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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you help me with the following (all from de Officiis)

1. sententiam ne diceret recusavit, quamdiu iure iurando hostium teneretur, non esse se senatorem. (III.100)
It seems there should be a comma between “diceret” and “recusavit”. Also why is “non” needed in “recusavit non esse se senatorem”? Is it for emphasis?

2. cui nisi ipse auctor fuisset, captivi profecto Poenis redditi essent (III. 110)
Does “cui” refer to “causa” [for which judgement] in the previous sentence?

3. Nam quod aiunt, quod valde utile sit, id fieri honestum (III. 110)
I am a bit confused about the two “quod”.

4. Atque hic T. Manlius is est, qui ad Anienem Galli, quem ab eo provocatus occiderat, …, cuius tertio consulatu Latini ad Veserim fusi et fugati, (III. 112)
I am a little confused about the case of “Galli” and “Latini”.

Thank you,
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “….sententiam ne diceret recusavit, quamdiu iure iurando hostium teneretur, non esse se senatorem” (Cicero, De Officiis, III.100) no comma there must be between “diceret” and “recusavit”, because “sententiam ne diceret recusavit” means “he refused (recusavit, verb of refusing which takes “ne” + the subjunctive) to pronounce/give (ne diceret) [his] vote( sententiam)”.
For verbs of refusing see AG 558 *b.

As for “non” in “non esse se senatorem”, note that the object-clause “non esse se senatorem” is not depending  on “recusavit”, but on an implied verb of telling  such as “dicere”, so that “…sententiam ne diceret recusavit, quamdiu iure iurando hostium teneretur, non esse se senatorem” implies “dicens/adfirmans”  before the infinitive clause “non esse se senatorem”.

In short, “…sententiam ne diceret recusavit, quamdiu iure iurando hostium teneretur, non esse se senatorem” literally  means:”.. he refused (recusavit) to give his vote ( ne diceret)[on the question ] saying that [dicens] he (se) was not a senator (non esse senatorem, object clause) so long as (quamdiu) he was bound (teneretur) by the oath (iure iurando) of the enemies (hostium)/ sworn to the enemies”.



2. In “….cui nisi ipse auctor fuisset, captivi profecto Poenis redditi essent …” (III. 110) the dative of the relative pronoun “cui” refers to “iudicium” which is in the previous sentence “…suscepit causam, ut esset iudicium senatus..” literally meaning:” he took on  (suscepit) the responsibility (causam) so that (ut) the decision/judgement (iudicium) was (esset) of the senate (senatus, genitive)…”.
Therefore “… cui nisi ipse auctor fuisset, captivi profecto Poenis redditi essent …” literally means:”..of which judgement/decision (cui, in the dative depending on “auctor”) if he himself had not been ( nisi ipse…fuisset) supporter (auctor), the prisoners (captivi ) would certainly have been restored (profecto redditi essent) to the Carthaginians (Poenis)..”, i.e.:
"If he himself had not been a supporter of that decision regarding the liberation of the prisoners, those prisoners would certainly have been restored to the Carthaginians".

In short, Atilius Regulus did not want that the prisoners returned to Carthage, though this meant that he himself  should have gone back to Carthage where he had to face death.



3. In “Nam quod aiunt, quod valde utile sit, id fieri honestum…..” (III. 110) the first “quod” is a conjunction meanig “as far as” in “as far as people/they say”(quod aiunt), whereas the second “quod” is a relative pronoun as an antecedent of “id” in “id fieri honestum”.

In short,  “Nam quod aiunt, quod valde utile sit, id fieri honestum, immo vero esse, non fieri” literally means:
”For (nam) as far as (quod)  people say (aiunt), [i.e.] that what (quod) is very useful (valde utile),  it (id) becomes (fieri) morally right (honestum), [people ought to say] rather (immo, adverb)  that it (i.e. what is useful) IS (esse) certainly (vero, adverb) [morally right], not that (non) it BECOMES (fieri)  morally right”, i.e.:
”As far as people say, i.e. that what is very useful, this  becomes morally right, people ought  rather to say that  what is morally right IS certainly useful, not that it BECOMES  morally right”.
As you can see, the discussion is on the fact that only what is morally right is very useful, whereas what is useful cannot become morally right.


4. In “Atque hic T. Manlius is est, qui ad Anienem Galli, quem ab eo provocatus occiderat, …, cuius tertio consulatu Latini ad Veserim fusi et fugati,…” (III. 112) the word  “Galli”  is a genitive singular, whereas  “Latini” is the nominative plural as the subject of “fusi et fugati [sunt].
So, “Atque hic T. Manlius is est, qui ad Anienem Galli, quem ab eo provocatus occiderat, torque detracto cognomen invenit, cuius tertio consulatu Latini ad Veserim fusi et fugati,…” literally means:
”And this man (hic) is (est) T.Manlius who (qui) [in the battle] near  the Anio river (ad Anienem), the necklace (torque) having been taken off (detracto, ablative absolute composed of the abl of  “torquis/torques”and the past participle of “detraho”), took (invenit) the surname (cognomen) of a Gaul (Galli) that (quem) he had killed (occiderat), having been challenged (provocatus, past participle agreeing with Manlius) by him(ab eo), in whose third consulship (cuius tertio consulatu, referring to "Manlius") the Latins (Latini)  were  routed (fusi, from fundo)   and put to flight ( et fugati [sunt])  [in the battle] near  the Veseris river (ad Veserim)…”, i.e.:
”And this man is T.Manlius who in the battle near the Anio river killed a Gaul who had challenged him and, after he had pulled off the necklace (torquis)of such a Gaul, took the surname of Torquatus. Also, in his third consulship T.Manlius Torquatus routed the Latins and put them to flight in the battle near  the Veseris river”.

Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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