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Latin/Et vs. Atque


What's the difference?

There are three conjunctions that Latin commonly uses commonly uses to connect words, clauses, or sentences in a coordinating way, corresponding to the English "and":

1) -que (an enclitic, attached to the end of the second member)
2) et
3) atque (usually "ac" before consonants, except "h")

1) indicates the closest connection ("pater materque" -- father and mother together)
2) indicates a normal connection and is the most common word for connection in Latin
3) indicates a connection with the emphasis upon the word or clause following the conjunction ("ave atque vale" -- hail, but especially farewell)

The fecundity that Latin has in its conjunctions give the Latin speaker or writer a palette that contrasts substantially with the paucity of English, in which "and" is simply "and."  Latin has so many additional ways to make the connection and to provide subtle nuance to the reader about relationships that are lacking in English.  


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Classical Languages (Greek, Latin). Conversant with Classical Greek and all forms of the Latin language: classical, mediaeval, and modern.


I have 50 years of teaching at all levels of Latin from high school through university postgraduate. I read, write, and speak Latin daily.

American Classical League.

A.B., M.A., D.Phil. (h.c.) in Classical Languages (Greek, Latin).

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