Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. aut certe omni pondere gravior habenda quam reliqua omnia, (III. 35)
What does “omni” mean?

2. Itaque hac oportunitate anuli usus reginae stuprum intulit (III. 38)
What is the case and meaning of “usus”?

3. sed suae cuique utilitati, quod sine alterius iniuria fiat, serviendum est (III. 42)
Could you give a literal translation?

4. Cum vero iurato sententia dicenda erit (III. 44)
Could you give a literal translation?

Thank you,
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1. In “….aut certe omni pondere gravior habenda quam reliqua omnia,….” (Cicero, De Officiis, III. 35)the ablative  “omni” agreeing with “pondere” means “every ” as “…moral rectitude (honestas, understood) must be esteemed (habenda [est]) more  burdened (gravior) with every weight/importance (omni pondere, ablative depending on “gravior”) than (quam) everything else (reliqua alia, 2nd term of comparison)…”, i.e. “....moral rectitude must  be esteemed as infinitely outweighing  everything else..”(Walter Miller)

2. In “Itaque hac opportunitate anuli usus reginae stuprum intulit…” (III. 38) the case  of the past participle “usus” (from the deponent verb “utor”) is the nominative as it agrees with the  implied subject of the sentence, i.e. Gyges,  and  its meaning is “having made use of“ since  “…hac opportunitate anuli usus..” literally means:” [Gyges] having made use  (usus) of the advantage (opportunitate, abl depending on “utor”) of the ring (annuli)..”.

3. “….sed suae cuique utilitati, quod sine alterius iniuria fiat, serviendum est…” (III. 42) literally means: “….but it must be devoted (serviendum est, 2nd periphrastic, impersonal form) to  his own interests (suae cuique utilitati, dative depending on “servio”), provided that (quod, conjunction) it happens (fiat) without  (sine) injury  ( iniuria, abl depending on “sine”) of / to another man (alterius)”.

4. “ Cum vero iurato sententia dicenda erit ..”(III. 44) literally means:” But (vero) when the verdict (cum …sententia) will to be pronounced (dicenda erit, passive periphrastic) with an oath/ under oath (iurato,ablative neuter of the past participle of IURO. Such a past participle in the abl literally would mean:"having been sworn").

Best regards,
Maria  

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