Latin/Grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,

Please help me understand following sentence (De finibus 3,76).

quod si ita est, ut neque quisquam nisi bonus vir et omnes boni beati sint, quid philosophia magis colendum aut quid est virtute divinius?

1) What's the meaning of 'ut' here?
2) What's the case of 'philosophia'?
3) est is omitted after 'colendum'?

Two sentences in English show the difference of implied meaning by placing a comma or not before relative pronoun. I wonder if Latin also has the same rule.

She has two sons who have become doctors. (not sure of how many more sons)
She has two sons, who have become doctors. (just the two of sons, not more)

Thank you

J

Answer
Dear John,

note that in “quod si ita est, ut neque quisquam nisi bonus vir et omnes boni beati sint, quid philosophia magis colendum aut quid est virtute divinius? “ (Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, book 3, section 76):

1)the conjunction  “ut”, that introduces  a subordinate clause with the  present subjunctive “sint” depending upon “ita est”, means ”that” conceived as the result of its antecedent “ita est”.
Therefore “si ita est, ut neque quisquam...” literally means:”if (si) it is (est) so (ita) that (ut) nobody (neque quisquam)....”


2)the case of “ philosophia” in “quid philosophia magis colendum” is an ablative of comparison depending upon “magis”, so that “quid philosophia magis colendum” literally means:
”what (quid) must be practised (colendum [est])  more (magis ) than philosophy?( philosophiā with the long a which however is often written "a" without the macron, i.e. the diacritical mark showing vowel length)”.


3)“est”  is omitted after “colendum” (see above).


As for  the two  mentioned sentences that in English show the difference of implied meaning by placing a comma or not before relative pronoun, the same rule there is not in Latin.

Best regards,

Maria

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