Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. Quodsi ea, quae utenda acceperis…(48)
Could you explain the “quae” clause?

2. In quo tamen inprimis, quo quisque animo, studio, benivolentia fecerit, ponderandum est. (49)
Could you explain the two “quo”s?

3. Multi enim faciunt multa temeritate quadam sine iudicio, vel morbo in omnes vel repentino quodam quasi vento impetu animi incitati (49)
(a)I couldn’t see to which word “in omnes” is related.
(b)Does “quodam” modifies both “morbo” and “repentino”, meaning “certain kind of”?
(c)Is it correct to think that “incitati” by “morbo impetu animi” and by “repentino impetu animi” (abl. of cause)?

4. Sed quae naturae principia sint communitatis et societatis humanae, repetendum videtur altius (50)
Could you give a literal translation?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “Quodsi ea, quae utenda acceperis…”(Cicero, De Officiis,I,48) the “quae” clause literally means:”those things (ea) that (quae, connected to its antecedent “ea”) you will have received (acceperis, future perfect) so that they must be used (utenda, gerundive used as an adjective  of necessity, neuter accusative plural agreeing with “ea quae”)...”, i.e.:
“But if what you have borrowed in order that  you can use it...”, with reference to favours that somebody has done.


2.In “In quo tamen in primis, quo quisque animo, studio, benivolentia fecerit, ponderandum est” (I, 49) the first  relative pronoun “quo”  is a kind of  ablative of place Where, literally meaning:” In which”/”respecting which”, i.e. “in this regard” connected to “sunt dilectus habendi”, i.e.  the distinctions  that we must make between favours received.
The second “quo” in “quo animo” is an ablative of Manner literally meaning:”with  which mind”, i.e.: “With which state of mind” related to the state of mind somebody has had in doing favours (quo..... animo....fecerit)


3. Note that in “Multi enim faciunt multa temeritate quadam sine iudicio, vel morbo in omnes vel repentino quodam quasi vento impetu animi incitati (I, 49):

(a)“in omnes” is related to the fact that many people (multi) do (faciunt) many things/favours (multa) as if they were prompted (incitati) by a sort of pathological benevolence (quodam morbo) toward  all in general(in omnes).

(b)the ablative “quodam” modifies both “morbo” and “repentino ....impetu animi ” (a kind of sudden impulse of the heart) and means exactly  “certain kind of”/ a sort of”.

(c)the past participle, passive form  “incitati”  agreeing with  “multi”, governs  both “morbo” and  “repentino quodam impetu”  that are  not  abl. of cause, but abl. of Instrument /Agent that usually follows the passive verbs (See AG 405, note 2 and 3).



4. Here’s the literal translation of “Sed quae naturae principia sint communitatis et societatis humanae, repetendum videtur altius (I, 50):
“But (sed) it seems (videtur)  that it must be gone back (repetendum [esse]) farther (altius)[to know] what (quae) are (sint)  the principles (principia) of fellowship (communitatis)  and human society ( societatis humanae)”, i.e. :
“But it seems tha we must go back farther to know what are the principles of fellowship and human  society “.

Best regards,

Maria

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