Latin/Grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,

Please help me for my better understanding.


1.
Quid hic faciet, si poterit, iratus, qui cum suscensere nemini posset, omnibus bonis fuerit inimicus? (Cic. Philippica,30)

'iratus' is connected to what?
'qui' is a rel. pronoun?
Who is omnibus bonis inimicus (the enemy of all the good men) here?


2.
Propter quod consolamini invicem et aedificate alterutrum, sicut et facitis.(1 Thessalonians 5,11)

What's the meaning of 'quod' and 'et'?


3.
I saw my brother yesterday, and gave him a book.
Fratri, viso heri, librum dedi.

Above sentences are examples shown in composition book. I wonder if this is a good/usual way of expression in Latin, rendered in the passive (viso heri).

4.
I am catching.
iam capio.
in eo sum ut capiam.

The book says it can be rendered as above.
Last sentence is correct? I don't quite understand how it can be.

Thank you.

J

Answer
Dear John,

1.In “Quid hic faciet, si poterit, iratus, qui cum suscensere nemini posset, omnibus bonis fuerit inimicus? (Cicero,  Philippica Tertia, chapter 12, section 30) the word 'iratus' (meaning angered/ enraged/angry;  past participle of Irascor, used as an adjective in the nominative masculine) is connected to the demonstrative pronoun “hic” (this man); 'qui' is a rel. pronoun related to “hic” and “ omnibus bonis inimicus (the enemy of all the good men) is just “hic”, i.e. M.Antonius (Marc Antony), a mortal enemy of Cicero. The  Philippics  are in fact a series of 14 speeches that Cicero wrote against  Mark Antony in 44 BC and 43 BC.


2. In “Propter quod consolamini invicem et aedificate alterutrum, sicut et facitis” (1 Thessalonians 5,11. Vulgate) the meaning of 'quod' in “propter quod” is “ which thing”, i.e. “For which thing”, as “quod” is the neuter relative depending upon the causal preposition “propter” which takes the accusative.
As for 'et' in  “et aedificate alterutrum “, it means obviously “and” as “et aedificate alterutrum” means “and edify you each other” in the 2nd person plural, just like the imperative  “consolamini invicem ” meaning “comfort you together”.


3.In “Fratri, viso heri, librum dedi”  the passive past participle “viso” related to the dative “fratri” is not a good/usual way of expression in Latin where you should say:”Fratri quem heri vidi librum dedi” (literally,”I gave  a book my brother that I saw yesterday).


4. As for “Iam capio” and “In eo sum ut capiam”, the first means “Just now I am catching... “, the latter “I am about to catch...”, but anyway both “Iam capio” and “In eo sum ut capiam” would need a direct object.
In short , both “Iam capio” and “In eo sum ut capiam” sound quite strange in Latin because they lack a direct object.


Best regards,

Maria

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