Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. ex quibus magna significatio fit non adesse constantiam (131)
Could you give a literal translation?

2. Sed discentium studiis inveniuntur magistri, huic autem qui studeant sunt nulli, rhetorum turba referta omnia (132)
Could you give a literal translation for the part starting from “huic …”?

3. utrumque omnino a natura petundum est (133)
What is “petundum”?

4. sed bene loquendi de Catulis opinio non minor (133)
Could you give a literal translation?

Thank you,
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.“….ex quibus magna significatio fit non adesse constantiam…” (Cicero,De Officiis, I, 131) literally means: ”from (ex) which things (quibus) the great (magna) sign/mark/indication (significatio, subject of the relative clause) happens/ derives /fit) that (object-clause depending on “significatio”)poise (constantiam, subject of the object-clause) is not present/there is not (adesse, verb of the object-clause )”, i.e.:“hence the great evidence that there is not poise”/” hence the great sign that we lack of poise”


2.In “Sed discentium studiis inveniuntur magistri, huic autem qui studeant sunt nulli, rhetorum turba referta omnia” (I, 132)the  literal translation for the part starting from “huic …” is the following:
”…but (autem) there is (sunt) none (nulli, subject in the nom pl) who (qui) applies himself (studeant, agreeing with “nulli”) to this (huic)[study, i.e. "to conversation".See “sermo” instead of “contentio”="oratory"],[while] all things/ places (omnia[loca]) [are]full (referta, from “refertus” agreed with “omnia”)of a multitude/great number (turbā, ablative of plenty depending on “referta”) of the rhetoricians (rhetorum)”, i.e.:”…but there is  none  who applies himself  to the study of conversation, while all places are full of a great number of  rhetoricians” .  
Note that “great number of  rhetoricians” refers  to the rhetoricians who teach oratory, while there is none who teaches conversation.


3.In “…..utrumque …. a natura petundum est…” (I, 133) the archaic form  “petundum” stands for “petendum” in “petendum est” (passive periphrastic) meaning :“…both [quality](utrumque, nom neuter sing of “uterque”  related to “duo” in “..in voce autem duo sequamur” with reference to two qualities of the voice) must be required (petundum est)  from nature (a natura)…”, just in the sense that it is from nature that we can have the  two qualities of our voice:clarity and musicality.


4.Here’s the literal translation for “… sed bene loquendi de Catulis opinio non minor “(I,133):” but (sed) not lesser (non minor) [was]  the reputation (opinio) of well (bene) speaking (loquendi, gerund genitive depending on “opinio”) with regard to the Catuli (de Catulis)”, in the sense that the Catuli were considered as  the perfect masters of the Latin tongue and the reputation of the two Catuli for eloquence was equal to that of Lucius Crassus.

Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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I am an expert in Latin Language and Literature and I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning this matter.

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D. in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

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