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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. ut et illud, quod … , decorum quam late fusum sit appareat et hoc, quod spectatur in uno quoque genere virtutis (98)
Is the following understanding correct: (a) “appareat” is used impers. (b) “quam late fusum sit” refers to both “illud, quod …” and “hoc, quod …”

2. Est autem quod differat in hominum ratione habenda inter iustitiam et verecundiam. (99)
Is “quod” clause the subj. of this sentence?

3. His igitur expositis, quale sit id, quod decere dicimus, intellectum puto (99)
I am not clear about the grammar of the part after “quale” Is some kind verb like “esse” understood in the “puto” clause? Is the “quale” clause the subj. in the “puto” clause?

4. nec vero agere quicquam, cuius non possit causam probabilem reddere (101)
Can we use “cui” (for which) instead of “cuius”?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “….ut et illud, quod … , decorum quam late fusum sit appareat et hoc, quod spectatur in uno quoque genere virtutis “(Cicero, De Officiis, I, 98) you are right in thinking that “appareat” is used impersonally and “quam late fusum sit” refers to both “illud, quod …” and “hoc, quod …”


2.In “Est autem quod differat in hominum ratione habenda inter iustitiam et verecundiam.” (I, 99) the  “quod” clause works as the subject of this sentence in the sense that “Est …. quod differat” literally means:”There is (est)…what (quod) is different (differat)..”, i.e. “There is ..a difference..”


3.In “His igitur expositis, quale sit id, quod decere dicimus, intellectum puto” (I, 99)  the “puto” clause is the main clause followed by the object clause “intellectum [esse]” which governs the interrogative indirect clause “quale sit id” that is followed by the relative clause “quod decere dicimus”.
Therefore the construction of "…quale sit id, quod decere dicimus, intellectum puto” is the following:
”puto (I think) intellectum [esse] (that has been understood ) quale (of what nature) sit (is) id quod (what) dicimus (we say) decere (that it is decent)”, i.e.: “I think it is clear of what nature is what we call propriety”.


4.In “…. nec vero agere quicquam, cuius non possit causam probabilem reddere” (I, 101) you cannot use the dative  “cui” instead of the genitive  “cuius” as this genitive depends on “causam” which takes the genitive, so that “…Omnis … actio vacare debet temeritate et neglegentia  nec …. agere quicquam, cuius non possit causam probabilem reddere” literally means:
”every (omnis)… action (action) must (debet) be free (vacare) from temerity (temeritate, abl depending on “vacare”) and  carelessness  (neglegentia, abl depending on "vacare"), neither (nec) [must (debet)] do (agere) anything (quicquam) of which (cuius) [this action] cannot (non possit) give (reddere) an acceptable (probabilem) reason (causam)”.

Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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