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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. Detrahere igitur alteri aliquid et hominem hominis incommodo suum commodum augere (III.21)
Is “hominem hominis incommodo suum commodum augere” accu.+inf. structure: hominum (accu.) augere (inf.) suum commodum hominis incommode (abl.of means)? So “hominum” and “hominis” refer to different people.

2. si unus quisque nostrum ad se rapiat commoda aliorum detrahatque, quod cuique possit, emolumenti sui gratia (III. 22)
In “quod cuique possit”, is there an inf. such as “detrahere” understood?

3. ut homo homini, …, consultum velit, necesse est secundum eandem naturam omnium utilitatem esse communem.(III. 27)
(1)Why “consultum” is not inf.?
(2)Could you give a literal transation of “omnium utilitatem esse commune”? I think this is accu. + inf structure.

4. Neque enim quicquam est de hac parte post Panaetium explicatum, quod quidem mihi probaretur, de iis, quae in manus meas venerint. (III. 34)
Do both “de hac parte” and “de iis” have the same meaning, modifying “quicquam”?

Thank you,
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “Detrahere igitur alteri aliquid et hominem hominis incommodo suum commodum augere magis est contra naturam quam mors…” (Cicero, De Officiis, III.21) the sentence “hominem hominis incommodo suum commodum augere” is just an accusative+inf. structure: hominem (accusative, subject of "augere") augere (inf.) suum commodum (direct object) hominis (genitive) incommodo (dative of reference.See AG 377), where the accusative  “hominem”(subject of "augere") and  the genitive “hominis” (related to "commodum") refer to different people, since “Detrahere … alteri aliquid et hominem hominis incommodo suum commodum augere magis est contra naturam quam mors…” literally means:
”To take away (detrahere) something (aliquid) from another [man] (alteri, dative depending on “detrahere”) and the fact that a man ( et hominem) increases (augere) his (suum) advantage (commodum) to the detriment (incommodo, dative) of [another]  man (hominis) is more (magis est)  against (contra)  nature (naturam)  than is (quam)  death (mors)…”

-For the Dative of Reference (Dativus commodi or incommodi) see AG 377.
-For the Infinitive (i.e. in this context "detrahere" and "augere") used with "est", with or without a subject accusative, see AG 452.

2. In "...si unus quisque nostrum ad se rapiat commoda aliorum detrahatque, quod cuique possit, emolumenti sui gratia..." (III. 22) the relative clause “quod cuique possit” implies the infinitive “detrahere”, as you say.


3. Note that in "...ut homo homini, …, consultum velit, necesse est secundum eandem naturam omnium utilitatem esse communem.."(III. 27):

(a)“consultum” is a part of the idiomatic expression "alicui consultum velle", with ellipsis of "esse",  meaning "to take care for". So, "consultum esse" is a passive infinitive of "consulo" which takes the dative "alicui", i.e. "homini" in this context.
Therefore "..ut homo homini.... consultum velit.." literally means:"...that (ut) a man (homo) shall desire (velit) to take care (consultum [esse].This past infinitive, passive voice, is used impersonally) for [another] man (homini)..".

(b)Here's a literal transation of “...necesse est...omnium utilitatem esse commune” where  "omnium utilitatem esse commune" is an accu. + inf structure:
"..it is necessary (necesse est) that interests/welfare (utilitatem) of all men (omnium) are (esse) common (communem)"



4.In "Neque enim quicquam est de hac parte post Panaetium explicatum, quod quidem mihi probaretur, de iis, quae in manus meas venerint"(III. 34) note that:

(a) “de hac parte”  means “on this matter” and depends on “quicquam” so that “quicquam est de hac parte post Panaetium explicatum” means “on this matter (de hac parte) nothing  (quicquam)which (quod, relative pronoun agreeing with the neuter  "quicquam")is recommended (probaretur) to me (mihi)  has been developed (est...explicatum)after Panaetius/after the time of Panaetius (post Panaetium) ", i.e. ".. on this matter nothing, which can be satisfactory to me,has been developed after the time of Panaetius.."  

(b)“de iis” does not modify “quicquam”, but means "among the things/works" so that"de iis, quae in manus meas venerunt" means:"among the works that came into my hands".
In short, Cicero says that of all the works that  have been written on this matter(i.e. on the apparent, not a real, conflict between the morally right and the useful) since the time of Panaetius, nothing that has come into his hands has been  satisfactory to him.
 
Best regards,
Maria

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