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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. unum hoc animal sentit, quid …, in factis dictisque qui modus. (I, 14)
is “est” understood in the “qui” clause? “qui modus est”.

2. Quibus ex rebus conflatur et efficitur id, quod quaerimus, honestum, (I, 14)
Is “honestum” connected with “id”, meaning “that virtue”? If so, I guess we can move “honestum” next to “id”..

3. Sed omne, quod est honestum, id quattuor partium oritur ex aliqua.(I, 15)
Which word is connected with “id”?

4. Ut enim quisque maxime perspicit, quid in re quaque verissimum sit quique acutissime et celerrime potest et videre et explicare rationem (I, 16)
(a)Is “quaque” with “re”, i.e. “in quaque re” meaning “in any thing”?
(b)We have “quisque” and “quique”. Are they the same? In other words, can we replace “quique” by “quisque”?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “... unum hoc animal sentit, quid sit quod deceat, in factis dictisque qui modus.”(Cicero, De Officiis, I, 14) the verb “est” is just understood in the “qui” clause, so that “in factis dictisque qui modus est” literally means "what (qui) moderation (modus) [is] in deeds (in factis) and words (dictisque)".


2.In “Quibus ex rebus conflatur et efficitur id, quod quaerimus, honestum..” (I, 14)  “honestum”  is connected with “id”, meaning “that virtue/honesty”.
As for what you say about  “honestum” that you would move  next to “id”, it would be grammatically correct, but Cicero has placed “quod quaerimus” between “id” and “honestum” just to emphasize that we are seeking for honesty/virtue, i.e. what is morally right.


3. In “Sed omne, quod est honestum, id quattuor partium oritur ex aliqua"(I, 15) the words which  are  connected with “id”  are “omne”, "quod" and “honestum”, since the literal translation would be:
”But (sed) all (omne) that (quod) is (est) virtuous/right(honestum), it (id)rises (oritur) from (ex) some (aliqua)of four (quattuor) parts (partium)”, just to point out that what is morally right rises from one of four sources that Cicero lists.


4. In “Ut enim quisque maxime perspicit, quid in re quaque verissimum sit quique acutissime et celerrime potest et videre et explicare rationem,  is prudentissimus et sapientissimus rite haberi solet.” (I, 16) “quaque” with “re”, i.e. “in quaque re”, means “in any thing”.

As for  “quisque” and “quique”, they are not the same, because in this sentence “quisque” (nominative singular) means “everybody”, while “quique”, i.e. “qui-que” stands for “et qui” (nominative singular of the relative pronoun whose verb is the 3rd person singular “potest”) literally means  “and  he who “.

If “quique” were the nominative masculine plural of the indefinite pronoun “quisque”, it should have the 3rd person plural “possunt”, not “potest”.

In short:” Ut .... quisque maxime perspicit, quid in re quaque verissimum sit quique acutissime et celerrime potest et videre et explicare rationem, is prudentissimus et sapientissimus rite haberi solet” literally means:
”The more clearly (ut...maxime) everybody (quisque) perceives (perspicit) what (quid) in any thing (in re quaque)  is (sit) absolutely true (verissimum), and (-que) the more accurately (acutissime) and quickly (et celerrime) he (qui-. The relative is used instead of the demonstrative "is") can (potest) see (videre) and (et) explain (explicare) the reason (rationem) [of it], the more sagacious (prudentissimus)  and wise (et sapientissimus) he (is) rightly (rite) uses (solet) to be  considered (haberi) “.

Note that the correlatives  “ut quisque....ita (which can be understood like in this context)...”  with superlatives,as in “ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime ....(the better a man is, the more difficult ...) and “Ut quisque maxime.....quique acutissime..., [ita] is prudentissimus...”  corresponds to “the more...the more...”.

Best regards,

Maria

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