Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)
1. Tum autem aut anquirunt aut consultant … conducat id necne, de quo deliberant; quae deliberatio omnis in rationem utilitatis cadit.” (I, 9)
(a) Does “quo” refer to “id”? “id, de quo…” means “that, which they deliberated”.
(b) Does “quae deliberation omnis” refer to what they deliberated in the first part of the sentence: “de quo deliberant”.
2. causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, (11)
Can you give a literal translation of the above?
3. impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea (12)
This is part of a long sentence. I understand the rest part of the sentence, but this part presents some difficulty to me.
4. Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, (I, 13)
What does “principatus” mean in this sentence?
1.In “Tum autem aut anquirunt aut consultant …. conducat id necne, de quo deliberant; quae deliberatio omnis in rationem utilitatis cadit....” (Cicero, De Officiis I, 9) the relative pronoun “quo” refers to its antecedent “id” and then “id, de quo…” literally means “that (id) , about (de) which (quo) they are deliberating (deliberant)”, i.e.:“ what they are discussing”.
As for “quae deliberatio omnis”, it refers exactly to what they are deliberating in the first part of the sentence which ends with “de quo deliberant”.
2. Here’s the literal translation of “...causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, (11):
” ...he sees (videt) the causes (causas) of things(rerum) and (-que) [their] advances /courses forwards (praegressus.Acc.plural) and (et) he is not ignorant of (non ignorat) the almost (quasi) antecedent causes (antecessiones)”...., i.e.:
“he perceives the causes of things and their steps in development as well as the antecedent causes“, in the sense that he can understand the relation of cause to effect and of effect to cause.
3.“ ....impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea quae ... “ (12) literally means:
” and (-que) she (i.e. Nature ) urges (impellit) in order that (ut) numerous assemblage (coetus) and (et) concourses (celebrationes) of men (hominum) want (velit, depending on “ut”. 3rd person singular as it refers to collective nouns) to be (esse) as well as (et...et) to be attended (obiri) by themselves (a se) and (-que) for (ob) these (eas) reasons (causas) she(Nature) strives (studeat, depending on “ut”) to prepare (parare) those things (ea)...”, i.e.:
“Nature urges men to form public assemblies and to take part in them themselves and thus she tries to prepare those things that ...”.
4.In “Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, ...”(I, 13) the noun “principatus” literally means “pre-eminence”,”first place”,” leadership”, so that “Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus...” means:
” To this (huic) passionate desire (cupiditati) for seeing (videndi) truth (veri) a kind of (quaedam) appetite /desire (appetitio) of pre-eminence/leadership is added (adiuncta est)...”, just to point out that the one who longs for discovering truth longs also for leadership because a well-educated mind does not want to be subject to anybody who is not able to give rules of conduct or is a teacher of truth .
As you can see, grammatical structure of a sentence is very difficult in Cicero’s speech where there are many subordinate clauses whose syntax is hard to translate into English which prefers not to use subordinate clauses.