Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Amicitia)

1. “callidus ille et occultus ne se insinuet, studiose cavendum est” (99)
Is “ille” the subj. in the "ne ..." clause? Do the adj. "callidus" and "occultus" modify "ille"? So is the order for translation "ne callidus et occultus ille se insinuet"?

2. “et litigare se simulans blandiatur” (99)
Does “se” and “litigare” form accu +inf. structure after simulans?

3. “Quod ut ne accidat, magis cavendum est.” (99)
Does “quod” refer to what is described in the following two lines?

4. “utrumque enim dictum est ab amando; amare autem nihil est aliud nisi eum ipsum diligere, quem ames, , nulla indigentia, nulla utilitate quaesita” (100)
(a) Is “esse” understood after “dictum est”?
(b) What is the subj of “diligere”? In other words, who “diligere”? Is “eum ipsum” the obj. of “diligere”? Also does “quem” refer to “eus ipsum”?.
(c) Finally, is “nulla indigentia, nulla utilitate quaesita” abl. abs.?

Thank you.
RObert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “callidus ille et occultus ne se insinuet, studiose cavendum est” (Cicero, De amicitia, 99) the masculine pronoun  “ille” is the subj. in the "ne ..." clause, and  the adjectives  "callidus" and "occultus" modify "ille",  so that  the order for translation  is exactly "ne  ille callidus et occultus  se insinuet" literally  meaning:” so as  (ne) that (ille)  crafty (callidus) and secret (occultus) one does not insinuate himself into (se insinuet) [our soul]..”, i.e. “so as  that crafty and secret flatterer does not insinuate himself into our soul..”


2.In “quippe qui...et litigare se simulans blandiatur” (99) the reflexive “se” and  the present infinitive “litigare” form accu +inf. structure after the present participle “simulans”, i.e. literally: “because (quippe qui)...pretending (simulans) that he (se) is having a quarrel (litigare), he flatters (blandiatur)..”.


3.In “Quod ut ne accidat, magis cavendum est.” (99) “quod” refers to what is described in the previous  words, i.e. “ quid autem turpius quam illudi?”(what is more shameful than to be cheated?).

Therefore “Quod ut ne accidat, magis cavendum est” means:”It is to be avoided(cavendum est, where the verb "caveo" is followed by “ut ne “ which is rare) that  this thing  (quod.Relative pronoun related to the previous sentence) does not happen (ut  ne accidat)”, i.e. "We must prevent this from happening.."

As for the following two lines (ut me hodie ante omnes comicos stultos senes/ versaris atque illuseris lautissime” (meaning:”how today you have cheated and duped me much more than the old fools in the comedies!”), it is a quotation from the lost comedy “Epiclerus”(The heiress) by Caecilius Statius (c. 220 BC – c. 166 BC).


4. Note that in “utrumque enim dictum est ab amando; amare autem nihil est aliud nisi eum ipsum diligere, quem ames, nulla indigentia, nulla utilitate quaesita” (100):

(a)the infinitive “esse” is not understood after “dictum est”, for “utrumque enim dictum est ab amando” literally means:”both things (utrumque, related to “amor” and “amicitia” in the previous phrase) are named (dictum est., agreeing with “utrumque”) from (ab) loving (amando.Gerund, verbal noun)”, i.e.:"Both love and friendship are named so from a word meaning “to love”.

(b) There is no  subj of  the present  infinitive “diligere”, because “amare autem nihil est aliud nisi eum ipsum diligere, quem ames...” literally means:
” So (autem) to love (amare, subject of “est”) is (est) nothing  else (nihil ..aliud ; predicate pronouns) but (nisi)  to have a predilection for (diligere) just the one (eum ipsum) that (quem) you loves(ames)...”, i.e. :“So,  to love  is  nothing  else  but  to have a predilection for  the very  person  that  you loves...”.
As you can see, “eum ipsum” is the obj. of “diligere”, and  “quem” refers to “eum ipsum”.

(c)Finally,  “nulla indigentia, nulla utilitate quaesita”  is an abl. abs. composed of two subjects (the ablatives “indigentia “ and “utilitate” ) and the past participle “quaesita” in the ablative feminine singular as it agrees wit the nearest word “utilitate”.
In short, “nulla indigentia, nulla utilitate quaesita”  literally means:”no (nulla) material need (indigentia), no (nulla) material gain (utilitate) having been requested (quaesita)”, i.e.: “without seeking no material need nor gain...”.

Best regards,

Maria

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