Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Amicitia)
1. “ne necesse sit unum sollicitum esse pro pluribus” (45)
“amor exoriatur necesse est” (48)
In the first “necesse est” clause it seems to be accu.+ infinitive structure while in the second “necesse est” clause, it seems to be a regular subj + verb structure.

2. “Nam quibusdam, … placuisse opinor mirabilia quaedam: partim fugiendas esse nimias amicitias” (45)
Could you explain the grammar of “Nam quibusdam, … placuisse opinor mirabilia quaedam” and the meaning of “partim”?

3. “quidvis generis eiusdem” (48)
What is “quidvis”? Does “generis” modify “quidvis” and “eiusdem” modify “generis”?

4. “concedetur profecto verum esse, ut bonos boni diligant adsciscantque sibi quasi propinquitate coniunctos atque natura.” (50)
Could you explain the ut clause?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.the passages “ne necesse sit unum sollicitum esse pro pluribus” (Cicero, De amicitia, 45) and  “amor exoriatur necesse est” (48) show the two different constructions of the clause depending on the impersonal form “necesse est”  which, in fact, may have  an accusative + infinitive structure (infinitive clause) as well as a subjunctive + ut (or without "ut" like here) structure as a kind of final clause.


2. “Nam quibusdam,....placuisse opinor mirabilia quaedam: partim fugiendas esse nimias amicitias..” (45) literally means:
”In fact (NAM) I think (OPINOR) that certain (QUAEDAM agreeing with MIRABILIA) strange views (MIRABILIA.Neuter accusative plural as a subject of the infinitive clause) were pleasing  (PLACUISSE. Verb of the infinitive clause) to certain men (QUIBUSDAM. Dative plural depending on “placuisse”)...”.

As you can see, there is a main clause (“opinor”) that governs  an infinitive clause (quibusdam ...placuisse...mirabilia quaedam).

As for the adverb  “partim”, it literally means “partly”, “some of”, “some”, “in part”, according to the context.
So, in “...partim fugiendas esse nimias amicitias...” this adverb means “some of [these men]” referring to those “certain men” that appear in the previous phrase.
Note that after “partim” there are many infinitive clauses depending on an implied verb of saying and then  “Nam quibusdam,.... placuisse opinor mirabilia quaedam: partim fugiendas esse nimias amicitias...” means:
”So I think that certain men.....  were very pleased about certain strange views so that  some of them say that too many friendships should be avoided..”



3. In “quidvis generis eiusdem” (48), literally meaning “anything whatever (QUIDVIS) of the same (EIUSDEM) sort (GENERIS), “quidvis” is the accusative neuter of the  pronoun “quivis” (literally, “whoever it be“).
Such a neuter pronoun  depends on the preposition “inter” in “...quid enim interest......... inter hominem et truncum aut saxum aut quidvis generis eiusdem?"  and is followed by the genitive “generis” which is modified by “eiusdem”.

In short, “...quid enim interest.... inter hominem et truncum aut saxum aut quidvis generis eiusdem?“ means:” ...what difference is there .....between a man and a trunk or a stone, or any such thing (i.e. any inanimate thing)?“.



4. In “...concedetur profecto verum esse, ut bonos boni diligant adsciscantque sibi quasi propinquitate coniunctos atque natura.” (50) the "ut" clause depends on the infinitive clause  “verum esse” which in turn depends on the passive future “concedetur” used in the impersonal form.

Please note that  “verum est”  usually  governs an infinitive clause with accusative  and infinitive, but rarely it takes “ut” + the subjunctive.

So,”... concedetur profecto verum esse, ut bonos boni diligant adsciscantque sibi .....”  literally means :
“.. it surely (PROFECTO)  will be granted (CONCEDETUR) that it is (ESSE) true(VERUM)  that (UT) good men (BONI) love (DILIGANT) good men (BONOS) and join (ADSCISCANTQUE) [them] to themselves (SIBI)....”.

Hope all is clear now.

Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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