Dear Maria,

1) laeto complerant litora coetu visuri Aeneadas, pars et certare parati. (Aen. 5,107) laeto is connected to coetu? visuri is nominative masculine plural of the perfect participle?

2) Idem facit Caesar equitatumque omnem ...... praemittit, qui videant, quas in partes hostes iter faciant.

As to 'qui videant', I understand it is in the plural as equitatus is a collective noun. But then, 'omnem' modifying equitatum also should be in the plural as 'omnes', I think. Please let me know If I am wrong.  

3) Using on-line dictionary (Lewis and Short) I do not understand some grammatical terms. For example, in 'memini', example sentences are given in categories like 'with gen.' and 'with acc.' but I am not sure of what they actually mean.   

Does it mean that both 'memento mei' and 'memento me' can be used? If not, what is the case to which 'with acc.' is applicable?

And another one is 'Absol.' Please advise which grammar rule it belongs to.  

Thank you.


Dear John,

1.In “laeto complerant litora coetu visuri Aeneadas, pars et certare parati” (Virgil, Aeneid,book 5. line 107) the adjective “laeto”  in the ablative masculine singular is connected  to the subject of the verb "complerant" as well as to the collective noun  “coetu”(masculine. 4th declension), while  “visuri”  is the nominative masculine plural of  the future participle (active voice), not of the perfect participle which would be “visus, visa, visum” (passive voice).

So, the future participle “visuri”  (nominative masculine plural) is connected to the subject of the verb "complerant" as well as to the collective noun “coetus” (crowd) and means “to see”  as a purpose/final  clause which can also have a participle future instead of ut/ne + the subjunctive.

In short, “laeto complerant litora coetu visuri Aeneadas.....” literally means:
”they had filled (COMPLERANT, 3rd pl pluperfect indicative active contracted for COMPLEVERANT) the sea-shores (LITORA, accusative plural of the neuter noun LITUS) with joyful (LAETO) crowd (COETU. Ablative of Means depending on COMPLERANT), to see (VISURI. nominative masculine plural of the future participle used as a purpose clause)  Aeneas and his companions (AENEADAS. accusative plural of AENEADES, AE, 1st declension)...”, i.e.
“they had filled the shore with a joyful  crowd  to see Aeneas and his companions...”.

2)In “Idem facit Caesar equitatumque omnem ...... praemittit, qui videant, quas in partes hostes iter faciant “(Caesar, De Bello Gallico, 1, 15) the relative clause "qui videant"  is in the plural as “equitatus” is a collective noun.
As for the adjective “omnem” which agrees with  the masculine noun “equitatum”, it cannot  be in the plural as  “equitatus“ is a singular masculine noun, though it  is a collective noun.
So,  you are  wrong in thinking that there should have been “omnes” instead of “omnem”.

To sum up, a collective noun such as “equitatus”  must have in the singular the adjectives that refer to, but can have in the plural the pronouns and the  verbs that refer to, as the pronouns and the verbs can have a “concordatio ad sensum” since they refer to the individuals of this collective noun which however maintains its gender and number.

3) When using  the on-line dictionary (Lewis & Short), the expressions “with gen.” and “with acc.” followed by  some examples mean that the verb/noun/adjective can take the genitive  or the accusative.  
Therefore, with regard to “memini” with gen. and with acc., it means that  both “memento mei” and “memento me” can be used.

As for "Absol." in e.g. “memini” or whatever term,  it   means that the form can be used without an indirect/direct object such as a genitive or an accusative.
For example “Absol. memini”  means that this verb  has no case with it and then means simply “I remember”, while “Memini te” with the accusative case and  “Memini tui” with the genitive case mean “I remember you”.

Best regards,



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