Dear Maria,
Could you please help me with the following (all from De Ira III):

1. Praesume animo multa tibi esse patienda (De Ira, 3.37.3)
Why abl. “animo”?

2. Fortis est animus ad quae praeparatus venit. (De Ira, 3.37.4)
Could you give a literal translation of this sentence?

3. ille patrum nostrorum memoria factiosus et inpotens (De Ira, 3.38.2)
Could you give a literal translation of this phrase?

4. nec enim sani esse tantum volumus, sed sanare (De Ira, 3.39.1)
Is it also correct to say “sanari” instead of “sani esse”?

Thank you.

Dear Robert,

1.In “Praesume animo multa tibi esse patienda” (Seneca, De Ira, 3.37.3) the abl. “animo” is an ablative of Means literally meaning “with /by means of the mind” and thus “Praesume animo” literally means “Figure with [your ] mind”, i.e. “Get it into your mind /imagine (Praesume animo) that  many things  (multa) are (esse) to be endured  (patienda) by you (tibi, dative of the Agent in the passive periphrastic)”, just to point out that you  have to imagine that you will have to endure  many things such as e.g. the cold  weather in winter.

2.“Fortis est animus ad quae praeparatus venit”(De Ira, 3.37.3) literally means:” The mind (animus) is strong (fortis est) in regard to (ad) those things to (ad) which (quae) he comes (venit) prepared (praeparatus) “, i.e.: “The mind is able to endure everything  for which it is prepared”.

Note that the preposition “ad” depends either on “fortis est ” in the sense of “in regard to” or on “praeparatus venit ” in the meaning “to which he comes prepared”.
It is in fact a feature of  Seneca’s  personal style to often  use a kind of contracted way of  writing.

3. “…Lentulus ille patrum nostrorum memoria factiosus et inpotens “(De Ira, 3.38.2) literally means:”…that (ille) factious (factiosus) and insolent/unruly  (et impotens) Lentulus (Lentulus) in the memory (memoriā)  of our fathers (patrum nostrorum)..”, i.e.: “that Lentulus who was factious and unruly, according to the memory of our fathers…” with reference to that factious and unruly Lentulus who, when Cato was pleading a case, had gathered  as much thick saliva as he could and  had spat it full upon the middle of Cato's forehead.

4. In “…. nec enim sani esse tantum volumus, sed sanare..” (De Ira, 3.39.1) it is wrong  to say “sanari” instead of “sani esse” because  the passive infinitive present “sanari” means “ to be restored to health”, whereas “sani esse” means “to be healthy/to be strong and well”, not “to become well again, especially after having a medical condition”.

In short, the sentence literally means:” So (enim), we wish (volumus) not only (nec…tantum) to be (esse) healthy  (sani), but also (sed) to heal /to cure (sanare) “ with reference to the fact that Seneca says that we must know how we may allay /cure  the anger of others.

Best regards,


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