Dear Maria,

In English, adjectives modify pronouns. Likewise in Latin?

It is a blue one.
caeruleum id (not the subject) est.

Only a brave few have received a reward.
Soli pauci fortes praemium accipiebant (acceperunt).

Please correct me.

And further to your answer about 'Absol', I found it in noun(deditio) in the dictionary. And with your help I understand Absol in verbs means that verbs can be used without direct/indirect objects. But what is the case in noun as it has nothing to do with the direct/indirect object?

Example I saw in the dictionary is, helvetii legatos de deditione ad eum miserunt.

Thank you.


Dear John,

In Latin  the adjectives can  sometimes modify pronouns like in e.g. “aenobarbus ille” meaning “the read-beard one”.
Therefore “It is a blue one” translates as “Caeruleum illud“, if you want to mean ”the blue one”, whereas translates as “Caeruleum illud est”, if you want to mean exactly ”It is a blue one”.
In Latin however it would need to know the context to choose the most appropriate translation.

As for “Only a brave few have received a reward”, it translates as “Praemium fortes solum acceperunt” or “Praemium audaces solum  acceperunt”.

As you can see, I’ve used the adverb “solum” instead of the adjective “soli”, because "soli" is before another adjective and then the adverb "solum" sounds better than two adjectives together.
Moreover I’ve omitted the translation of “a..few” because in Latin the expressions  “Fortes solum” or “Audaces solum”  already  imply the idea that they are few.

Lastly, with regard to the short form  "Absol",i.e. “absolute”,  related to  noun  “deditio” in Lewis & Short, it means that this noun which can be used with the genitive of the object, such as in ” eorum deditionem vivorum” (Livy, 31, 18, 6 ), can also be used “absol”, i.e. without any direct/indirect object such as in “Helvetii legatos de deditione ad eum miserunt” (Caes. B. G. 1, 27) where “deditione” (ablative) has a complete sense without any thing annexed.

Please note that the adjective "absolute" derives from Latin "absolutus" literally meaning "free" or "unconnected".

Best regards,



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