Latin/grammar

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Question
Hello,

1. I am confused with the usage of demonstrative pronouns, ille and is.
Both have same meaning when used alone as pronoun as follows?

Ille dat puellae donum.
Is dat puellae donum.

A grammar book(Wheelock's) says "is was also used as a demonstrative, somewhat weaker in force than hic or ille.."
What is the exact meaning of 'somewhat weaker in force'? Please explain.

2. If I am female and want to use a simple phrase like 'semper liber', should I change it as 'semper libera'?

3. In translating following sentence into Latin, do I have to use same adjective twice or once?

Master has a good garden and a good slave.
Dominus bonum hortum et bonum servum habet.
Dominus bonum hortum et servum habet.

4. I came across a sentence, looking for a word 'doceo' in the dictionary.
Is omnia docetur. (In this sentence, omnia is accusative?)
How can it be changed into the active voice?

Thank you.

Answer
Hello,

1.The demonstrative pronouns ILLE and IS can have the  same meaning as in “Ille dat puellae donum” or “Is dat puellae donum”, though in good Latin  both IS and ILLE could be omitted in these sentences  as the subject is implied in the 3rd person singular of the present indicative DAT (he gives).

As for what you have read in a grammar book, i.e. that  "IS was also used as a demonstrative, somewhat weaker in force than hic or ille..", the exact meaning of "somewhat weaker in force" is that the pronoun IS, which in general refers to someone already mentioned, has less force than HIC (this) which in general refers to someone near, or ILLE (that) which points to someone  more remote or  is regarded as more remote.


2. If you are female and want to use a simple phrase like "semper liber", you must change it as "semper libera", of course, where the adjective LIBERA is in the nominative feminine.


3. In translating  “Master has a good garden and a good slave” into Latin, you can use  the same adjective twice and then say :”Dominus bonum hortum et bonum servum habet”, though in good Latin it’s better to say:”Dominus bonum  habet et hortum et servum” where  Latin uses a different word order as the adjective “bonum” is placed before the verb and “hortum” and “servum” are preceded by the correlative conjunctions ET...ET (as well...as) .



4.The passive sentence “Is omnia docetur” (literally,”He is being taught  about all things”), where OMNIA is accusative because the verb DOCEO  can have the  double accusative of person and thing, can  be changed into the active voice as follows:  “Is omnia discit” or simply "Omnia discit" (literally, “He learns all things”), because if somebody is being taught  about all things this means that he is learning all things.

In short, the active voice for DOCEO, when this verb  is used in the passive voice, is the verb DISCO meaning “I learn”.

Best regards,

Maria

Latin

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