization matter besides the first word?




Also: "Strong through difficulties"--Do you say "Fortis in arduis"?


I appreciate all of your help
Regards,


Jeff

Answer
Hello,

I'm sorry, but "Per ardua res fortito", "Ex ardua fortitudo" and finally "Fortis in arduis" are absolutely wrong, simply because Latin has rigid rules in the syntax,i.e. in the  grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence, as well as in the morphology, i.e. in the grammatical processes of inflection and agreement of a noun in a context.

In short any change in a Latin sentence requires a good knowledge of this language in either morphology or syntax.

So, here's the explanation of the reasons why the translations "Per ardua res fortito", "Ex ardua fortitudo" and finally "Fortis in arduis" are wrong.


[1]"Per ardua res fortito” is absolutely wrong first because “Per ardua” means exactly:” Through difficult things” and thus does not need the noun  “res” (=things”) which is obviously superfluous” as “things” is already included in “ardua” and moreover "ardua" is a neuter plural, whereas "res" is a feminine noun; second because “fortito” does not exist in Latin.

In short, you MUST say : ”Per ardua fortitudo” literally meaning  “Strength through difficult things”, i.e. “Strength through difficulties”.

[2]Similarly  "Ex ardua fortitudo" is absolutely wrong first because the preposition “ex” requires the ablative case, i.e. “arduis”, and not the accusative plural "ardua"; second because this adjective when it is in the ablative needs the noun “res” whose ablative plural is “rebus”.

Therefore you MUST say: “Ex arduis rebus fortitudo” literally meaning “Strength from difficult things”, i.e. “Strength from difficulties”.

[3]Finally, "Fortis in arduis" for "Strong through difficulties“ is wrong because a correct Latin translation must be “Arduis in rebus fortis” because the adjective “arduis” (ablative plural) needs the noun “res” whose ablative plural is “rebus”.
In one of my previous answer I’ve said, in fact, that the substantive “arduum” (nominative neuter) has no plural number and thus “arduis” without "rebus" is wrong in Classical Latin.

As for  capitalization, Latin uses the capital letter only in the first word of a sentence or in a context after a full stop/period  at the end of a statement.
So,Latin says “Per ardua fortitudo”,“Ex arduis rebus fortitudo” and "Arduis in rebus fortis", not "Per Ardua Fortitudo”,“Ex Arduis Rebus Fortitudo” and "Arduis In Rebus Fortis".


To conclude, here are the correct Latin sentences you are looking for:

-”Per ardua fortitudo” (“Strength through difficulties).

-“Arduis ex rebus fortitudo” (“Strength from difficulties).

-“Arduis in rebus fortis ” (Strong through difficulties).


Regards,

Maria

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Maria

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I am an expert in Latin Language and Literature and I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning this matter.

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D. in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

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