Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. nam hoc ipsum ita iustum est, quod recte fit, si est voluntarium (I, 28)
I don’t know what “quod” refers to.

2. Quamquam Terentianus ille Chremes "humani nihil a se alienum putat (I, 30)
Is “esse” understood after “alienum”? Can you explain the case of “Terentianus” and “Chremes”?

3. quae nobis ipsis aut prospera aut adversa eveniunt, quam illa, quae ceteris, quae quasi longo intervallo interiecto videmus, aliter de illis ac de nobis iudicamus. (I, 30)
Can you explain the following words: “prospera”, “adversa” and “interiecto”? Also does “aliter” mean “differently”?

4. ut reddere depositum, facere promissum quaeque pertinent ad veritatem et ad fidem; ea migrare interdum et non servare fit iustum (I, 31)
Is “fit [becomes]” the main verb here? What becomes “iustum”? In other words, what is the subj? Since it has to be sing., it seems it cannot be the four infinitives “reddere depositum”, “facere promissum”, “migrare” and “non servare”.

Thank you.
Robert
P.S. I sent you the duplicate questions because somehow I didn't receive the question receipt after I sent my questions. So I thought the questions didn't go through and I resent them. Sorry for the inconvenience and confusion.

Answer
Dear Robert,


1.In “ nam hoc ipsum ita iustum est, quod recte fit, si est voluntarium (Cicero, De Officiis, I, 28) the relative pronoun “quod” refers to its antecedent ”hoc ipsum”, so that the order for translation would be as follows:”nam hoc ipsum, quod fit recte, ita est iustum, si est voluntarium” [literally, “for (nam)  this very thing (hoc ipsum) which (quod)is done (fit) rightly (recte) is (est)  thus (ita) just (iustum), if(si) it is (est)voluntary (voluntarium)”, i.e.:“for a right action is just only if it is voluntary”.


2.In “ Quamquam Terentianus ille Chremes "humani nihil a se alienum putat” (I, 30) the case of the adjective “Terentianus” and  the name “Chremes” is the nominative as "Terentianus ille Chremes" literally means: “that (ille) Terentian (Terentianus) Chremes “, with reference to a  character of   Terence's play “Heautontimorumenos" (The Self-Tormenter) who in Act I, Scene 1, line  25, says: “Homo sum: humani nihil a me alienum puto"(I am a man and then  nothing that concerns a man is alien to me).

As for  “esse” understood after “alienum”, it is correct, since “Quamquam Terentianus ille Chremes "humani nihil a se alienum putat” literally means:
“Though (quamquam) that famous (ille) Terence's play's character(Terentianus) [named] Chremes (Chremes ) thinks (putat)  that nothing (nihil) human (humani, genitive depending upon "nihil") is [esse]alien (alienum) to him (a se).”  




3.In “sed tamen, quia magis ea percipimus atque sentimus, quae nobis ipsis aut prospera aut adversa eveniunt, quam illa, quae ceteris, quae quasi longo intervallo interiecto videmus, aliter de illis ac de nobis iudicamus” (I, 30) the adjectives  “prospera” and “adversa” agree with the neuter plural “quae” which in turn refers to its antecedent “”ea” in “magis ea percipimus atque sentimus”, so that  “sed tamen, quia magis ea percipimus atque sentimus, quae nobis ipsis aut prospera aut adversa eveniunt” literally means:
”but however (sed tamen), since (quia) we perceive (percipimus) and feel (sentimus) the things that (quae) either good (aut prospera) or unfavorable (adversa) happen (eveniunt) to us  ourselves (nobis ipsis) more (magis) than (quam) those  things (illa) that (quae) [happen] to others (ceteris), which  things (quae, direct object depending on “videmus”)  we see (videmus), almost (quasi/so to say/as it were) a great way off (longo intervallo, abl abs) having been interposed (interiecto, past participle of the abl abs), we judge (iudicamus)those people (de illis) differently (aliter)from us (de nobis)”,i.e.:

“but however, since  we perceive and feel  our own fortune and misfortune  more than  fortune and misfortune that happen to others, for we see their fortune and misfortune, as it were, in the far distance, we  consider their case differently from our own”.

So, as you can see, “prospera” and “adversa”  are adjectives in the neuter plural connected to “ea”...quae”;  “interiecto” (past participle of “interiacio”)  is  a part of the ablative absolute; finally, “aliter” means “differently”.



4.Note that in “....ut reddere depositum, facere promissum quaeque pertinent ad veritatem et ad fidem, ea migrare interdum et non servare fit iustum (I, 31) :
(a)“fit” (=becomes) is just the main verb here.
(b) the subject of the 3rd person singular  “fit” (copulative verb)  followed by the predicate adjective “iustum” are exactly the four infinitives “reddere depositum”, “facere promissum”, “migrare” and “non servare”, since when a verb belongs to two or more subjects separately it often agrees with one.

Best regards,
Maria

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