Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Can you help me with the following? They are all from Seneca’s Epistles.

1. ille qui subplantatus ad versarium toto tulit corpore nec proiecit animum proiectus (XIII. 2)
Could you give a literal translation?

2. quemadmodum illi, quos pulvis motus fuga pecorum exuit castris (XIII. 8)
I am not clear about the use of dat. “illi”.

3. Multa intervenient quibus vicinum periculum vel prope admotum … (XIII. 11)
What does “prope admotum” literally mean?

4. Damus nos aurae ferendos (XIII. 13)
Is “ferendos” future (passive) participle? Could you give a literal translation?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.Here’s the literal translation of “…ille qui subplantatus adversarium toto tulit corpore nec proiecit animum proiectus (Seneca, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, Epistula XIII. 2): “…the one (ille) who (qui) having been thrown to the ground (subplantatus, perfect participle, passive form) supported (tulit) the adversary (adversarium) with [his] whole (toto) body (corpore) and  having been completely defeated (proiectus, perfect participle, passive form) did not throw away (proiecit)  [his] courage (animum)…”,  just to say that who has been thrown to the ground and almost crushed by the body of his adversary did not lose  however his courage.
In short, Seneca says that no athlete can take part in a race or competition if he has never been   seriously injured like the one who has been thrown to the ground and almost crushed by the body of his adversary, but however  does  not lose his courage and then rises again much stronger than before.


2. In “…vertimus terga, quemadmodum illi, quos pulvis motus fuga pecorum exuit castris..” (XIII. 8) the word  “illi” is not a dative singular, but the nominative masculine plural of “ille” and means “those”, since “…quemadmodum illi, quos pulvis motus fuga pecorum exuit castris..” literally means:”… we retreat /vertimus terga)  like (quemadmodum) those (illi, nominative masculine plural) whom (quos, direct object depending on “exuit”)  a dust cloud (pulvis, subject) raised (motus, past participle agreeing with  the masculine noun “pulvis”) by the flight (fugā, ablative) of a flock of sheep (pecorum, genitive plural of “pecus”) threw out  (exuit) of [their ] camp (castris) “, i.e.: “we retreat like soldiers who are forced to abandon their camp because of  a dust cloud raised by the flight of a flock of sheep”.



3. In “Multa intervenient quibus vicinum periculum vel prope admotum aut subsistat… “(XIII. 11)  the expression “prope admotum” literally means “nearly/almost (prope, adverb in degree) imminent (admotum, agreeing with “periculum”) just to say that  there can be many happenings so that a danger which is near or almost imminent  ends or pass to another person.
Note that “ Multa intervenient quibus vicinum periculum vel prope admotum  aut subsistat…” literally means:” There will be (intervenient) many things/ happenings (multa)  because of which (quibus) a near (vicinum) or (vel) almost (prope) imminent (admotum) danger (periculum) or stops (aut subsistat) …”



4. In ” Damus nos aurae ferendos “ (XIII. 13) literally meaning :” We give (damus) us (nos)to the breeze (aurae, dative singular) having to be carried (ferendos, gerundive used as an adjective agreeing with “nos”, accusative masculine plural)”, i.e.: “We let us drift with the breeze”, the passive  form “ferendos” is the gerundive masculine plural referring to “nos”  just to point out that we often  go adrift with the breeze without no certainty.

Best regards,
Maria

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