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Latin/Can you translate this please?

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QUESTION: Hi!
So, i play this game in my iphone, it is called Don't Believe His Lies. The game is about solving puzzles, so you have one puzzle, if you solve it the game gives you another puzzle etc etc etc. A lot of people play this game (40.000 people) and we were stuck at puzzle 37 for 7 months, which we solve 3 days ago. Now the game gave us another puzzle, and the puzzle is that one i attached in this message.
It is all in latin and it has an date written in roman. The problem is, we cant translate that very well, we allways find different translations and we are not sure about the date.
Could you please help us and translate everything to english? And is there any reason why the date and the word TERMINUS is written in uppercase? And why is "Ianvarias" written with V and "TERMINUS" written with U? Is there any special explanation to that?

Best regards,
João Gonçalves

ANSWER: Hello,

Here’s the correct translation for “Perfer et obdura! Dolor hic tibi proderit olim” which is a quotation from Ovid, Amores, Book  III, Poem 11, line  7:
“Suffer and endure! Someday this pain will be useful to you”

As for the date “PRIDIE KALENDAS IANVARIAS MMXV”, it corresponds to “DECEMBER 31, 2015” (literally “On the day before the Kalends of January”, i.e. December 31, because the Roman Kalends/Calends of January were the first day of the month and then the day before the Kalends of January is December 31).

With regard to the date and  the word TERMINUS (meaning “THE END”) written in uppercase, it wants to denote the beginning and the end of this puzzle.

Lastly, please note that both "IANVARIAS"  and "TERMINUS"  should have been written with the capital letter V, and then they should have been “IANVARIAS" and "TERMINVS”,  since Latin used only the V when something was written in uppercase.

In fact, in the early times  the Latin alphabet did not distinguish between the vowel and consonant sound of  U, but used the letter  V with a double value, whereas later the Romans  used the small letter “u” for the vowel sound of the V,  and the small letter  “v” for the consonant sound.

In short, in the early times Latin  used   only the capital letters and thus V for the vowel and consonant sound, but later the small letters  were introduced and then "V" continued  to be  capital letter, while "u" was small letter for the same sound.

To conclude, as I've already said, both "IANVARIAS" and "TERMINUS”  should have been written with the capital letter V, and then they should have been “ IANVARIAS" and "TERMINVS”, since Latin used only the V when something was written in uppercase.

In modern times however we usually write U /u instead of V /v  (see IANUARIAS and TERMINUS) and thus this could be the reason why  in the puzzle someone wrote TERMINUS instead of TERMINVS.

Hope this is clear enough, though the matter is not so easy.

Best regards,
Maria
____________________________________________________________________________________
Note that:

-Perfer (2nd person singular, present imperative of PERFERO) = Suffer

-et = and

-obdura ( 2nd person singular, present imperative of  OBDURO) = endure

-Dolor (nominative case, 3rd declension) = pain

-hic (nominative masculine, demonstrative pronoun agreeing with DOLOR) = this

-tibi (dative case of the 2nd person singular  pronoun TU) = to you

-proderit (3rd person singular, future of the verb PROSUM) = will be useful

-olim (adverb) = someday



---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Hi! Thank you for the help!
I have another question tho, is there any possibility that the date in this puzzle was written using the roman or the julian calendar insted of the gregorian calendar?

Best regards,
João Gonçalves

Answer
Hello,

The date “PRIDIE KALENDAS IANVARIAS MMXV” (DECEMBER 31, 2015) reckons the days according to  the Roman use of the Kalends (the first day of every month), the Nones (the fifth day in every month of the year, except March, May, July and October, in which it was the seventh)  and the Ides (the thirteenth day in every month, except Mars, May, July and October in which it was the fifteenth ).

As for MMXV, it  does not count years from the founding of the city of Rome ("ab urbe condita “, i.e. from 753 BC, so that 2015 AD would correspond to 2768 ab Urbe condita), but from the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, so that AD means “Anno Domini” (In the year of the Lord).

To sum up, the date PRIDIE KALENDAS IANVARIAS MMXV is a hybrid mix of  the Julian calendar and the Gregorian one.

Best regards,

Maria

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Maria

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I am an expert in Latin Language and Literature and I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning this matter.

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D. in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

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