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Maria,
You have been extremely helpful in getting my questions answered.

I wanted to just ask you about your responses:

(2-“Ex rebus adversis fortitudo”,if you want to emphasize that we draw our strength from the pain and misfortune.)Strength through adversity--

Is this for the masculine or feminine?


What is the difference between--->“Per adversa fortitudo” and “Per ardua fortitudo”???



I appreciate all of your help



Jeff

Answer
Hello,

“Ex rebus adversis fortitudo”  is for both masculine and feminine gender simply because this expression is composed of the subject noun "fortitudo" (3rd.declension) and the Ablative of Source "ex rebus adversis" denoting the Source from which "fortitudo" (strength) is derived.
 
As for  “Per adversa fortitudo” and “Per ardua fortitudo”, the only one difference between these two expressions is in the use of two different adjectives, i.e. ADVERSUS (from which the neuter plural “adversa” ), that literally means ”adverse”/"unfavourable”, and ARDUUS (from which the neuter plural “ardua”) that literally means ” difficult” /“arduous” / “hard”.

In short, “Per adversa fortitudo” literally means :”Strength through adverse/unfavourable things”, while “Per ardua fortitudo” literally means:” Strength through difficult / arduous things”.

To sum up, “Per adversa fortitudo” emphasizes the concept of adversity, while “Per ardua fortitudo” gives attention to the idea of difficulty, just because  Latin is a very precise language that explores every nuance of a phrase, as I’ve already said.

Hope this is clear enough.

Best regards,

Maria
_____________________________________________________________________________
PARSING of EX REBUS ADVERSIS FORTITUDO:

-EX (preposition which takes the ablative)=from

-REBUS ADVERSIS(Ablative of Source; literally, “adverse/unfavourable things “)= adversity

-FORTITUDO (nominative case, 3rd.declension)= strength

________________________________________________________________________
PARSING of PER ADVERSA FORTITUDO and PER ARDUA FORTITUDO:

-PER (preposition which takes the  accusative )=through

-ADVERSA (literally, “adverse/unfavourable things”) or ARDUA (literally, “difficult / arduous things”)= adversity

Both ADVERSA and ARDUA are the neuter plural accusative of the adjectives ADVERSUS /ARDUUS  depending on the preposition PER.

Finally note that, unlike English, Latin is an inflected language with five   declensions, six cases, four conjugations and a difficult syntax of cases and verbs.
Moreover in Latin each term changes ending, according to its role in a sentence and the agreement in gender, number and case with the term it refers to.

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Maria

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I am an expert in Latin Language and Literature and I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning this matter.

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D. in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

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