Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)
1. et ea, quae videntur acerba, quae multa et varia in hominum vita fortunaque versantur, ita ferre (67)
(a)Is “ea” the antecedent of both “quae”?
(b)Is “multa et varia” abl. of manner?
2. vixeruntque non nulli in agris delectati re sua familiari (69)
Can we use “delectantes” instead of “delectati”? if so, what is the difference?
3. Quare cum hoc commune sit potentiae cupidorum cum iis, quos dixi, otiosis (70)
Could you give a literal translation?
4. iis non modo non laudi, verum etiam vitio dandum puto (71)
Are “laudi” and “vitio” the obj. of “dandum”? If so, why are they not accu.?
1. Note that in “....et ea, quae videntur acerba, quae multa et varia in hominum vita fortunaque versantur, ita ferre“ (Cicero, De Officiis, I, 67):
(a) “ea” can be considered the antecedent of both “quae”, though the second "quae" in "quae...versantur" aims at emphasizing "quae videntur acerba".
(b) the adjectives “multa et varia” are not abl. of manner, but neuter plural agreeing with “ ea.... quae ...versantur”, so that “....ea, quae videntur acerba, quae multa et varia in hominum vita fortunaque versantur, ita ferre...” literally means:
“to bear (ferre) those things (ea) that (quae) seem (videntur) painful (acerba) that (quae), numerous (multa) and various (et varia), come to pass (versantur) in the human life (in hominum vita) and troubled circumstances (fortunaque)...”, i.e. :”
...to bear those things that seem painful, in short those numerous and various events that can happen in our troubled life ...”.
2. In “...vixeruntque non nulli in agris delectati re sua familiari” (I, 69) you could use the present participle “delectantes” instead of the past participle, nominative masculine plural “delectati”.
The difference would be that “delectantes” means “enjoying”, while “delectati” means “having enjoyed” and thus it has been used because it was grammatically more suitable for the perfect tense “vixerunt”.
3. Here’s the literal translation of “Quare cum hoc commune sit potentiae cupidorum cum iis, quos dixi, otiosis”(I,70):
”So /Therefore(quare) since (cum) this (hoc) [desire] of men ambitious (cupidorum) of power (potentiae) is (sit) common(commune)to those(cum iis) [who are]free from public affairs(otiosis), whom (quos) I have mentioned (dixi)..”, i.e.:
”So, since this desire is common to persons of political ambitions as well as to private persons who are free from official business, whom I’ve just mentioned...”.
4. In ”... iis non modo non laudi, verum etiam vitio dandum puto” (I, 71) “laudi” and “vitio” are a Double Dative construction, i.e. “iis (Dative of the person affected) ....laudi (Dative of the Purpose or End)...vitio (Dative of the Purpose or End)”, so that “Quibus autem talis nulla sit causa, si despicere se dicant ea,quae plerique mirentur, imperia et magistratus, iis non modo non laudi, verum etiam vitio dandum puto” literally means:
”I think (puto) that it must be given (dandum [esse] ) not only (non modo) for a praise (laudi, dative) but also (verum etiam) for a fault (vitio, dative) to those [iis,dative of the person affected) to whom (quibus, dative of possessio) no such (talis nulla) cause /reason (causa) belongs (sit), if they say (si dicant) that they despise (se despicere) those things (ea) that (quae) most people (plerique) admire (mirentur), [i.e.] military powers (imperia) and civil offices (magistratus)”, i.e.:
”I think that we should not praise, but rather we should consider shameful those men who for no reason profess a scorn for civil and military offices, which most people admire...”.
For Double Dative or Dative of Service see AG 382, Note 1.