Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)
1. ut superioris filius Africani, qui hunc Paulo natum adoptavit, propter infirmitatem valetudinis non tam potuit patris similis esse, quam ille fuerat sui (121)
I have some difficulty with the “qui …”clause. Does “qui” refer to Elder Africanus’s son or to Elder Africanus himself? Is “Paulo” the son of the Elder Africanus? Why dat. “Paulo” instead of accu to agree with “hunc” and “natum”?
2. alia seniorum (122)
Is “seniorum” the gen. pl. of the comparative “senior” of “senex”?
3. Ac ne illud quidem alienum est, de magistratuum, … officiis dicere (124)
What is the meaning of “illud” here?
4. tum in re publica ea velle, quae tranquilla et honesta sint (124)
Does “ea (n. pl. accu. antecedent of "quae") velle” mean “wish for those things (for the republic)”?
1.In”…. ut superioris filius Africani, qui hunc Paulo natum adoptavit, propter infirmitatem valetudinis non tam potuit patris similis esse, quam ille fuerat sui…” (Cicero, De Officiis, I, 121) the “qui …”clause refers to elder Africanus’s son who adopted Paulus’son, named Scipio Aemilianus, aka Scipio Aemilianus Africanus from the full name of his father Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus who belonged to the Aemilia gens (family).
As for “Paulo”, it is an ablative depending on “natum” from “nascor” which takes ex or de + abl., or the abl. alone.
So, here’s the literal translation for ”…. ut superioris filius Africani, qui hunc Paulo natum adoptavit, propter infirmitatem valetudinis non tam potuit patris similis esse, quam ille fuerat sui…”:
“… as (ut) the son (filius) of the elder (superioris) Africanus (Africani) who (qui, agreeing with “filius”) adopted (adoptavit) this (hunc), born (natum) of Paulus (Paulo, ablative of Source denoting birth), could not (non.. potuit) because of ( propter )weakness (infirmitatem ) of [his] health (valetudinis) be (esse) like (similis) [his] father (patris, gen. depending on "similis")so much as (tam…quam) he (ille, i.e. Africanus Maior)had been (fuerat) [like] his (sui) (father)…”.
In short, the son of the elder Africanus (that Scipio who adopted the younger Scipio Aemilianus Africanus, the son of Aemilius Paulus) could not be so much like his father( i.e. Scipio Africanus Maior, aka Scipio Africanus the Elder who defeated Hannibal in the battle of Zama in 202 BC) as this Scipio Africanus Maior had been like his father, also named Publius Cornelius Scipio who served as consul in 218 BC, the first year of the Second Punic War, and died in 211 BC during the Iberian campaigns against the Carthaginians.
2. In “… alia seniorum…” (I,122) “seniorum” is exactly the gen. pl. of the comparative “senior” of “senex”. The comparative plural “seniores” means “those more advanced in years”.
3. In “Ac ne illud quidem alienum est, de magistratuum, … officiis dicere “(I, 124) the literal meaning of “illud” is “that thing” in the sense of “something” in “And (ac) not even (ne…quidem) it is (est) unsuitable/ irrelevant( alienum) to say (dicere) something (illud) about (de) duties (officiis) of magistrates (magistratuum)..”.
4. In ..”tum in re publica ea velle, quae tranquilla et honesta sint…” (I, 124) the pronoun “ea (n. pl. accu. antecedent of "quae") velle” mean “want those things (in the republic)”.
In short, “Privatum … oportet aequo et pari cum civibus iure vivere… tum in re publica ea velle, quae tranquilla et honesta sint…” literally means:
”It is necessary (oportet) that the private individual (privatum) lives (vivere) on fair (aequo) and equal (pari) rights/terms (iure) with his fellow-citizens (cum civibus)…and moreover (tum) [it is necessary that]he wants (velle) in his state/republic (in re publica) those things (ea) that (quae) are (sint) calm (tranquilla) and honorable (honesta)”, i.e.:
"It is necessary that the private individual has the same rights as his fellow-citizens …and that moreover he wants peace and honour to be in his country“.