Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. ut boni ratiocinatores officiorum esse possimus et addendo deducendoque videre, quae reliqui summa fiat, …(59)
(a)Is “possimus” understood after “videre”?
(b)Could you give a literal translation of the “quae” clause?

2. Intellegendum autem est, … splendidissimum videri, quod animo magno elatoque humanasque res despiciente factum sit (61)
(a)Is “humanas res despiciente” just a present participle in the abl. form?
(b)I’m a bit confused about the structure of this sentence: “Intellegendum autem est, …” is 2nd paraphrastic conjugation. What is “splendidissimum videri”? Is the “quod” clause the subject of “videri”?

3. cum persuasum est, nihil hominem, nisi quod honestum decorumque sit, aut admirari aut optare aut expetere oportere, nullique neque homini neque perturbationi animi nec fortunae succumbere. (66)
(a)“cum” seems to have the meaning “since/for”, but then we should have “sit” rather than “est”.
(b)Does “nulli” in “nullique” go with “homini”? If so, why double negative “nulli” and “neque”?

4. In eo est enim illud, quod excellentes animos et humana contemnentes facit (67)
Is “humana” n. pl. accu.? Does it come from “humanum”, and mean “human things/worldly things”?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “....ut boni ratiocinatores officiorum esse possimus et addendo deducendoque videre, quae reliqui summa fiat, …”(Cicero, De Officiis,I,59)  “possimus” is understood after “videre”.
As for a literal translation of the “quae” clause, here it is:
”so that (ut) ....we can ([possimus]see (videre) which (quae, nom fem sing, interrogative adjective, agreeing with the feminine noun “summa”) amount/sum (summa, subject of the indirect question clause) of the remaining [debt] (reliqui, genitive  singular  of the neuter noun “reliquum”) is done/there is (fiat) ..”, i.e.: “...so that... we can see which is the amount of our remaining debt...”.



2.In “Intellegendum autem est, … splendidissimum videri, quod animo magno elatoque humanasque res despiciente factum sit.." (I, 61):

(a)“humanas res “ is the direct object of the present participle in the abl. form “despiciente” which refers to  “animo” with which it agrees.

(b)here’s  the structure of the sentence:
-“Intellegendum autem est, …” is 2nd periphrastic conjugation and the main clause;  
-“splendidissimum videri” is the infinitive clause/  obj.-clause depending on “intellegendum est”;  
-the “quod” clause is the subject of “videri” in the sense that the neuter pronoun “quod” refers to the neuter noun “genus” in “genera quattuor”.

In short, “Intellegendum autem est, … splendidissimum videri, quod animo magno elatoque humanasque res despiciente factum sit” literally means:
”It  must be understood (intellegendum est) ....that the most glorious (splendidissimum) [sort (genus)]seems (videri) that which (quod) has been done (factum sit) by a great (magno)and exalted (elatoque) soul/mind (animo) which disdains (despiciente, present predicate participle) human things (humanas  res)..“, i.e. :
“So we must understand .....that the most glorious virtue is that which is in a great and high spirit which disdains material values/goods...”.


3.In “cum persuasum est, nihil hominem, nisi quod honestum decorumque sit, aut admirari aut optare aut expetere oportere, nullique neque homini neque perturbationi animi nec fortunae succumbere” (I,66):

(a)“cum” has the meaning “since/for” in a causal clause that expresses  a fact, not a possibility, and thus should not have “sit” as the subjunctive would denote a possibility, not a fact.
So, “cum persuasum est..” literally means:”  since (cum) it is established (persuasum est, impersonal form) that“

(b)the dative  “nulli” in “nullique” goes with “homini” as well as with “perturbationi” and “fortunae”.

(c)as for the  double negative “nulli” and “neque”, there is "neque" because  the  preceding negative  term “nulli” does not destroy the negation contained in the negative adverbs “neque”...  “neque”.

So, here’s the literal translation:” ...since (cum, introducing a causal clause) it is established (persuasum est)  that man (hominem) must (oportere) either (aut) admire (admirari) or (aut) wish for (optare)  or (aut) look for (expetere) nothing (nihil) but (nisi)  what  (quod)  is (sit) respectable (honestum) and decorous (decorumque), and [must] be subject  (succumbere) to  no (nulli) man (homini) nor (neque) soul’s (animi) passion (perturbationi)  or  accident of fortune(fortunae) ”.



4.In “In eo est enim illud, quod excellentes animos et humana contemnentes facit "(I, 67) “humana” is  n. pl. accu. depending on “facit”. It  comes from  the adjective “humanus” and means “human things/worldly things”.

In short, here’s the literal translation of “In eo est enim illud, quod excellentes animos et humana contemnentes facit”:
”In fact (enim) it is in this [characteristic] that tere is  (in eo est) what (illud quod) makes (facit) souls/spirits (animos)  excellent (excellentes) and  able to despise (contemnentes, predicate participle) human things/worldly things (humana)”.

Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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